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Cervus canadensis

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Suborder: Ruminantia
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Cervinae
Genus: Cervus
Species: C. canadensis
Binomial name
Cervus canadensis
(Erxleben, 1777)[1]
Range of Cervus canadensis
Range of Cervus canadensis

The elk, or wapiti (Cervus canadensis), is the second largest species of deer in the world, and one of the largest mammals in North America and eastern Asia. They are almost identical to red deer found in Europe, and were long believed to be subspecies of each other, though they have recently been determined to be distinct based on DNA evidence. In the deer family, only the moose, which is called an "elk" in Europe, is larger. Elk may refer to a number of species of large deer: In North America it refers to Cervus canadensis. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 650 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1995 × 1840 pixel, file size: 1. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Families  Tragulidae  Moschidae  Cervidae  Giraffidae  Antilocapridae  Bovidae The biological suborder Ruminantia includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing mammals: among them cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelope. ... Genera About 15 in 4 subfamilies. ... Subfamilies Odocoilinae Cervinae Hydropotinae Muntiacinae A deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... species See text. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Georg-August-University Goettingen from 1771-1775, first and oldest academic Veterinary School in Germany Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben (June 22, 1744 - August 19, 1777) was a German naturalist. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 93 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the species of deer. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ...


Elk range in forest and forest-edge habitat, feeding on grasses, plants, leaves and bark. Although native to North America and eastern Asia, they have adapted well to countries where they have been introduced, including New Zealand and Argentina. Their high level of adaptability poses a threat to endemic species and ecosystems where they have been introduced. Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ...


Male elk have large antlers which are shed each year. Males engage in ritualized mating behaviors during the rut, including posturing, antler wrestling and bugling, a loud series of screams which establishes dominance over other males and attracts females. The bugle call is one of the most distinctive calls in nature. For the Poet Laureate of Milwaukee, see Antler (Poet). ... The Rut is the period of time when antlered ungulates, such as deer, sheep, elk, moose, caribou, ibex, goats, pronghorn and Asian and African antelope, mate. ...


Elk are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases, some of which can be transmitted to livestock. Efforts to eliminate infectious diseases from elk populations, largely through vaccination, have had mixed success. This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


Some cultures revere the elk as a spiritual force. In parts of Asia, antlers and their velvet are used in traditional medicines. Elk are hunted as a game species; the meat is leaner and higher in protein than beef or chicken.[2] Moose antler Antlers are the large and complex horn-like appendages of deer, consisting of bony outgrowths from the head with no covering of keratin as is found in true horns. ... The term describes medical knowledge systems, which developed over centuries within various societies before the era of modern medicine; traditional medicines include medicines such as herbal medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, Acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine, South African Muti, Yoruba Ifá, as well as other medical knowledge and... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Naming and etymology

Early European explorers to North America, who were familiar with the smaller red deer of Europe, believed that the much larger North American animal looked more like a moose, hence they used the common European name for the moose, which is often called an elk. The name elk is from the German word for moose, which is elch.[3] The name wapiti is from the Native American word waapiti, meaning white rump and is of Shawnee Native American origin.[4] The elk is also referred to as the maral in Asia, though this is due to confusion with the East European red deer (Cervus elaphus maral), which is a subspecies of European red deer. There is a subspecies of elk in Mongolia called the Altai maral (Cervus canadensis sibiricus), which is also known by names such as Altai wapiti, Siberian wapiti, and/or Siberian elk. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Distribution of the Shawnee language around 1650 The Shawnee language is a Central Algonquian language spoken in parts of central and northeastern Oklahoma by only around 200 Shawnee, making it very endangered. ... Binomial name Cervus elaphus maral Linnaeus, 1758 The East European red deer (Latin name: Cervus elaphus maral) also known as the Caspian red deer and maral is a subspecies of red deer that is native to eastern Europe and parts of western Asia. ...


Taxonomy

Cervus genus ancestors of elk first appear in the fossil record 12 million years ago, during the Pliocene in Eurasia, but do not appear in the North American fossil record until the later Pleistocene ice ages when they crossed the Bering land bridge.[5] The extinct Irish Elk (Megaloceros) was not a member of the genus Cervus, but rather the largest member of the wider deer family (Cervidae) known from the fossil record.[6] species See text. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1799) Synonyms Megaceros giganteus Megaloceros giganteus giganteus The Irish Elk or Giant Deer, Megaloceros giganteus (see Lister 1987, Geist 1998) was the largest deer that ever lived. ... Genera About 15 in 4 subfamilies. ...


Until 2004, red deer and elk were considered to be one species, Cervus elaphus, based on fertile hybrids that have been produced in captivity. Recent DNA studies, conducted on hundreds of samples from red deer and elk subspecies as well as other species of the Cervus deer family, showed that elk or wapiti form a distinct species C. canadensis.[7] The previous classification had over a dozen subspecies under the C. elaphus species designation; DNA evidence concludes that elk are more closely related to Thorold's deer and even sika deer than they are to the red deer.[7] Though elk and red deer can produce fertile offspring in captivity, geographic isolation between the species in the wild and differences in mating behaviors indicate that reproduction between them outside a controlled environment would be unlikely.[8] Thorolds deer has the scientific name Cervus Albirostris Przewalski. ... Binomial name Cervus nippon Temminck, 1838 Subspecies The Sika Deer Cervus nippon is a typical member of the family Cervidae. ...


