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Encyclopedia > Ellipsis

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Punctuation It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ellipsis. ... In the grammar of a sentence, an elliptical clause (a form of elliptical construction) is a clause in which some words have been omitted. ... Ellipsis is the narrative device of omitting a portion of the sequence of events, allowing the reader to fill in the narrative gaps. ... Elliptical redirects here. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ...

apostrophe ( ' )
brackets (( )), ([ ]), ({ }), (< >)
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipsis ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )

Interword separation

spaces ( ) ( ) ( )
interpunct ( · )
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A space is a punctuation convention for providing interword separation in some scripts, including the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic. ... An interpunct Â· is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ...

General typography

ampersand ( & )
at sign ( @ )
asterisk ( * )
backslash ( )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
currency ( ¤ ) ¢, \$, , £, ¥, ,
dagger/obelisk ( ) ( )
degree ( ° )
inverted exclamation point ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
not sign ( ¬ )
number sign ( # )
numero sign ( )
percent and related signs
( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
section sign ( § )
tilde/swung dash ( ~ )
umlaut/diaeresis ( ¨ )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/pipe/broken bar ( |, ¦ )

Uncommon typography

asterism ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark ( ؟ )
reference mark ( )
sarcasm mark
A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... In typography, an asterism is a rare symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle, used to call attention to a passage or to separate sub-chapters in a book. ... The symbol â˜ž is a rare punctuation mark, called an index or fist. ...   In a mathematical proof, the therefore sign is a symbol that is sometimes placed before a logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a syllogism. ... For other uses, see Interrobang (disambiguation). ... The irony mark or irony point (ØŸ) (French: point dâ€™ironie; also called a snark or zing) is a punctuation mark that purports to indicate that a sentence should be understood at a second level. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ... A sarcasm mark, also called a sarcasm point, helps the reader identify certain messages as being derogatory or ironic. ...

Ellipsis (plural ellipses; from Greek ἔλλειψις 'omission') in printing and writing refers to a mark or series of marks that usually indicate an intentional omission of a word or a phrase from the original text. An ellipsis can also be used to indicate a pause in speech, an unfinished thought or, at the end of a sentence, a trailing off into silence (aposiopesis). For other uses, see Print. ... Write redirects here. ... Aposiopesis (from Classical Greek, á¼€Ï€Î¿ÏƒÎ¹á½½Ï€Î·ÏƒÎ¹Ï‚, becoming silent) is the term for the rhetorical device by which the speaker or writer deliberately stops short and leaves something unexpressed, but yet obvious, to be supplied by the imagination, giving the impression that she is unwilling or unable to continue. ...

The most common form for an ellipsis consists of a row of three full stops (..., . . . or [...]). Forms encountered less often are three asterisks (***), or one (—) or more (––) dashes.

The triple-dot punctuation mark is also called a suspension point, points of ellipsis, periods of ellipsis, or colloquially, dot-dot-dot.

## In writing

The use of ellipses can either mislead or clarify, and the reader must rely on the good intentions of the writer who uses it. An example of this ambiguity is ‘She went to… school.’ In this sentence, ‘…’ might represent the word ‘elementary’, or the word ‘no’. Omission of part of a quoted sentence without indication by an ellipsis (or bracketed text) (e.g. ‘She went to school.’ as opposed to ‘She went to Broadmoor Elementary school.’) is considered misleading. An ellipsis at the end of the sentence which ends with a period (or such a period followed by an ellipsis), appears, therefore, as four dots.

An ellipsis may also imply an unstated alternative indicated by context. For example, when Count Dracula says "I don't drink … wine", the implication is that he does drink something else, which in the context would be blood. In such usage the ellipsis is stronger than a mere dash, where for example "I don't drink — wine" might only indicate that the Count, not a native English speaker, was pausing to get the correct word without other implication.

## Typographical rules

There are differences in typographical rules and conventions of using ellipses between languages.

