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Encyclopedia > Ellesmere Island
Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada.██ Nunavut██ Northwest Territories██ Greenland

Ellesmere Island (French: Île d'Ellesmere) lying in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the most northerly of the Canadian Arctic islands. It comprises an area of 196,235 km² (75,767 square miles), making it the world's tenth largest island and Canada's third largest island. Image File history File links Map_indicating_Ellesmere_Island,_Nunavut,_Canada. ... Image File history File links Map_indicating_Ellesmere_Island,_Nunavut,_Canada. ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Flower Purple Saxifrage Tree Bird Rock Ptarmigan Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson Premier Paul Okalik (Independent) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) 1 (Willie... Reference map of Canadian arctic islands. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of islands in the world ordered by area. ... This is a list of Canadian islands, as ordered by area. ...

Contents

History of Ellesmere Island

The first inhabitants of Ellesmere Island were small bands of Inuit drawn to the area for Peary Caribou, muskox, and marine mammal hunting about 1000-2000 BC. [1] For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus pearyi The Peary Caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) is a caribou subspecies found in the high Arctic islands of Canadas Nunavut and Northwest territories. ... Binomial name Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780) The Musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) is a bovine noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor of the male. ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A marine mammal is a mammal that is primarily ocean-dwelling or depends on the ocean for its food. ...


As was the case for the Dorset (or Palaeoeskimo) hunters and the pioneering Neoeskimos, the Post-Ruin Island and Late Thule culture Inuit used the Bache Peninsula region extensively both summer and winter until environmental, ecological and possibly social circumstances caused the area to be abandoned. It was the last region in the Canadian High Arctic to be depopulated during the "Little Ice Age," attesting to its general economic importance as part of the Smith Sound culture sphere of which it was occasionally a part and sometimes the principal settlement component. [2] The Dorset culture preceded the Eskimo culture in Arctic North America. ... The Thule were the ancestors of all modern Canadian Inuit. ... Bache Peninsula The Bache Peninsula is a geological formation in Canada, on Ellesmere Island in the Nunavut Territory. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ...


Vikings, likely from the Greenland colonies, reached Ellesmere Island, Skraeling Island and Ruin Island during hunting expeditions and trading with the Inuit groups. [3] Unusual structures on Bache peninsula may be the remains of a late-period Dorset stone longhouse. [4] The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Skraeling Island (Latitude: 78° 52 60 N, Longitude: 75° 55 0 W) off the east coast of Ellesmere Island lying in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. ...


The first European to sight the island after the "Little Ice Age" was William Baffin, in 1616. Ellesmere Island was named in 1852 by Edward Inglefield's expedition after Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere. [5] The American expedition led by Adolphus Greely in 1881 crossed the island from east to west. [6] The Greely expedition found fossil forests on Ellesmere Island in the late 1880s. Stenkul Fiord was first explored in 1902 by Per Schei, a member of Otto Sverdrup's 2nd Norwegian Polar Expedition. William Baffin (1584 – January 23, 1622) was an English navigator and discoverer. ... == {| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1613 1614 1615 - 1616 - 1617 1618 1619 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1580s 1590s 1600s - 1610s - 1620s 1630s 1640s |- tall> 16th century - 17th century - 18th century |} randomised 1616 was a leap year starting on Friday... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Edward Augustus Inglefield (March 27, 1820 – September 4, 1894) was a Royal Naval officer who led one of the searches for the missing Arctic explorer John Franklin during the 1850s. ... Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere (January 1, 1800 - February 18, 1857), born in London, was the second son of the 1st duke of Sutherland. ... Adolphus Washington Greely (1844 - 1935) was an American Polar explorer. ...


Geography

A satellite image of the northern segment of Ellesmere Island, Nunavut. Greenland is to the east.
A satellite image of the northern segment of Ellesmere Island, Nunavut. Greenland is to the east.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1300x1000, 352 KB)Ellesmere Island, Northern Canada July 12, 2002, 21:35 UTC larger version here Image Courtesy: NASA/MODIS Rapid Response System File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1300x1000, 352 KB)Ellesmere Island, Northern Canada July 12, 2002, 21:35 UTC larger version here Image Courtesy: NASA/MODIS Rapid Response System File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Flower Purple Saxifrage Tree Bird Rock Ptarmigan Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson Premier Paul Okalik (Independent) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) 1 (Willie...

