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Encyclopedia > Emanuel Swedenborg
Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766).
Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766).

Emanuel Swedenborg  (born Emanuel Swedberg; January 29,[1] 1688March 29, 1772) was a Swedish scientist, philosopher, Christian mystic,[2][3] and theologian. Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. At the age of fifty-six he entered into a spiritual phase, in which he experienced dreams and visions. This culminated in a spiritual awakening, where he claimed he was appointed by the Lord to write a heavenly doctrine to reform Christianity. He claimed that the Lord had opened his eyes, so that from then on he could freely visit heaven and hell, and talk with angels, demons, and other spirits. For the remaining 28 years of his life, he wrote and published 18 theological works, of which the best known was Heaven and Hell (1758) [4], and several unpublished theological works. from [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Sv-Emanuel Swedenborg. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Mysticism is the philosophy and practice of a direct experience of God. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ... A Gothic angel in ivory, c1250, Louvre An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). Spirit- also the name of a popular musical group (rock genre) from the sixties. ... Heaven and Hell is the common English title of a book written by mystic Emanuel Swedenborg in Latin, published in 1758. ...


Swedenborg explicitly rejected the common explanation of the Trinity as a Trinity of Persons, which he said was not taught in the early Christian Church. Instead he explained in his theological writings how the Divine Trinity exists in One Person, in One God, the Lord Jesus Christ. Swedenborg also rejected the Protestant doctrine of salvation through faith alone, since he considered both faith and charity necessary for salvation, not one without the other. The purpose of faith, according to Swedenborg, is to lead a person to a life according to the truths of faith, which is charity. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity, the doctrine... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ...


Swedenborg's theological writings have elicited a range of responses. Toward the end of Swedenborg's life, small reading groups formed in England and Sweden to study the truth they saw in his teachings and several writers were influenced by him, including William Blake, August Strindberg, Charles Baudelaire, Balzac, William Butler Yeats and Carl Jung. The theologian Henry James Sr. was also a follower of his teachings, as was Johnny Appleseed. William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... August Strindberg Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh   (January 22, 1849 – May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Honoré de Balzac Honoré de Balzac (May 20, 1799 - August 18, 1850), was a French novelist. ... W.B. Yeats in Dublin on 24 January 1908. ... Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition Carl Gustav Jung (IPA: ) (July 26, 1875, Kesswil – June 6, 1961, Küsnacht) was a Swiss psychiatrist, influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. ... Henry James Sr. ... Image from Howes Historical Collection Johnny Appleseed, born John Chapman (September 26, 1774–March 18, 1845), was an American pioneer nurseryman, and missionary for the Church of the New Jerusalem, which is based on the theological writings of Emanuel Swedenborg. ...


In contrast, one of the most prominent Swedish authors of Swedenborg's day, Johan Henrik Kellgren, called Swedenborg "nothing but a fool", a view shared by the establishment.[5] A heresy trial was initiated in Sweden in 1768 against Swedenborg's writings and two men who promoted these ideas. [6] Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in Västergötland, west Sweden. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the 250 years since Swedenborg's death, various interpretations of Swedenborg's theology have been made (see: Swedenborgian Church), and he has also been scrutinized in biographies and psychological studies.[7] Swedenborgianism is a term based on the ecclesiastical organization of certain beliefs relating to Emanuel Swedenborgs writings and, as such, is considered a religious movement by some. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Memorial plaque at the former location of Emanuel Swedenborg's house at Hornsgatan on Södermalm, Stockholm.
Memorial plaque at the former location of Emanuel Swedenborg's house at Hornsgatan on Södermalm, Stockholm.

Swedenborg's father Jesper Swedberg (1653–1735) descended from a wealthy mining family. He travelled abroad and studied theology, and on returning home he was eloquent enough to impress the Swedish King Charles XI with his sermons in Stockholm. Through the King's influence he would later become professor of theology at Uppsala University and Bishop of Skara.[8][9] Download high resolution version (856x1144, 165 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (856x1144, 165 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Houses of Södermalm, facing Riddarfjärden Small street on Södermalm. ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... Jesper Swedberg. ... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ... Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a public university in Uppsala, Sweden. ... Skara is a Municipality in Västra Götaland County, in western Sweden. ...


Jesper took an interest in the beliefs of the dissenting Lutheran Pietist movement, which emphasised the virtues of communion with God rather than relying on sheer faith (sola fide).[10] Sola fide is a tenet of the Lutheran Church, and Jesper was charged with being a pietist heretic. While controversial, the beliefs were to have a major impact on his son Emanuel's spirituality. Jesper furthermore held the unconventional belief that angels and spirits were present in everyday life. This also came to have a strong impact on Emanuel. [8][9][11] Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th century. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... Spirits redirects here. ...


Emanuel completed his university course at Uppsala, and in 1710 made his Grand tour through the Netherlands, France, and Germany, before reaching London, where he would spend the next four years. At this time London was the largest city in the world, and the most liberal place in Europe for philosophical discussion and freedom of speech.[citation needed] It was also a flourishing center of scientific ideas and discoveries. Emanuel studied physics, mechanics, and philosophy, read and wrote poetry. He wrote to his benefactor and brother-in-law Eric Benzelius that he believed he might be destined to be a great scientist. In one of his letters he includes, somewhat boastfully, a list of inventions he claims to have made, including a submarine and a flying machine.[12][13] Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... The interior of the Pantheon in the 18th century, painted by Giovanni Paolo Panini In the 18th century, the Grand Tour was a kind of education for wealthy British noblemen, wherein the primary educational value was exposure to the cultured artifacts of antiquity and the Renaissance as well as the... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... Mechanics (Greek ) is the branch of physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Erik Benzelius the younger (January 27, 1675 - September 23, 1743), was a priest, theologian, librarian, and Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden, 1742-1743. ...


