FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Elliot Richardson
Elliot Lee Richardson
Elliot Richardson

Under President Richard Nixon
Preceded by Robert H. Finch
Succeeded by Caspar Weinberger

In office
January 30, 1973 – May 24, 1973
Under President Richard Nixon
Preceded by Melvin R. Laird
Succeeded by James R. Schlesinger

In office
May 25, 1973 – October 20, 1973
Under President Richard Nixon
Preceded by Richard Kleindienst
Succeeded by William B. Saxbe

In office
February 2, 1976 – May 24, 1973
Under President Gerald Ford
Preceded by Rogers Morton
Succeeded by Juanita M. Kreps

Born July 20, 1920
Boston, Massachusetts
Died December 31, 1999
Boston, Massachusetts

Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. He was a prominent figure in the Watergate Scandal, having refused an order from Nixon to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox. Download high resolution version (558x684, 208 KB)Elliot Lee Richardson, U.S. Secretary of Commerce This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Robert Hutchison Finch (October 9, 1925 - October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from Southern California. ... Caspar Weinberger in his official Department of Defence publicity photo circa 1983. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Melvin Laird Melvin Robert (Bam) Laird was born September 1, 1922 and nicknamed Bambino (shortened to Bam and pronounced like the word bomb) by his mother. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born February 15, 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see ) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Richard Gordon Kleindienst (August 5, 1923–February 3, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician. ... William Bart Saxbe (born June 24, 1916) was an American politician of the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator from Ohio and as U.S. Attorney General under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1914 births | 1979 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior ... Juanita M. Kreps Juanita Morris Kreps (b. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... The term Watergate scandal refers to a series of events during 1972 and 1974, that gained its name from burglaries of the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C.. Though then-President Richard Nixon had endured two years of mounting political embarrassments, the... Archibald Cox, Jr. ...


As of 2006, Richardson is the only individual to serve in four Cabinet-level positions within the United States government: Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare from 1970 to 1973, Secretary of Defense from January to May of 1973, Attorney General from May 24 to October 1973, and Secretary of Commerce from 1976 to 1977. Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see ) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ...

Contents

Early life and military service

Richardson was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He obtained his undergraduate degree from Harvard University, where he resided in Winthrop House, and graduated cum laude in 1941. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Winthrop House Crest John Winthrop House is the one of the twelve undergraduate residences at Harvard College and home to slightly under 400 students. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ...


In 1942, following the outbreak of World War II, Richardson entered the combat medical corps in the U.S. 4th Infantry Division. He participated in the June 6, 1944 Normandy Invasion and received numerous decorations, including the Purple Heart medal. He was discharged in 1945 with the rank of first lieutenant, and, in 1947, he graduated with a law degree from Harvard Law School. He also became editor and president of the Harvard Law Review. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... It has been suggested that U.S. 1st Brigade 4th Infantry Division be merged into this article or section. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... A Purple Heart medal For the plant genus, see Purpleheart. ... Harvard Law School (HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University. ... The Harvard Law Review is a journal of legal scholarship published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School. ...


After his graduation from Law School, Richardson clerked for Appeals Court Judge Learned Hand, and then for Justice Felix Frankfurter of the U.S. Supreme Court. Richardson then served as U.S. Attorney for Massachusetts from 1959 to 1961, and was later elected the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts and Attorney General of Massachusetts. Judge Learned Hand, from the cover of Learned Hand: The Man and the Judge, by Gerald Gunther Billings Learned Hand (January 27, 1872 – August 18, 1961) — usually called simply Learned Hand — was a famed American judge and an avid supporter of free speech, though he is most remembered for applying... Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882 – February 22, 1965) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ... John Hancock, first Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the United States Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... The Massachusetts Attorney General is an executive officer of the Massachusetts Government. ...


Cabinet career

Richardson came into office as United States Secretary of Defense on January 30, 1973. When President Nixon selected Richardson as Secretary, the press described him as an excellent manager and administrator, perhaps the best in the cabinet. In his confirmation hearing, Richardson expressed agreement with Nixon's policies on such issues as the adequacy of U.S. strategic forces, NATO and relationships with other allies, and Vietnam. The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


Although he promised to examine the budget carefully to identify areas for savings, and in fact later ordered the closing of some military installations, he cautioned against precipitate cuts. As he told a Senate committee, "Significant cuts in the Defense Budget now would seriously weaken the U.S. position on international negotiations—in which U.S. military capabilities, in both real and symbolic terms, are an important factor." Similarly, he strongly supported continued military assistance at current levels. During his short tenure, Richardson spent much time testifying before congressional committees on the proposed FY 1974 budget and other Defense matters. [1]


In October, 1973, Nixon ordered Richardson to fire the Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox; Richardson refused this order and resigned. At that point, William Ruckelshaus, the Deputy Attorney General was asked to carry out the order, and he refused and resigned as well. The third in command, Solicitor General Robert Bork, carried out this order. The events are generally referred to as the Saturday Night Massacre. Archibald Cox, Jr. ... William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an attorney and civil servant in the United States. ... The United States Solicitor General is the individual appointed to argue for the Government of the United States in front of the Supreme Court of the United States, when the government is party to a case. ... Robert Bork Robert Heron Bork (born March 1, 1927 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a conservative American legal scholar who advocates the judicial philosophy of originalism. ... The Saturday night massacre (October 20, 1973) was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixons executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the forced resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the controversial and drawn-out...