Protected areas

More than one-fifth of the island is protected as Quttinirpaaq National Park (formerly Ellesmere Island National Park), which includes seven fjords and a variety of glaciers, as well as Lake Hazen, the world's largest lake north of the Arctic Circle. Barbeau Peak, the highest mountain in Nunavut (2,616 m, 8,593 ft) is located in the British Empire Range on Ellesmere Island. The most northern mountain range in the world, the United States Range is located in the northeast region of the island. The northern lobe of the island is called Grant Land. Satellite picture of a glacier in Ellesmere National Park. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes, which results from marine inundation of a glaciated valley. ... A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity and undergoes internal deformation. ... Lake Hazen is called the northernmost lake of Canada, in the northern part of Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, but detailed maps show several smaller unnamed lakes up to more than 100 km further north on Canadas northernmost island. ... A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... Barbeau Peak, on Ellesmere Island, is the highest mountain in Nunavut. ... The British Empire Range (82° 0′ N 74° 40′ W) is a mountain range on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada. ... The Himalaya as seen from the International Space Station A mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands or separated from other mountain ranges by passes or rivers. ... The United States Range (82° 13′ N 66° 1′ W) is the most northern mountain range in the world. ...


Glaciers and ice caps

Large portions of Ellesmere Island are covered with glaciers and ice, with Manson Icefield and Sydkap in the south; Prince of Wales Icefield and Agassiz Ice Cap along the central-east side of the island, along with substantial ice cover in Northern Ellesmere Island. Along the northwest coast of Ellesmere Island are some ice shelves, including the Ward Hunt ice shelf which experienced major breakup during summer 2002. [7] Ross Ice Shelf An ice shelf is a thick, floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface. ...


Paleontology

Schei and later Nathorst [8] described the Paleocene-Eocene (ca. 55 Ma) fossil forest in the Stenkul Fiord sediments. The Stenkul Fiord site represents a series of deltaic swamp and floodplain forests [9]. The trees stood for at least 400 years. Individual stumps and stems of >1 m (>3 ft) diameter were abundant. Abundance of Metasequoia and possibly Glyptostrobus trees. [1] Alfred Gabriel Nathorst (1850 - 1921) was a Swedish Arctic explorer and geologist. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65 Ma to 56 Ma (million years ago). ... The Eocene epoch (55. ... An ammonite fossil Eocene fossil fish of the genus Knightia Petrified wood fossil formed through permineralization. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Gravel floodplain of a glacial river near the Snow Mountains in Alaska, 1902. ... Binomial name Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu & Cheng Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn Redwood) is a fast growing tree in the conifer family Cupressaceae native to the Sichuan-Hubei region of China. ... Binomial name Glyptostrobus pensilis (Staunton) K.Koch Glyptostrobus pensilis, also known as Chinese Swamp Cypress, is the sole living species in the genus Glyptostrobus. ...


In 2006, University of Chicago paleontologist Neil H. Shubin reported the discovery of the fossil of a Paleozoic (ca. 375 Ma) fish, named Tiktaalik roseae, in the former stream beds of Ellesmere Island. The fossil exhibits many characteristics of fish, but also indicates a transitional creature that may be a predecessor of amphibians, reptiles and dinosaurs. [10] The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Paleontology or palaeontology (see Spelling differences) is the study of the history and development of life on Earth, including that of ancient plants and animals, based on the fossil record (evidence of their prehistoric existence as typically preserved in sedimentary rocks). ... The Paleozoic Era is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... Binomial name Tiktaalik roseae Daeschler, Shubin & Jenkins, 2006 Tiktaalik (IPA pronunciation: ) is a genus of extinct sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes from the late Devonian period, with many features akin to those of tetrapods (four-legged animals). ... The bed of this stream is made up of rocks, some very rounded (having had a longer life in the stream) and some not. ... A transitional fossil or transitional form is the fossilized remains of a life form that illustrates an evolutionary transition. ... Subclasses and Orders Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia   Anura   Caudata   Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all tetrapods and four-legged vertebrates that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectotherms, and generally spend part of their time... Orders Procolophonia (extinct) Testudines Araeoscelidia (extinct) Avicephala (extinct) Younginiformes (extinct) Sauropterygia Ichthyosauria (extinct) Placodontia (extinct) Nothosauria (extinct) Plesiosauria (extinct) Sphenodontia Squamata Prolacertiformes (extinct) Archosauria Crurotarsi Order Aetosauria (extinct) Order Phytosauria(extinct) Order Rauisuchia (extinct) Order Crocodilia Ornithodira Pterosauria (extinct) Marasuchus (extinct) Dinosauria Order Saurischia Order Ornithischia(extinct) Reptiles are tetrapods... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ...