Scientific period

Flying Machine, sketched in a notebook in 1714. The operator would sit in the middle, and paddle himself through the air.
Flying Machine, sketched in a notebook in 1714. The operator would sit in the middle, and paddle himself through the air.

In 1715 Swedenborg returned to Sweden, where he was to devote himself to natural science and engineering projects for the next two decades. A first step was his noted meeting with King Charles XII of Sweden in the city of Lund, in 1716. The Swedish inventor Christopher Polhem, who became a close friend of Swedenborg's, was also present. Swedenborg's purpose was to persuade the king to fund an observatory in northern Sweden. However, the warlike king did not consider this project important enough, but did appoint Swedenborg assessor-extraordinary on the Swedish board of mines (Bergskollegium) in Stockholm. [14] Image File history File links Swdbg2. ... Image File history File links Swdbg2. ... The Flying Machine, sketched in his notebook from 1714 Swedenborgs Flying Machine was first sketched by the Swedish scientist Emanuel Swedenborg in 1714, when he was 26 years old. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ...   IPA: is a city in SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden. ... Christopher Polhem on the Swedish 500 kronor bank note. ... MolÄ—tai Astronomical Observatory An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events. ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ...


From 1716 to 1718 Swedenborg published a scientific periodical entitled Daedalus Hyperboreus ("The Nordic Daedalus") which was a record of mechanical and mathematical inventions and discoveries. One notable description was that of a flying machine, the same he had been sketching on a few years earlier (see Flying Machine (Swedenborg)).[13] Daedalus and Icarus, by Charles Paul Landon, 1799 (Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle, Alençon) In Greek mythology, Daedalus (Latin, also Hellenized Latin Daedalos, Greek Daidalos (Δαίδαλος) meaning cunning worker, and Etruscan Taitle) was a most skillful artificer, so skillful that he was said to have invented... The Flying Machine, sketched in his notebook from 1714 Swedenborgs Flying Machine was first sketched by the Swedish scientist Emanuel Swedenborg in 1714, when he was 26 years old. ...


Upon the death of Charles XII, Queen Ulrika Eleonora ennobled Swedenborg and his siblings. It was common in Sweden during the 17th and 18th centuries for the children of bishops to receive this honour as a recognition of the services of the father. The family name was changed from Swedberg to Swedenborg. [15] Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (February 23, 1688 - November 24, 1741) was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1719 to 1720 and then Queen consort until her death. ...


In 1724 he was offered the chair of mathematics at Uppsala University, but he declined, saying that he had mainly dealt with geometry, chemistry and metallurgy during his career. He also noted that he did not have the gift of eloquent speech because of a speech impediment. The speech impediment in question was stuttering, noted by many acquaintances of his, and it forced him to speak slowly and carefully, and there are no known occurrences of him speaking in public.[16] It has been proposed that he compensated for his poor speech by extensive argumentation in writing.[17] Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a public university in Uppsala, Sweden. ... Stuttering, also known as stammering in the United Kingdom, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases; and involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unable to produce sounds. ...


New direction of studies

In the 1730s Swedenborg became increasingly interested in spiritual matters and was determined to find a theory which would explain how matter relates to spirit. In Leipzig, 1735, he published a three volume work entitled Opera philosophica et mineralis ("Philosophical and mineralogical works"), where he tries to conjoin philosophy and metallurgy. The work was mainly appreciated for its chapters on the analysis of the smelting of iron and copper, and it was this work which gave Swedenborg international reputation. [18] Events and Trends The Great Awakening - A Protestant religious movement active in the British colonies of North America Sextant invented (probably around 1730) independently by John Hadley in Great Britain and Thomas Godfrey in the American colonies World leaders Louis XV King of France (king from 1715 to 1774) George... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). Spirit- also the name of a popular musical group (rock genre) from the sixties. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ...


The same year he also published the small manuscript de Infinito ("On the Infinite"), where he attempted to explain how the finite is related to the infinite, and how the soul is connected to the body. This was the first manuscript where he touched upon these matters. He knew that it might clash with established theologies, since he presents the view that the soul is based on material substances. [19][20]


During the 1730s Swedenborg undertook many studies of anatomy and physiology. He also conducted dedicated studies of the fashionable philosophers of the time John Locke, Christian von Wolff and Leibniz, as well as returning to earlier thinkers Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Augustine, Descartes and others. [21] This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf) (January 24, 1679 - April 9, 1754) was a German philosopher. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Plotinus Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ...


In 1743, at the age of 55, Swedenborg requested a leave of absence to go abroad. His purpose was to gather source material for Regnum animale (The Animal Kingdom, or Kingdom of Life), a subject on which books were not readily available in Sweden. The aim of the book was to explain the soul from an anatomical point of view. He had planned to produce a total of seventeen volumes. [22] // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ...


Crisis

By 1744 he had traveled to the Netherlands. Around this time he began having strange dreams. Swedenborg carried a travel journal with him on most of his travels, and did so on this journey. The whereabouts of the diary were long unknown, but it was discovered in the Royal Library in the 1850s and published in 1859 as Drömboken, or Journal of Dreams. It provides a first-hand account of the events of the crisis. [23] // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... The Royal Library, or (KB), is the national library of Sweden. ...