Just prior to the resignation of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, Richardson was portrayed as a cartoon figure with Agnew and Nixon on the cover of TIME magazine dated October 8, 1973. Agnew was quoted as saying: "I am innocent of the charges against me. I will not resign if indicted!" Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the 39th Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the 55th governor of the state of Maryland. ... A cartoon is any of several forms of illustrations, with varied meanings that evolved from one to another. ... A pocket watch, a device used to measure time Two distinct views exist on the meaning of time. ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (282nd in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


During the Administration of President Gerald Ford, Richardson served as Secretary of Commerce from 1976 to 1977, and as ambassador to the United Kingdom. Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ...


Later life and death

In 1980 Richardson received a L.H.D. from Bates College. In 1984, he ran for the Republican nomination for the U.S. Senate seat being vacated by Paul Tsongas. He was defeated in the GOP primary by Ray Shamie, who lost the general election to John F. Kerry. For other uses, see Bates (disambiguation), Bates (surname) Bates College is a private liberal arts college, founded in 1855 by abolitionists, located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. ... Paul Efthemios Tsongas Paul Efthemios Tsongas (February 14, 1941 – January 18, 1997) was a United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the United States Democratic Party. ... Raymond Shamie (1921-1999) was an American politician from the state of Massachusetts. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ...


In the 1980s and early 1990s, Richardson was the attorney for Inslaw, Inc., an American software company which alleged that their software had been pirated by the U.S. Justice Department. Inslaw, Inc. ...


In 1994 Richardson backed President Clinton during his struggle against Paula Jones' charge of sexual harassment. In 1998, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor. The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States, considered the equivalent of the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor. ...


On December 31, 1999, Richardson died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Boston, Massachusetts at the age of 79. Some media outlets, such as CNN, recognized him as the "Watergate martyr" for refusing an order from President Nixon to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox. [2] A cerebral hemorrhage or hemorrhagic stroke is a form of stroke that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or bleeds. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/secdef_histories/bios/richardson.htm - Secretary of Defense biography
  2. ^ http://www.cnn.com/interactive/specials/9912/yearinreview.passages/content/politics/richardson.html - CNN obituary

References

Preceded by
Francis X. Bellotti
Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
1965 – 1967
Succeeded by
Francis W. Sargent
Preceded by
Edward W. Brooke
Attorney General of Massachusetts
1967 – 1969
Succeeded by
Robert H. Quinn
Preceded by
Robert H. Finch
United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
1970 – 1973
Succeeded by
Caspar Weinberger
Preceded by
Melvin Laird
United States Secretary of Defense
January 30, 1973May 24, 1973
Succeeded by
James R. Schlesinger
Preceded by
Richard G. Kleindienst
Attorney General of the United States
May 24, 1973–October 1973
Succeeded by
William B. Saxbe
Preceded by
Walter H. Annenberg
United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom
1975 – 1976
Succeeded by
Anne L. Armstrong
Preceded by
Rogers Morton
United States Secretary of Commerce
1976 – 1977
Succeeded by
Juanita M. Kreps
United States Secretaries of Commerce Seal of the United States Department of Commerce
Secretaries of Commerce & Labor (19031913): Cortelyou | Metcalf | Straus | Nagel

Secretaries of Commerce (1913—): Redfield | Alexander | Hoover | Whiting | Lamont | Chapin | Roper | Hopkins | Jones | Wallace | Harriman | Sawyer | Weeks | Strauss | Mueller | Hodges | Connor | Trowbridge | Smith | Stans | Peterson | Dent | Morton | Richardson | Kreps | Klutznick | Baldrige | Verity | Mosbacher | Franklin | Brown | Kantor | Daley | Mineta | Evans | Gutierrez

  Results from FactBites:
 
Elliot Richardson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (625 words)
Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of President Richard Nixon, but he managed to avoid being tainted by the Watergate Scandal.
Under Nixon, Richardson served as Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare from 1970 to 1973, Secretary of Defense from January to May of 1973, and (after the resignation of John Mitchell) Attorney General from May 24 to October 1973.
Richardson is the only individual to date to serve as head of four Cabinet Departments in the US Government — Health, Education and Welfare; Defense; Justice; and Commerce.
MSN Encarta - Elliot Richardson (435 words)
Elliot Lee Richardson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, and earned a bachelor's degree from Harvard University in 1941.
Richardson served as secretary of defense in early 1973 and was then named attorney general of the United States.
Richardson appointed Archibald Cox as special prosecutor to investigate the Watergate affair, and on October 20, 1973, Richardson became a casualty of the Saturday Night Massacre.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m