Population

In 2001, the population of Ellesmere Island was recorded as 168. There are three settlements on Ellesmere Island including Alert, Eureka, and Grise Fiord. Politically, it is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region. This article is about the year 2001. ... It has been suggested that CFS Alert be merged into this article or section. ... Eureka is a small research base on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. ... Map showing the location of Grise Fiord The Inuit settlement of Grise Fiord, in the territory of Nunavut, is the northernmost civilian settlement in Canada(or political North America). ... Baffin Region of Nunavut Baffin Region (Inuktitut: Qikiqtaaluk ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ) is a region of Nunavut. ...


Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert is the northernmost settlement in the world. With the end of the Cold War and the advent of new technologies allowing for remote interpretation of data, the overwintering population has been reduced to 50. Canadian Forces Station Alert, also CFS Alert, is a Canadian Armed Forces signals intelligence intercept facility located in Alert, Nunavut on the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island. ... Some of the northernmost settlements in the world are: Alert, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada 82°28 N — Pop. ... The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. ...


Eureka, which is the second northernmost settlement in the world, consists of three areas, the "airport" which includes "Fort Eureka" (the quarters for military personnel maintaining the island's communications equipment), the Environment Canada Weather Station and the Polar Environmental Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), formally the Arctic Stratospheric Ozone (AStrO) Observatory. Eureka is a small research base on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. ... Environment Canada is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and conservation of wildlife. ...


References

Satellite image montage showing Ellesmere Island and its neighbours
Satellite image montage showing Ellesmere Island and its neighbours
  1. ^ Civilization.ca. Arctic History.
  2. ^ Late Thule culture developments on the central east coast of Ellesmere Island. Schledermann, P. McCullough, K.M. Copenhagen, Denmark : Danish Polar Center, 2003.
  3. ^ Inuit-Norse contact in the Smith Sound region / Schledermann, P. McCullough, K.M.
  4. ^ Peter Schlederman, " Eskimo and Viking Finds in the High Arctic ", National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 159, No. 5, May 1981:584
  5. ^ "Ellesmere Island" from "The Canadian Encyclopedia Online". URL accessed April 7, 2006.
  6. ^ Dick, Lyle (2001). Muskox Land: Ellesmere Island in the age of contact. University of Calgary Press.
  7. ^ NASA Earth Observatory. Breakup of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf.
  8. ^ Nathorst, A. G. 1915. Tertiare Pflanzenreste Aus Ellesmere-Land. Report of the Second Norwegian Arctic Expedition in the Fram, 1898-1902. The Society of Arts and Sciences of Kristiania. No. 35.
  9. ^ Kalkreuth, W.D., C.L. Riediger, D.J. McIntyre, R.J.H. Richardson, M.G. Fowler & D. Marchioni. 1996. Petrological, palynological and geochemical characteristics of Eureka Sound Group coals (Stenkul Fiord, southern Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada). Int. J. Coal Sci. 30: 151-182.
  10. ^ Wilford, John Noble. "Fossil Called Missing Link From Sea to Land Animals", The New York Times, 2006, April 6.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x948, 192 KB) Ellesmere Island in the Canadian arctic. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x948, 192 KB) Ellesmere Island in the Canadian arctic. ...

External links

Coordinates: 79.874297° N -79.321289° E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

  • Maps and aerial photos

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ellesmere Island - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (918 words)
Ellesmere Island (French: Île d'Ellesmere) lying in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the most northerly of the Canadian Arctic islands.
Large portions of Ellesmere Island are covered with glaciers and ice, with Manson Icefield and Sydkap in the south; Prince of Wales Icefield and Agassiz Ice Cap along the central-east side of the island, along with substantial ice cover in Northern Ellesmere Island.
In 2001, the population of Ellesmere Island was recorded as 168.
Ellesmere Island (564 words)
The entire island is deeply incised by fjords, and the northern coast is extended by ice shelves - aprons of SEA ICE which are fused to the shore.
Ellesmere is distinguished by a spectacular landscape and an exceptional and fragile environment.
John ROSS discovered parts of the coastline in 1818; the island was named for the earl of Ellesmere during the Inglefield expedition of 1852.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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