He experienced many different dreams and visions, some greatly pleasurable, others highly disturbing. [24]The experiences continued as he travelled to London to continue the publication of Regnum animale. This cathartic process continued for six months. It has been compared to the Catholic concept of Purgatory. [25] Analyses of the diary have concluded that what Swedenborg was recording in his Journal of Dreams was a battle between the love of his self, and the love of God. [26] For other uses, see Purgatory (disambiguation). ...


Visions and spiritual insights

In the last entry of the journal from October 26-27 1744, Swedenborg appears to be clear as to which path to follow. He felt he should drop his current project, and write a new book about the worship of God. He soon began working on De cultu et amore Dei, or The Worship and Love of God. It was never fully completed, but Swedenborg still had it published in London in June 1745. [27]


One explanation why the work was never finished is given in a well known and often referenced story. In April 1745, Swedenborg was dining in a private room at a tavern in London. By the end of the meal, a darkness fell upon his eyes, and the room shifted character. Suddenly he saw a person sitting at a corner of the room, telling Swedenborg: "Do not eat too much!". Swedenborg, scared, hurried home. Later that night, the same man appeared in his dreams. The man told Swedenborg that He was the Lord, that He had appointed Swedenborg to reveal the spiritual meaning of the Bible, and that He would guide Swedenborg in what to write. The same night, the spiritual world was opened to Swedenborg.[28]


Scriptural commentary and writings

Arcana Cœlestia, first edition (1749), title page
Arcana Cœlestia, first edition (1749), title page

In June 1747, Swedenborg resigned his post as assessor of the board of mines. He explained that he was obliged to complete a work he had begun, and requested to receive half his salary as a pension. [29] He took up afresh his study of Hebrew and began to work on the spiritual interpretation of the Bible with the goal of interpreting the spiritual meaning of every verse. From sometime between 1746 and 1747, and for ten years henceforth, he devoted his energy to this task. This work, usually abbreviated as Arcana Cœlestia ("Heavenly Secrets"), was to become his magnum opus, and the basis of his further theological works. [30] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x785, 30 KB) First page of a book by w:Emanuel Swedenborg From http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x785, 30 KB) First page of a book by w:Emanuel Swedenborg From http://www. ... A pension is a steady income given to a person (usually after retirement). ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...


The work was anonymous and Swedenborg was not identified as the author until the late 1750s. It consisted of eight volumes, published between 1749 and 1756. It attracted little attention, as few people could penetrate its meaning. [31][32]


His life from 1747 until his death in 1772 was spent in Stockholm, Holland, and London. During these twenty five years he wrote another fourteen works of a spiritual nature of which most were published during his lifetime. Freedom of the press was not allowed for religious works at the time, which is why they were all printed in either London or Holland. [33]


Throughout this period he was befriended by many people who regarded him as a kind and warm-hearted man. When in the company of others, he was jovial, and conversed about whatever subject was discussed. Those who talked with him understood that he was devoted to his beliefs. He never argued matters of religion, except when ridiculed, when he replied sharply, so that the ridicule would not be repeated. [34][35]


In July, 1770, at the age of 82, he traveled to Amsterdam to complete the publication of his last work. The book, Vera Christiana Religio (The True Christian Religion), was published in Amsterdam in 1771 and was one of the most appreciated of his works. Designed to explain his teachings to Lutheran Christians, it was the most concrete of his works.[36]


In the summer of 1771, he travelled to London. Shortly before Christmas he suffered a stroke and was partially paralyzed and confined to bed. His health improved somewhat, but he died on March 29, 1772. There are several accounts of his last months, made by those he stayed with, and by a pastor of the Swedish Church in London who visited him several times. [37]

Swedenborg's crypt in Uppsala Cathedral
Swedenborg's crypt in Uppsala Cathedral

He was buried in a church in London. On the 140th anniversary of his death, in 1912/1913, his earthly remains were transferred to Uppsala Cathedral in Sweden, where they now rest in close proximity to the grave of the botanist Carolus Linnaeus. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 158 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Emanuel Swedenborg User:Wiglaf User talk:Tupsharru Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 158 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Emanuel Swedenborg User:Wiglaf User talk:Tupsharru Categories: GFDL images ... The Cathedral of Uppsala. ... The Cathedral of Uppsala. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...


Veracity

Swedenborg's transition from scientist to mystic has fascinated many people ever since it occurred, including such people as: Immanuel Kant, William Blake, Goethe, Arthur Conan Doyle, Balzac, Jorge Luis Borges, August Strindberg, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Carl Jung, just to mention a few.[citation needed] Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mustikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (musteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is one... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ...  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German poet, dramatist, novelist, theorist, humanist, scientist, and painter. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... Balzac redirects here. ... Jorge Luis Borges (August 24, 1899 – June 14, 1986) was an Argentine writer who is considered one of the foremost literary figures of the 20th century. ... August Strindberg Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh   (January 22, 1849 – May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition Carl Gustav Jung (IPA: ) (July 26, 1875, Kesswil – June 6, 1961, Küsnacht) was a Swiss psychiatrist, influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. ...


Some assert that Swedenborg lost his mind, suffering some sort of mental illness or nervous breakdown.[7] While this idea was not uncommon during Swedenborg's own time, it is mitigated by his activity in the Swedish Riddarhuset (The House of the Nobility), the Riksdag (the Swedish parliament), and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Additionally, the system of thought in his theological writings is remarkably coherent.[38] A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Swedish House of Nobility, south end, with statue of Gustaf Eriksson Vasa. ... The parliament building from outside. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ...