### In English

The style and use varies in the English language. The Chicago Manual of Style suggests the use of an ellipsis for any omitted word, phrase, line, or paragraph from within a quoted passage. There are two commonly used methods of using ellipses: one uses three dots for any omission, while the second makes a distinction between omissions within a sentence (using three dots: ...) and omissions between sentences (using a period and a space followed by three dots: . . . ). An ellipsis at the end of a sentence with no sentence following should be followed by a period (for a total of four dots). The Modern Language Association (MLA) however, used to indicate that an ellipsis must include spaces before and after each dot in all uses. If an ellipsis is meant to represent an omission, square brackets must surround the ellipsis to make it clear that there was no pause in the original quote: [ . . . ]. Currently, the MLA has removed the requirement of brackets in their style handbooks. However, the use of brackets is still correct as it clears confusion.[1] The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated CMS or CMOS, and spoken as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published by the University of Chicago Press (hence its title), prescribing a writing style widely used in publishing. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... See parenthesis for an account of the rhetorical concept from which the name of the punctuation mark is derived. ...

According to Robert Bringhurst's Elements of Typographic Style, the details of typesetting ellipses depend on the character and size of the font being set and the typographer's preference. Bringhurst writes that a full space between each dot is "another Victorian eccentricity. In most contexts, the Chicago ellipsis is much too wide" — he recommends using flush dots, or thin-spaced dots (up to one-fifth of an em), or the prefabricated ellipsis character (Unicode U+2026, Latin entity &hellip;). Bringhurst suggests that normally an ellipsis should be spaced fore-and-aft to separate it from the text, but when it combines with other punctuation, the leading space disappears and the other punctuation follows. He provides the following examples: Robert Bringhurst authored three editions of a book titled The Elements of Typographic Style. ... An em is a unit of measurement in the field of typography, equal to the point size of the current font. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... In the markup languages SGML, HTML, XHTML and XML, a character entity reference is a reference to a particular kind of named entity that has been predefined or explicitly declared in a Document Type Definition (DTD). ...

 i ... j k.... l..., l l, ... l m...? n...!

In legal writing in the United States, Rule 5.3 in the Bluebook citation guide governs the use of ellipses and requires a space before the first dot and between the two subsequent dots. If an ellipsis ends the sentence, then there are three dots, each separated by a space, followed by the final punctuation. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...

### In Polish

Main article: Ellipsis (Polish)

In Polish, an ellipsis (called wielokropek, which means multidot) is always composed of three dots without any spaces between. There is no space between the ellipsis and the preceding word, but there is always a space after the ellipsis, unless the following character is a closing bracket or quote mark, in which case the space is inserted after that character instead. In Polish, an ellipsis (called , which means multidot) is always composed of three dots without any spaces between. ...

When the ellipsis is used for omitting a fragment of quotation, it is always surrounded with either square brackets or, more commonly, parentheses, with no space inside. An ellipsis without parentheses usually means a pause in speech. It can also mean a word said partially and interrupted and in that case can be directly followed by another punctuation mark without space: Ellipsis can be used at the end of a sentence, but it is always composed of three dots, never four, and the only difference is the capitalisation of the next word:

### In Japanese

In writing, the ellipsis consists usually of three dots (one ellipsis character) or six dots (two ellipsis characters), or ……; however, variations in the number of dots exist. In horizontally written text the dots are commonly vertically centred within the text height (between the baseline and the ascent line), as in the standard Japanese Windows fonts; in vertically written text the dots are always centred horizontally. As the Japanese word for dot is pronounced 'ten', the dots are colloquially referred to by the moniker 'ten-ten-ten' (てんてんてん) (akin to the English 'dot dot dot'). More officially, they are called n-dot leaders (n-ten rīda, n-ten rīdā), where n corresponds to the number of dots. In typography and penmanship, the baseline is the line upon which most letters sit and under which descenders extend. ... Windows redirects here. ...

