FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Emain Macha

Emain Macha, (Old Irish /ˈeṽanʲ ˈṽaxa/, Emuin Macha, Modern Irish Eamhain Mhacha /ˈawnʲ ˈwaxə/, Emania) known in English as Navan Fort, is an ancient monument in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. Although called a "fort", it is considered more likely to have been a ritual or ceremonial site. It appears to have been abandoned by the first century AD. It is also a significant site in Irish mythology, particularly the Ulster Cycle. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... County Armagh (Contae Ard Mhacha in Irish) is a county in Ulster, Ireland. ... Motto: (French for God and my right)2 Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (De facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (De facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Office suspended... The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ...

Contents

Ancient monuments

The site, on a low hill approximately 1.6 miles (2.6 km) west of the city of Armagh, is a circular enclosure 250 metres (820 ft) in diameter, surrounded by a bank and ditch. Unusually, the ditch is inside the bank, suggesting it was not built for defensive purposes. Inside the enclosure two monuments are visible. Off-centre to the north-west is an earthen mound 40 metres (130 ft) in diameter and 6 metres (20 ft) high. Also slightly off-centre to the south-east is the circular impression of a ring-barrow, the ploughed-down remains of a late prehistoric ceremonial or burial monument, about 30 metres (100 ft) in diameter. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ...


Archaeological excavations have revealed that the construction of the 40 metre mound dates to 95 BC (securely dated by dendrochronology). A circular structure consisting of four concentric rings of posts around a central oak trunk was built, its entrance facing west (prehistoric houses in the British Isles invariably face east, towards the sunrise). The floor of the building was covered with stones arranged in radial segments, and the whole edifice was deliberately burnt down before being covered in a mound of earth and turf (there is archaeological evidence for similar repeated construction and immolation of Temuir and the Dún Ailinne). The bank and ditch that surround the hilltop were built at the same time. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92... Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree ring patterns. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into British and Irish Isles. ... The Hill of Tara (aerial view) The Hill of Tara (Irish Teamhair na Rí, Hill of the Kings), located near the River Boyne, is a long, low limestone ridge that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland. ...


No secure date can be assigned to the ring-barrow, but excavations and geophysical surveys have revealed the remains of a figure–of–eight shaped wooden building underneath. The larger ring of the figure–of–eight was 30 metres (100 ft) in diameter, the smaller about 20 metres (65 ft). The building had been rebuilt twice. Similar, slightly smaller structures, each with a central hearth, were found under the 40m mound. Artefacts found in these layers show they were inhabited in the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age (approximately 600 to at least 250 BC). Perhaps the most unusual item found in these layers was the skull of a Barbary Macaque. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Binomial name Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is a tail-less macaque. ...


An earlier Bronze Age structure, a circular ditch surrounding the mound, 45 metres (150 ft) in diameter, 5 metres (16 ft) wide and 1 metre (3 ft) deep, was also found, and flint tools and fragments of pottery show activity at the site in the Neolithic (ca. 4000 to 2500 BC). An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ...


The Navan complex

Other significant prehistoric sites in the vicinity include Haughey's Fort, an earlier Bronze Age hill fort two-thirds of a mile (1 km) to the west; the King's Stables, an artificial pool also dating to the Bronze Age; and Loughnashade, a natural lake which has produced Iron Age artefacts. Haugheys Fort is a hill fort in County Armagh, Northern Ireland, 3. ... The Kings Stables is an archaeological site in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ...


Emain Macha in Irish mythology

According to Irish mythology and historical tradition it was the capital of the Ulaid, the people who gave their name to the province of Ulster. It was supposedly founded by the goddess Macha in the 5th or 7th century BC, and was the seat of Conchobar mac Nessa in the tales of the Ulster Cycle. Conchobar is said to have had three houses at Emain Macha: the Cróeb Ruad ("Dull Red Branch", whence derives the nearby townland of Creeveroe) where the king sat; the Cróeb Derg ("Bright Red Branch"), where trophies of battle were kept, and the Téte Brecc ("Speckled Hoard") where the warriors' weapons were stored. The name Emain Macha is variously explained as "Macha's neck-brooch", after Macha marked out the boundaries of the site with her brooch, and "Macha's twins", after Macha gave birth to twins after being forced to compete in a chariot-race. The Annals of the Four Masters record that it was abandoned after it was burned by the Three Collas in 331 AD, after they had defeated Fergus Foga, king of Ulster, in battle. The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... The Ulaid, also known as the Ulaidh and the Ulad, are a people of Early Ireland who gave their name to the Irish Province of Ulster. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture. ... In Irish mythology, Macha is a goddess linked with war, horses and kingship. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // Overview The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... In Irish mythology, Conchobar mac Nessa (also Conchobor, Conchubar, Conchobhar, Conchubhar, Conchúr, Conchúir, Conor) was king of Ulster during the events of the Ulster Cycle. ... The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... In the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology the Red Branch was the name of two Conchobars three houses at Emain Macha, as Old Irish had two words for red. The Cróeb Ruad or Craoibh Ruadh (dull red branch) was where the king sat; its name has survived as... Signature page from the Annals of the Four Masters Entry for A.D. 432 The Annals of the Four Masters or the Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters are a chronicle of medieval Irish history. ... The Three Collas were three brothers, sons of Eochaid Doimhlen, son of the High King Cairbre Lifechair, who are credited with establishing the kingdom of Airgialla in north-eastern Ireland in the 4th century. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator withdraws from the world; his death occurs sometime in the next couple of years. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ...


Recent history

Until 1985 the site was threatened by the expansion of a nearby limestone quarry. A public inquiry held that year halted further quarrying, and recommended that the site be developed for tourism. A visitor centre, featuring archaeological artefacts and audio-visual exhibitions, was opened in 1993, but closed in 2001 for lack of funds.


References

    • Chris Lynn, Navan Fort: Archaeology and Myth, Wordwell Books, 2003
    • Ronald Hutton, Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles, 1991

    Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ...

    External links

    • BBC Timelines
    • Environment and Heritage Service page on Navan Fort, with photos
    • Navan Fort

      Results from FactBites:
     
    Emain Macha - Ireland travelogue (148 words)
    Cycle, Emain Macha was a prosperous residence for the king Conchobar mac Nessa and his valiant warriors of Craobh Ruadh, The Red Branch.
    Emain Macha means "the twins of Macha", and some tales connect the name with the pregnant woman Macha, who was forced to race against horses, and whose curse almost destroyed this ancient capital.
    Emain Macha was saved only by the deeds of the super hero Cú Chulainn.
    IrishGoddesses (588 words)
    In one form, she is Macha, wife of Crunnchu.
    Macha appears to Crunnchu and offers to be his wife; she interdicts the use of her name.
    The third, euhemerized, expression of Macha is Macha, the wife of Nemed.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

    COMMENTARY     


    Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
    Your name
    Your comments

    Want to know more?
    Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

     


    Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
    The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
    Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
    All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
    Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m