A lot of scholarly literature regards Swedenborg's conclusions as natural developments of his inquiring mind. This was the stand taken by the Swedish writer Martin Lamm, who wrote a highly regarded biography of Swedenborg in 1915, which is still in print.[39] Olof Lagercrantz, a noted Swedish critic and publicist, looked at it from a different view, calling Swedenborg's theological writing "a poem about a foreign country with peculiar laws and customs".[40]


Swedenborg's approach to demonstrating the veracity of his theological teachings was to find and use voluminous quotations from the Old Testament and New Testament to demonstrate agreement between the Bible or Word of God and his theological teachings. The demonstration of this agreement is found throughout his theological writings, since he rejected blind faith and declared true faith is an internal acknowledgement of the truth.


Scientific beliefs

Swedenborg proposed many scientific ideas, both before his crisis and after. In his youth, his ambitions were boundless, and he wanted to present a new idea every day, as he wrote to his brother-in-law Erik Benzelius in 1718. Around 1730, he had changed his mind, and instead believed that higher knowledge is not something that can be acquired, but that it is based on intuition. After his crisis in 1745, he instead considered himself receiving scientific knowledge in a spontaneous manner from angels. [41] Erik Benzelius was the name of two men, father and son, important in Swedish ecclesiastical and intellectual history: Erik Benzelius the Elder (1632-1709), Bishop of Strängnäs, later Archbishop of Uppsala. ...


From 1745, when he considered himself to have entered a spiritual state, he tended to phrase his "experiences" in empirical terms, claiming to report accurately things he had experienced on his spiritual journeys. A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ...


One of his pseudoscientific ideas that is considered most crucial for the understanding of his theology is his notion of correspondences. But in fact, he first presented the theory of correspondences in 1744, before his crisis, in the first volume of Regnum Animale dealing with the human soul. [13]


The basis of the correspondence theory is that there is a relationship between the natural ("physical"), the spiritual, and the divine worlds. The foundations of this theory can be traced to Neoplatonism and the philosopher Plotinus in particular. With the aid of this scenario, Swedenborg now interpreted the Bible in a different light, claiming that even the most apparently trivial sentences could hold a profound spiritual meaning. [42] Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Plotinus Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ...


Psychic accounts

There are three well known incidents of psychic ability reported in literature about Swedenborg.[43]The first was from July 29, 1759, when during a dinner in Gothenburg, he excitedly told the party at six o' clock that there was a fire in Stockholm (405 km away), that it consumed his neighbour's home and was threatening his own. Two hours later, he exclaimed with relief that the fire stopped three doors from his home. Two days later, reports confirmed every statement to the precise hour that Swedenborg first expressed the information. [44] Location of Gothenburg in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden County Västra Götaland County Province Västergötland Charter 1621 Government  - Mayor Göran Johansson Area  - City 450 km²  (174 sq mi)  - Water 14. ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ...


The second was in 1758 when Swedenborg visited Queen Louisa Ulrika of Sweden, who asked him to tell her something about her deceased brother Augustus William. The next day, Swedenborg whispered something in her ear that turned the Queen pale and she explained that this was something only she and her brother could know about. [45] The third was a woman who had lost an important document, and came to Swedenborg asking if a recently deceased person could tell him where it was, which he did the following night.[46] Louisa Ulrika of Prussia (Swedish: Lovisa Ulrika; German: Luise Ulrike) (1720—1782) was Queen consort of Sweden between 1751 and 1771. ... Augustus William (German: August Wilhelm; 9 August 1722, Berlin – 12 June 1758, Oranienburg), Prince of Prussia, was the second son of King Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. ...


Immanuel Kant, then at the beginning of his career, was impressed by these in 1763, and made inquiries to find out if they were true. He also ordered all eight volumes of the expensive Arcana Cœlestias. In 1766 he published Träume eines Geistersehers (Dreams of a Seer) where he concluded that Swedenborg's accounts were nothing but illusions. He could however not give a scientific explanation for Swedenborg's description of the fire in 1759. [47] Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ...


Swedenborg himself did not put much weight in such events. He several times explained that God did not perform miracles any longer, or manifest Himself in people's dreams. [48]


Theology

Swedenborg considered his theology a revelation of the true Christian religion that had become obfuscated through centuries of theology. However, he did not refer to his writings as theology since he considered it based on actual experiences, unlike theology.[13] Neither did he wish to compare it to philosophy, a science he in 1748 discarded because it "darkens the mind, blinds us, and wholly rejects the faith".[49] At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ...


The foundation of Swedenborg's theology was laid down in Arcana Cœlestia, or Heavenly Secrets, published in eight volumes from 1749 to 1756. In a significant portion of that work, he interprets Biblical passages. Most of all, he was convinced of how the Bible described a human's transformation from a materialistic to a spiritual being. He begins his work by outlining how the creation myth was not an account of the creation of Earth, but an account of man's rebirth in six steps. Everything related to mankind could also be related to Jesus Christ, and how Christ freed himself from materialistic boundaries. Swedenborg examined this idea by an exposition on Genesis and Exodus.[50] Creation beliefs and stories describe how the universe, the Earth, life, and/or humanity came into being. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ...


Marriage

One aspect of Swedenborg's writing that is often discussed is his ideas of marriage. Swedenborg himself stayed a bachelor all his life, but that did not hinder him from writing voluminously about the subject. His work Conjugial Love (1768) was dedicated to this purpose. A righteous marriage, he argues, is intended to be a continuous spiritual refinement of both parties, and such a union would be maintained in the afterlife.[51] A bachelor is a man above the age of majority who has never been married (see single). ...