In Japanese manga, the ellipsis by itself represents speechlessness, or a "pregnant pause." Given the context, this could be anything from an admission of guilt or an expression of being dumbfounded as a result of something that another person has just said or done. As a device, the ten-ten-ten is intended to focus the reader on a character while allowing the character to not speak any dialogue. This conveys to the reader a focus of the narrative "camera" on the silent subject, implying an expectation of some motion or action. It is not unheard of to see inanimate objects "speaking" the ellipsis.[2] This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... A pregnant pause is a technique of comic timing used to accentuate a comedy element. ...

### In Chinese

In Chinese, the ellipsis is six dots (in two groups of three dots, occupying the same horizontal space as two characters). The dots are always centred within the baseline and the ascender when horizontal, but on the baseline are also accepted today; and centred horizontally when vertical.

## In mathematical notation

An ellipsis is also often used in mathematics to mean “and so forth”. In a list, between commas, or following a comma, a normal ellipsis is used, as in: For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...

$1,2,3,ldots,100,.$

To indicate the omission of values in a repeated operation, an ellipsis raised to the center of the line is used between two operation symbols or following the last operation symbol, as in:

$1+2+3+cdots+100,.$

The latter formula means the sum of all natural numbers from 1 to 100. However, it is not a formally defined mathematical symbol. These dots should never be used unless the pattern to be followed is clear. In mathematics, a natural number can mean either an element of the set {1, 2, 3, ...} (i. ... In mathematics, a set of symbols is frequently used in mathematical expressions. ...

Sometimes, it is appropriate to display the formula being used. The preceding example would become:

$1+2+3+cdots+n+cdots+100,.$

Another example is the set of zeros of the cosine function. In mathematics, a root (or a zero) of a function f is an element x in the domain of f such that f(x) = 0. ... In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions of an angle, important when studying triangles and modeling periodic phenomena. ... This article is about functions in mathematics. ...

$left{pmfrac{pi}{2}, pmfrac{3pi}{2}, pmfrac{5pi}{2}, ldots right},.$

The diagonal and vertical forms of the ellipsis are particularly useful for showing missing terms in matrices, such as the size-n identity matrix In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular table of elements (or entries), which may be numbers or, more generally, any abstract quantities that can be added and multiplied. ... In linear algebra, the identity matrix of size n is the n-by-n square matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros elsewhere. ...

$I_n = begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 & cdots & 0 0 & 1 & cdots & 0 vdots & vdots & ddots & vdots 0 & 0 & cdots & 1 end{bmatrix}.$

## In programming

In some programming languages (including Perl, Ruby, and Pascal), a shortened two-dot ellipsis is used to represent a range of values given two endpoints; for example, to iterate through a list of integers between 1 and 100 inclusive in Perl: A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... For other uses, see Perl (disambiguation). ... Ruby is a reflective, dynamic, object-oriented programming language. ... Pascal is a structured imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ... Not to be confused with Natural number. ...

`foreach (1..100)`

Perl overloads the ".." operator in scalar context as a stateful bistable Boolean test, roughly equivalent to "true while x but not yet y".[1] In Perl6, the 3-character ellipsis is also known as the "yadda yadda yadda" operator and, similarly to its linguistic meaning, serves as a "stand-in" for code to be inserted later. In addition, an actual Unicode ellipsis character is used to serve as a type of marker in a perl6 format string.[2] In computer programming, operator overloading (less commonly known as operator ad-hoc polymorphism) is a specific case of polymorphism in which some or all of operators like +, = or == have different implementations depending on the types of their arguments. ... Something that is bistable can be resting in two states. ... In computer science, the Boolean datatype, sometimes called the logical datatype, is a primitive datatype having one of two values: non-zero (often 1, or -1) and zero (which are equivalent to true and false, respectively). ... Perl 6 is the next version of the Perl programming language, currently under development. ... Perl 6 is a planned major revision to the Perl programming language. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

In the C programming language, an ellipsis is used to represent a variable number of parameters to a function. For example: C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... In computer programming, a variadic function is a function of variable arity; that is, one which can take different numbers of arguments. ... In computer science, a subroutine (function, procedure, or subprogram) is a sequence of code which performs a specific task, as part of a larger program, and is grouped as one, or more, statement blocks; such code is sometimes collected into software libraries. ...