He regarded marriage as being fundamentally about the union of wisdom — physically represented in the man — and love — physically represented in the female. This dualism can be traced throughout Swedenborg's writings. Faith, he writes, is a union of the two qualities of reason (represented by the man) and intention (represented by the female). And, similarly, the wisdom of God has its corresponding part in the love from the Church. [52]


Trinity

Swedenborg was sharply opposed to the Christian doctrine of the Trinity as three Persons, the concept of One God being three separate Persons: the Person of the Father, the Person of the Son, and the Person of the Holy Spirit. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity, the doctrine...


Instead he claimed that the three were different aspects of the one God, one Person, in whom is the Divine Trinity, and that divinity is impossible if divided into three Persons. Swedenborg spoke sharply against the Trinity of Persons in virtually all his works, and taught that the Divine Trinity exists in One Person, the Lord Jesus Christ, as a trinity of the soul, body, and spirit exists in each person. [53] The Divine Trinity in the Lord Jesus Christ is the Divine called the Father as the Soul, the Divine Human called the Son as the Body, and the proceeding Divine called the Holy Spirit as the Spirit. The Divinity or Divine essence of the three is one, as the Person is one. According to Swedenborg, Muslims, Jews and people of other religions are mainly opposed to Christianity because its doctrine of the Trinity of Persons makes One God into three Gods. He considered the separation of the Trinity into three separate Persons to have originated with the First Council of Nicaea in 325 CE and the Athanasian Creed, circa 500. [54] For example: A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the Catholic Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ... The Athanasian Creed (Quicunque vult) is a statement of Christian doctrine traditionally ascribed to St. ...

From a Trinity of Persons, each one of whom singly is God, according to the Athanasian creed, many discordant and heterogeneous ideas respecting God have arisen, which are phantasies and abortions. [..] All who dwell outside the Christian church, both Mohammedans and Jews, and besides these the Gentiles of every cult, are averse to Christianity solely on account of its belief in three Gods.

Swedenborg, True Christian Religion, section 183 [1]

Swedenborg's theological teachings about the Trinity being in the One Person Jesus Christ is labeled by some as modalism because it identifies three aspects (not persons) of One God, a unitarian God. In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism) is the second-century belief that the three persons of the Trinity are merely different modes or aspects of God, rather than three distinct persons. ...


Sola fide (Faith Alone)

He also spoke sharply against the tenet called Sola fide, which means that salvation or righteousness before God is achievable through faith alone, irrespective of the person's deeds in life. This belief was a core belief in the theology of the Lutheran reformers Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon. Swedenborg instead held that salvation is only possible through the conjunction of faith and charity in a person, and that the purpose of faith is to lead a person to live according to the truths of faith, which is charity. He further states that faith and charity must be exercised by doing good out of willing good whenever possible, which are good works or good uses, otherwise the conjunction perishes. In one section he wrote: Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Melancthon, in a portrait engraved by Albrecht Dürer, 1526 Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapÄ“), is the greatest of the three theological virtues...

It is very evident from their Epistles that it never entered the mind of any of the apostles that the church of this day would separate faith from charity by teaching that faith alone justifies and saves apart from the works of the law, and that charity therefore cannot be conjoined with faith, since faith is from God, and charity, so far as it is expressed in works, is from man. But this separation and division were introduced into the Christian church when it divided God into three persons, and ascribed to each equal Divinity. The word epistle is from the Greek word epistolos which means a written letter addressed to a recipient or recipients, perhaps part of exchanged correspondence. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapÄ“), is the greatest of the three theological virtues...

True Christian Religion, section 355 [2]

Bibliography

List of referenced works by Swedenborg and the year they were first published.[55][56][57]


Within parenthesis, the common name used in text, based on the New Church online bookstore. Then follows the name of the original title in its original publication.[58]. Various minor reports and tracts have been omitted from the list. Swedenborgianism is a term based on the ecclesiastical organization of certain beliefs relating to Emanuel Swedenborgs writings and, as such, is considered a religious movement by some. ...

  • 1716-1718, (Daedalus Hyperboreus) Swedish: Daedalus Hyperboreus, eller några nya mathematiska och physicaliska försök. (English: The Northern inventor, or some new experiments in mathematics and physics)
  • 1721, (Principles of Chemistry) Latin: Prodromus principiorum rerum naturalium : sive novorum tentaminum chymiam et physicam experimenta geometrice explicandi
  • 1722, (Miscellaneous Observations) Latin: Miscellanea de Rebus Naturalibus
  • 1734, (Principia) Latin: Opera Philosophica et Mineralia (English: Philosophical and Mineralogical Works), three volumes
    • (Principia, Volume I) Latin: Tomus I. Principia rerum naturlium sive novorum tentaminum phaenomena mundi elementaris philosophice explicandi
    • (Principia, Volume II) Latin: Tomus II. Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de ferro
    • (Principia, Volume III) Latin: Tomus III. Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de cupro et orichalco
  • 1734, (The Infinite and Final Cause of Creation) Latin: Prodromus Philosophiz Ratiocinantis de Infinito, et Causa Finali Creationis; deque Mechanismo Operationis Animae et Corporis.
  • 1744-1745, (The Animal Kingdom) Latin: Regnum animale, 3 volumes
  • 1745, (The Worship and Love of God) Latin: De Cultu et Amore Dei, 2 volumes
  • 1749-1756, (Arcana Coelestia (or Cœlestia), or Heavenly Secrets), Latin: Arcana Cœlestia, quae in Scriptura Sacra seu Verbo Domini sunt, detecta., 8 volumes
  • 1758, (Heaven and Hell) Latin: De Caelo et Ejus Mirabilibus et de inferno. Ex Auditis et Visis.
  • 1758, (The Last Judgment) Latin: De Ultimo Judicio
  • 1758, (The White Horse) Latin: De Equo Albo de quo in Apocalypsi Cap.XIX.
  • 1758, (Earths in the Universe) Latin: De Telluribus in Mundo Nostro Solari, quæ vocantur planetæ: et de telluribus in coelo astrifero: deque illarum incolis; tum de spiritibus & angelis ibi; ex auditis & visis.
  • 1758, (The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine) Latin: De Nova Hierosolyma et Ejus Doctrina Coelesti
  • 1763, (Doctrine of the Lord) Latin: Doctrina Novæ Hierosolymæ de Domino.
  • 1763, (Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture) Latin: Doctrina Novæ Hierosolymæ de Scrip­tura Sacra.
  • 1763, (Doctrine of Life) Latin: Doctrina Vitæ pro Nova Hierosolyma ex præceptis Deca­logi.
  • 1763, (Doctrine of Faith) Latin: Doctrina Novæ Hierosolymæ de Fide.
  • 1763, (Continuation of The Last Judgement) Latin: Continuatio De Ultimo Judicio: et de mundo spirituali.
  • 1763, (Divine Love and Wisdom) Latin: Sapientia Angelica de Divino Amore et de Divina Sapientia. Sapientia Angelica de Divina Providentia.
  • 1764, (Divine Providence) Latin: Sapientia Angelica de Divina Providentia.
  • 1766, (Apocalypse Revealed) Latin: Apocalypsis Revelata, in quae detegunter Arcana quae ibi preedicta sunt.
  • 1768, (Conjugial Love, or Marital Love) Latin: Deliciae Sapientiae de Amore Conjugiali; post quas sequumtur voluptates insaniae de amore scortatorio.
  • 1769, (Brief Exposition) Latin: Summaria Expositio Doctrinæ Novæ Ec­cle­siæ, quæ per Novam Hierosolymam in Apocalypsi intelligitur.
  • 1769, (Intercourse of the Soul and the Body) Latin: De Commercio Animæ & Corporis.
  • 1771, (True Christian Religion) Latin: Vera Christiana Religio, continens Universam Theologiam Novae Ecclesiae
  • 1859, Drömboken, Journalanteckningar, 1743-1744
  • 1983-1997, (Spiritual Diary) Latin: Diarum, Ubi Memorantur Experiantiae Spirituales.

The Arcana CÅ“lestia, quae in Scriptura Sacra seu Verbo Domini sunt, detecta (or Heavenly Secrets) is the first and largest work published by Emanuel Swedenborg in his theological period. ...

See also

The New Church is a religious movement which began in the late eighteenth century. ... Symbol of the Swedenborgian Church Swedenborgianism is the ecclesiastical organization of beliefs developed from the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, and as such, considered a religious movement by many. ... The Flying Machine, sketched in his notebook from 1714 Swedenborgs Flying Machine was first sketched by the Swedish scientist Emanuel Swedenborg in 1714, when he was 26 years old. ... Clerks studying astronomy and geometry. ... The Second Coming refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus Christ, an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth (also called the Reign of God), including the...