`void func(const char* str, ...)`

The above function in C could then be called with different types and numbers of parameters such as:

`func("input string", 5, 10, 15);`

and

`func("input string", "another string", 0.5);`

As of version 1.5, Java has adopted this "varargs" functionality. For example: Java language redirects here. ...

`public int func(int num, String... strings)`

Most programming languages other than Perl6 require the ellipsis to be written as a series of periods; a single (Unicode) ellipsis character cannot be used. Perl 6 is the next version of the Perl programming language, currently under development. ...

## In computing

In computing, several ellipsis characters have been codified. In Unicode, there are the following characters: For the formal concept of computation, see computation. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

• For general use:
• Horizontal ellipsis, …, at code point 2026 (HTML entity &hellip;)
• Thai ellipsis, ฯ, at code point 0E2F
• Laotian ellipsis, ຯ, at code point 0EAF
• Mongolian ellipsis, , at code point 1801
• For use in mathematics:
• Vertical ellipsis, , at code point 22EE
• Midline horizontal ellipsis, , at code point 22EF
• Up right diagonal ellipsis, , at code point 22F0
• Down right diagonal ellipsis, , at code point 22F1

These code points, given here in hexadecimal, typically manifest in encoded form, either via a Unicode Transformation Format like UTF-8, or via an older character map ("legacy encoding"). HTML has been in use since 1991 (note that the W3C international standard is now XHTML), but the first standardized version with a reasonably complete treatment of international characters was version 4. ... Lao (àºžàº²àºªàº²àº¥àº²àº§ phaasaa laao) also Laotian, is the official language of Laos. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0â€“9 and Aâ€“F, or aâ€“f. ... A character encoding consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given character set (sometimes referred to as code page) with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the storage of text in computers and the... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ... In computing, a legacy encoding is a character encoding that cant represent all of Unicode, but is still used for compatibility or other reasons. ...

In Chinese and sometimes in Japanese, ellipsis characters are done by entering two consecutive horizontal ellipsis (U+2026). In vertical texts, the application should rotate the symbol accordingly.

Unicode recognizes a series of three period characters (period being code point 002E, hexadecimal) as being a valid equivalent to the horizontal ellipsis character.

The horizontal ellipsis character may be represented in HTML by the entity reference `&hellip;` (since HTML 4.0). Alternatively, in HTML, XML, and SGML, a numeric character reference such as `&#x2026;` or `&#8230;` can be used. HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. ... A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represent a single character from the Universal Character Set (UCS) of Unicode. ...

The horizontal ellipsis character also appears in the following older character maps:

• in IBM/MS-DOS Code page 874, as byte 85 (hexadecimal)
• in Windows-1250 through Windows-1258, as byte 85 (hexadecimal)
• in Mac-Roman and Mac-CentEuro as byte C9 (hexadecimal)
• in Ventura International encoding as byte C1 (hexadecimal)

As with all characters, especially those outside of the ASCII range, the author, sender and receiver of an encoded ellipsis must be in agreement upon what bytes are being used to represent the character. Naive text processing software may improperly assume that a particular encoding is being used, resulting in mistranslation. For other users of the word/name byte, see byte (disambiguation). ... Windows-1250 is a code page used under Microsoft Windows to represent texts in Eastern European languages that use Latin script, such as Polish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Slovene, Croatian, Romanian and Albanian. ... Windows-1258 is a codepage used in Microsoft Windows to represent Vietnamese texts. ... The Mac OS Roman character set Mac-Roman encoding is a one byte character encoding system, traditionally used by Mac OS. In Mac OS X, it has been replaced with Unicode. ... Macintosh Central European encoding is used in Apple Macintosh computers to represent texts in Central European and Southeastern European languages that use Latin script. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...

The following is an excerpt from the Chicago Style Q&A [3]:

Q. How do I insert an ellipsis in my manuscript? My computer keyboard can do that with a couple of keystrokes. Is this acceptable? Or should I type period + space for all three dots? Should these spaces be nonbreaking spaces?