Notes and references

  1. ^ January 29 according to the Julian calendar. In the Gregorian calendar, the date would be February 8
  2. ^ He is called a mystic by many sources, including the Encyclopædia Britannica online version, Swedenborg, Emanuel, retrieved November 8, 2006, and the Encyclopedia of Religion (1987) which starts its article with the description that he was a "Swedish scientist and mystic" .
  3. ^ Swedenborg referred to himself as an initialis, in Greek μυστικός (mystikos), "an initiate" (Bergquist, 1999, p.451; in turn based on Arcana Cœlestia §4099)
  4. ^ Bergquist, Preface (p. 15-16)
  5. ^ Johan Henrik Kellgren published an often quoted satirical poem entitled Man äger ej snille för det man är galen ("You Own Not Genius For That You are Mad") in 1787. See Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc & Lönnroth (1999). (Link to the full poem, in Swedish)
  6. ^ The trial in 1768 was again Gabrial Beyer and Johan Rosén and essentially concerned whether Swedenborg's theological writings were consistent with the Christian doctrines. A royal ordinance in 1770 declared that Swedenborg's writings were "clearly mistaken" and should not be taught even though his system of theological thought was never examined. Swedenborg then begged the King for grace and protection in a letter from Amsterdam. A new investigation against Swedenborg stalled and was eventually dropped in 1778. (1999), pp.453-463
  7. ^ a b This subject is touched on in the preface of Bergquist (1999), who mentions the biography by Martin Lamm (originally published 1917) and its focus on the similarities of Swedenborg's scientific and theological lives. He mentions an earlier biography by the Swedish physician Emil Kleen who concluded that Swedenborg was blatantly mad, suffering "paranoia and hallucinations". A similar conclusion was made recently by psychiatrist John Johnson in Henry Maudsley on Swedenborg's messianic psychosis, British Journal of Psychiatry 165:690-691 (1994), who wrote that Swedenborg suffered hallucinations of "acute schizophrenia or epileptic psychosis."
  8. ^ a b (Swedish) Nordisk familjebok, 2nd edition (Ugglan) article Svedberg, Jesper (1918)
  9. ^ a b Encyclopeaedia Britannica, 1911 edition. article Emanuel Swedenborg
  10. ^ Svedberg's pietistic interests are described in Bergquist (1999), p.230-232
  11. ^ Martin Lamm (1978 [1915]; pp.1-19) notes how all Swedenborg biographies at that draw similarities between the beliefs of Jesper and Emanuel. Lamm himself partially agrees with them, but he maintains that there were marked differences between them too.
  12. ^ Lagercrantz, preface. For more information about the flying machine, see Flying Machine (Swedenborg).
  13. ^ a b c d x
  14. ^ The meeting between the King, Polhelm and Swedenborg is described in detail in Liljegren, Bengt, Karl XII i Lund : när Sverige styrdes från Skåne, (Historiska media, Lund, 1999). ISBN 91-88930-51-3
  15. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp.114-115
  16. ^ Berquist (1999), pp.118-119
  17. ^ Proposed by Lagercrantz, also mentioned by Bergquist (1999), p.119
  18. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp. 142-155
  19. ^ Lamm (1987), pp.42-43, notes that by assuming that the soul consists of matter, as Swedenborg did, one becomes a materialist. He further notes that this was also noted by contemporaries.
  20. ^ Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc & Lönnroth, p.321
  21. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp.165-178
  22. ^ Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc & Lönnroth, p.325
  23. ^ Bergquist, pp.195-196
  24. ^ Bergquist, p.200-208
  25. ^ Bergquist (p.206) makes the comparisment to Purgatory
  26. ^ Analysis by Bergquist, p.209. Bergquist has previously published a separate book commenting on the Journal called Swedenborgs drömbok : glädjen och det stora kvalet (Stockholm, Norstedt, 1988)
  27. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp.210-211
  28. ^ This account is based in Bergquist (1999), pp.227-228. The story was much later told by Swedenborg to Carl Robsahm (see Robsahm, #15)
  29. ^ Bergquist (1999),pp.286-287
  30. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.287
  31. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.288
  32. ^ Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc & Lönnroth, p.316
  33. ^ Bergquist (1999),p.477-478
  34. ^ Robsahm, #38
  35. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.475, quotes a letter from the pastor of the Swedish Church in London, Ferelius, in 1780, first published in Tafel II:I, p.560.
  36. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.464
  37. ^ Bergquist (1999), 471-476. Accounts of Swedenborg's last days were collected and published in Tafel II:1, pp.577 ff, 556 ff, 560 ff.
  38. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.474
  39. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.15
  40. ^ en dikt om ett främmande land med sällsamma lagar och seder. Largercrantz (1996), backpage
  41. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.364-365
  42. ^ Lamm (1987 [1915]), dedicates a chapter to the correspondence theories, p.85-109
  43. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.312
  44. ^ The accounts are fully described in Bergquist, pp. 312-313. The primary source for these accounts is a letter from Immanuel Kant in 1768 and the Swedenborg collection by Tafel (see references).
  45. ^ According to Bergquist (1999), p.314-315, There are several different accounts of the events which makes it difficult to conclude the exact details of the event. Carl Robsahm (see references) reports the story in this way.
  46. ^ According to Bergquist (1999), p.316, there are some ten different reports of this event. Including two trustworthy descriptions, one by Robsahm (writing down Swedenborg's own description) and one by a priest who enquired of the woman in a letter fifteen years later.
  47. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp. 313, 319. Kant presents a report of this event in a letter to Charlotte von Knoblauch, 1768 (sometimes given as 1763). This letter is further discussed in Laywine, Alison, Kant’s Early Metaphysics. North American Kant Society Studies in Philosophy, volume 3 (Atascadero, California: Ridgeview Publishing Company, 1993), pp.72-74.
  48. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.316-317
  49. ^ Quoted by Bergquist (1999), p.178, based on Swedenborg's Spiritual experiences (1748), §767
  50. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.286-309
  51. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.431-446
  52. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.431-446
  53. ^ Bergquist (1999), p.301.
  54. ^ True Christian Religion, sections 163-168
  55. ^ Latin booktitles, The Swedenborg Society, accessed November 21, 2006.
  56. ^ The original title, and year of publication is based on Bergquist (1999), Litteraturförteckning (pp.525-534).
  57. ^ The Works of Emanuel Swedenborg in Chronological Order, Emanuel Swedenborg Studies, accessed April 30, 2007.
  58. ^ Emanuel Swedenborg Bibliography, New Church website, accessed November 14, 2006
  • Benz, Ernst, Emanuel Swedenborg: Visionary Savant in the Age of Reason (Swedenborg Foundation, 2002) ISBN 0-87785-195-6, a translation of the thorough German language study on life and work of Swedenborg, Emanuel Swedenborg: Naturforscher und Seher by the noted religious scholar Ernst Benz, published in Munich in 1948.
  • Bergquist, Lars, Swedenborg's Secret, (London, The Swedenborg Society, 2005) ISBN 0-85448-143-5, a translation of the Swedish language biography of Swedenborg, Swedenborgs Hemlighet, published in Stockholm in 1999. ISBN 91-27-06981-8
  • Lamm, Martin, Swedenborg: En studie (1987; first ed. 1915). A popular biography that is still read and quoted. It is also available in English: Emanuel Swedenborg: The Development of His Thought, Martin Lamm (Swedenborg Studies, No. 9, 2001), ISBN 0-87785-194-8
  • Lagercrantz, Olof, Dikten om livet på den andra sidan (Wahlström & Widstrand 1996), ISBN 91-46-16932-6. In Swedish.
  • Leon, James, Overcoming Objections to Swedenborg's Writings Through the Development of Scientific Dualism An examination of Swedenborg's discoveries. The author is a professor of psychology and an avid reader of Swedenborg. (1998; published in New Philosophy, 2001)
  • Robsahm, Carl, Hallengren, Anders (translation and comments), Anteckningar om Swedenborg (Föreningen Swedenborgs Minne: Stockholm 1989), ISBN 91-87856-00-X. Hallengren writes that the first complete publication of the Robsam manuscript was in R.L. Rafel's Documents, Vol. I, 1875 (see section "#further reading")
  • Sigstedt, C.,The Swedenborg Epic. The Life and Works of Emanuel Swedenborg (New York: Bookman Associates, 1952). The whole book is available online at Swedenborg Digital Library
  • Toksvig, Signe, Emanuel Swedenborg: Scientist and Mystic, Yale University Press, (1948), and Swedenborg Foundation, (1983), ISBN 0-87785-171-9

The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in Västergötland, west Sweden. ... The Owl Edition Nordisk familjebok (en. ... The Flying Machine, sketched in his notebook from 1714 Swedenborgs Flying Machine was first sketched by the Swedish scientist Emanuel Swedenborg in 1714, when he was 26 years old. ... This article primarily focuses on the general concepts of matter and existence. ... For other uses, see Purgatory (disambiguation). ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Swedish ( ), known since Esaias Tegnér as the language of glory and heroes (ärans och hjältarnas sprÃ¥k), is a North Germanic language (also called Scandinavian languages) spoken predominantly in Sweden and in parts of Finland, especially along the coast and on the Ã…land islands, by more than nine...

Further reading

Newer material:

  • Swedenborg and His Influence, ed. Erland J. Brock, (Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania: The Academy of the New Church, 1988), ISBN 0-910557-23-3.
  • Jonathan S. Rose, ed. Emanuel Swedenborg: Essays for the New Century Edition on His Life, Work, and Impact (West Chester, Pennsylvania: Swedenborg Foundation, 2002), ISBN 0-87785-473-4. 580 pages. Multiple scholars contributed to this collection of excellent information on Swedenborg, his manuscripts, and his cultural influence. Republished in 2004 under new title, Scribe of Heaven: Swedenborg's Life, Work, and Impact ISBN 0-87785-474-2.
  • Wilson van Dusen, The Presence of Other Worlds, Swedenborg Foundation, Inc., New York, Harper & Row, 1974. ISBN 0-87785-166-2

Older material of importance, some of it not in print:

  • The most extensive work is: RL Tafel, Documents concerning the Life and Character of Swedenborg, collected, translated and annotated (3 vols., Swedenborg Society, 1875—1877);
  • J Hyde, A Bibliography of the Works of Emanuel Swedenborg (Swedenborg Society).
  • Kant's Träume eines Geistersehers (1766; the most recent edition in English is from 1975, ISBN 3-7873-0311-1 );
  • J. G. Herder's "Emanuel Swedenborg," in his Adrastea (Werke zur Phil. und Gesch., xii. 110-125).
  • Transactions of the International Swedenborg Congress (London, 1910), summarized in The New Church Magazine (August, 1910).
  • Swedenborg and Esoteric Islam (Swedenborg Studies, No 4) by Henry Corbin, Leonard Fox

Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his concept of the Volk and is generally considered the father of ethnic nationalism. ...

External links

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Emanuel Swedenborg
  • Works by Emanuel Swedenborg at Project Gutenberg.
  • Emanuel Swedenborg Studies is dedicated to collecting, analyzing, and preserving the historical record of the life and times of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772). Among the existing broad context of apologists and critics of Emanuel Swedenborg, it is the mission of Emanuel Swedenborg Studies to establish an objective and comprehensive record of the facts of Emanuel Swedenborg’s Life – all of the facts and only the facts.[59]
  • A Journal of Dreams.
  • The Swedenborgian Church is the original Swedenborgian denominational body in North America.
  • The New Church or the General Church of the New Jerusalem is the largest Swedenborgian denomination in North America and worldwide.
  • The Lord's New Church Which Is Nova Hierosolyma is a North American and International Swedenborgian Church that accepts the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg as the Lord's Word, The Word of The Third Testament, Which contains all the Divine Truth of the Lord's Divine Human.
  • Information Swedenborg Inc The mission of Information Swedenborg Inc. is to raise awareness of the life and work of Emanuel Swedenborg. Sells books by, about and related to Swedenborg, world wide but especially within Canada.
  • The Swedenborg Foundation is a non-profit publisher, book seller, and educational organization which publishes the theological works of Swedenborg, contemporary books and videos on spiritual growth, offers lectures and workshops, and maintains a library of Swedenborgian literature.
  • The Heavenly Doctrines, a searchable library of Swedenborg's "revelatory phase" theological writings.
  • Small Canon Search, a search engine of an alternative canon of scripture including works of Swedenborg.
  • Emanuel Swedenborg Swicki, a collaborative community searching the world wide web for information about Emanuel Swedenborg.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Emanuel Swedenborg (1300 words)
manuel Swedenborg, the Swedish mystic, philosopher, theologian, and scientist, was born on January 29, 1688, the son of Jesper Swedberg, pietist Bishop of Skara.
Swedenborg's relationship with Polhem was apparently more than just professional, seeing as Polhem approved of him sufficiently to allow him to court, and become engaged to, his daughter (this relationship seems to have ended when Swedenborg discovered that she was in love with another man).
Swedenborg felt that the original divine order had been perverted by human beings who, using their free will, had progressively severed their intuitive internal connection to the divine.
Emanuel Swedenborg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4840 words)
Swedenborg's purpose was to persuade the king to fund an observatory in northern Sweden.
Swedenborg proposed, 150 years before any other scientist, that the activity of the brain was synchronous with respiration and not with the action of the heart or the blood circulation.
Swedenborg was sharply opposed to the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, which is the concept of God consisting of three entities: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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