A. For manuscripts, inserting an ellipsis character is a workable method, but it is not the preferred method. It is easy enough for a publisher to search for this unique character and replace it with the recommended three periods plus two nonbreaking spaces (. . .). But in addition to this extra step, there is also the potential for character-mapping problems (the ellipsis could appear as some other character) across software platforms—an added inconvenience. Moreover, the numeric entity for an ellipsis is not formally defined for standard HTML (and may not work with older browsers). So type three spaced dots, like this . . . or, at the end of a grammatical sentence, like this. . . . If you can, add two nonbreaking spaces to keep the three dots—or the last three of four—from breaking across a line.

In a user interface, ... after a command means that the user needs to enter extra information before the command can execute. It is also used to signify that an operation may take some time, as in "Please wait...". In a GUI environment, clicking on a menu item with ... after the name means another dialog box will open which requires more actions from the user. A typical example is the Run... in the Microsoft Windows Start menu and the List of Values field in Oracle ERP applications. The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... Example of dialog box from Microsoft Windows Dialog boxes are special windows which are used by computer programs or by the operating system to display information to the user, or to get a response if needed. ... Windows redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ: ORCL) is one of the major companies developing database management systems (DBMS), tools for database development, middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software (ERP), customer relationship management software (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM) software. ... Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERPs) integrate (or attempt to integrate) all data and processes of an organization into a unified system. ...

In Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), the ellipsis is used as extension marker to indicate the possibility of type extensions in the future revisions of a protocol specification. In a type constraint expression like A ::= INTEGER (0..127, ..., 256..511) ellipsis is used to separate extension root from extension additions. Definition of type A in version 1 system of the form A ::= INTEGER (0..127, ...) and definition of type A in version 2 system of the form A ::= INTEGER (0..127, ..., 256..511) constitute extension series of the same type A in different versions of the same specification. The ellipsis can also be used in compound type definitions to separate the set of fields belonging to the extension root from the set of fields constituting extension additions. Here is an example: B ::= SEQUENCE { a INTEGER, b INTEGER, ..., c INTEGER } In telecommunications and computer networking, Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) is a standard and flexible notation that describes data structures for representing, encoding, transmitting, and decoding data. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

## Types in typography

In typography there are various types of ellipsis, which are displayed below using TEX. A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ...

 lower ellipsis $ldots,!$ ldots centred ellipsis $cdots,!$ cdots diagonal ellipsis $ddots,!$ ddots vertical ellipsis $vdots,!$ vdots

The therefore sign () and because sign () have the three dots in a triangle.   In a mathematical proof, the therefore sign is a symbol that is sometimes placed before a logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a syllogism. ...

## References

1. ^ Fowler, H. Ramsey, Jane E. Aaron, Murray McArthur. The Little, Brown Handbook. Fourth Canadian Edition. Toronto: Pearson Longman. 2005. p. 440.
2. ^ Nausicaa of the Valley of Wind, Miyazaki Hayao

Longman is a firm of English publishers. ...

Bringhurst lives in Vancouver. ... Robert Bringhurst authored three editions of a book entitled The Elements of Typographic Style. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Ellipsis: Lease Management Solutions (201 words) Ellipsis is a lease management application that standardizes and streamlines the lease abstracting process and automates the administration and management of time sensitive lease data. Ellipsis is a user-friendly application that maximizes the flow of critical lease information throughout the property life cycle. Ellipsis eliminates redundancy and enhances uniformity of lease abstracting and standardizes the administration and management of critical dates by allowing financial and non-financial lease data to flow through a company without any barriers.
 Ellipsis (336 words) In printing and writing, an ellipsis (plural: ellipses) is a row of three dots (...) or asterisks (* * *) indicating an intentional omission. Ellipsis can also used to indicate a pause in speech, or be used at the end of a sentence to indicate a trailing off into silence. An ellipsis is also a rhetorical figure of speech, the omission of a word or words required by strict grammatical rules but not by sense.
More results at FactBites »

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