Subspecies

There are numerous subspecies of elk described: six from North America and four from Asia, although some taxonomists consider them different ecotypes or races of the same species (adapted to local environments through minor changes in appearance and behavior). Populations vary as to antler shape and size, body size, coloration and mating behavior. DNA investigations of the Eurasian subspecies revealed that phenotypic variation in antlers, mane and rump patch development are based on "climatic-related lifestyle factors".[9] This article is about the zoological term. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An ecotype of a species is subgroup of members of that species characterized by the ecological surroundings it inhabits. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...

Audubon's "Eastern Elk" which is now extinct
Audubon's "Eastern Elk" which is now extinct

Of the six subspecies of elk known to have inhabited North America in historical times, four remain, including the Roosevelt (C. canadensis roosevelti), Tule (C. canadensis nannodes), Manitoban (C. canadensis manitobensis) and Rocky Mountain (C. canadensis nelsoni).[10] The Eastern elk (C. canadensis canadensis) and Merriam's elk (C. canadensis merriami) subspecies have been extinct for at least a century.[11][12] Classification of the four surviving North American groups as subspecies is maintained, at least partly, for political purposes to permit individualized conservation and protective measures for each of the surviving populations.[13] Image File history File links Audobon-eastern-elk. ... Image File history File links Audobon-eastern-elk. ... John James Audubon John James Audubon[1] (April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was a Franco-American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter. ... Roosevelt Elk (cervus canadensis roosevelti) are also know as Olympic elk tend to live in the rain forests of the Pacific coast. ...


Four subspecies described in Asia include the Altai Wapiti (C. canadensis sibiricus) and the Tianshan Wapiti (C. canadensis songaricus) . Two distinctive subspecies found in China and Korea are the Manchurian (C. canadensis xanthopygus) and the Alashan wapitis (C. canadensis alashanicus).The Manchurian wapiti is darker and more reddish in coloration than the other populations. The Alashan wapiti of north central China is the smallest of all subspecies, has the lightest coloration and is the least studied.[8] Valerius Geist, who has written on the world's various deer species, holds that there are only three subspecies of elk. Geist maintains the Manchurian and Alashan wapiti but places all other elk into C. canadensis canadensis.[13] This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...



Recent DNA studies suggest, that there are no more than three or four subspecies of Wapiti. All American forms seem to belong to one subspecies (Cervus canadiensis canadiensis). Even the Siberian elks (Cervus canadiensis sibiricus) are more or less identical to the American forms and therefore may belong to this subspecies, too. However the Manchurian wapiti (Cervus canadiensis xanthopygus) is clearly distinct from the siberian forms, but not distinguishable from the Alashan Wapiti. The chinese forms MacNeill's Deer and Tibetan red deer belong also to the Wapitis and were not distinguishable from each other. So they probably form one single subspecies (Cervus canadiensis kansuensis).[7] The Manchurian wapiti (Cervus elaphus xanthopygus) is a subspecies of elk thats native to eastern Asia. ... The Sichuan deer (Cervus wallichi macneilli) also known as MacNeills deer is a subspecies of Central Asian Red Deer native to Western China. ... The Tibetan red deer (Cervus affinis affinis) or (Cervus affinis wallichi) also known as shou is a subspecies of Central Asian Red Deer that is native to the Tibetan highlands of Central Asia. ...


Description

The elk is a large animal of the artiodactyle ungulate order, possessing an even number of toes on each foot, similar to those of camels, goats and cattle. It is a ruminant species, with a four-chambered stomach, and feeds on grasses, plants, leaves and bark. During the summer, elk eat almost constantly, consuming between 4.5 and 6.8 kg (10 to 15 lb) daily.[14] In North America, males are called bulls, and females are called cows. In Asia, stag and hind, respectively, are sometimes used instead. Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Orders & Clades Order Perissodactyla Eparctocyona Order Arctostylonia (extinct) Order Mesonychia (extinct) Cetartiodactyla Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Bulbulodentata (extinct) Family Hyopsodontidae Meridiungulata (extinct) Order Litopterna Notoungulata (extinct) Order Toxodontia Order Typotheria Ungulates (meaning roughly being hoofed or hoofed animal) are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

A herd of Roosevelt Elk in Redwood National and State Parks, California.
A herd of Roosevelt Elk in Redwood National and State Parks, California.

Elk are more than twice as heavy as mule deer and have a more reddish hue to their hair coloring, as well as large, buff colored rump patches and smaller tails. Moose are larger and darker than elk, bulls have distinctively different antlers and moose do not herd. Elk cows average 225 kg (500 lb), stand 1.3 m (4-1/2 ft) at the shoulder, and are 2 m (6-1/2 ft) from nose to tail. Bulls are some 25% larger than cows at maturity, weighing an average of 315 kg (650 lb), standing 1.5 m (5 ft) at the shoulder and averaging 2.4 m (8 ft) in length.[15] The largest of the subspecies is the Roosevelt elk, found west of the Cascade Range in the U.S. states of California, Oregon and Washington, and in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Roosevelt elk have been reintroduced into Alaska, where males have been recorded as weighing up to 590 kg (1,300 lb).[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 363 KB) Summary Roosevelt Elk Description: Roosevelt Elk (Cervus elaphus subsp. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 363 KB) Summary Roosevelt Elk Description: Roosevelt Elk (Cervus elaphus subsp. ... The Coastal redwood is the tallest tree species on Earth. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Binomial name (Rafinesque, 1817) The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... “Cascades” redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Only the males have antlers, which start growing in the spring and are shed each winter. The largest antlers may be 1.2 m (4 ft) long and weigh 18 kg (40 lb).[17] Antlers are made of bone which can grow at a rate of 2.5 cm (1 inch) per day. While actively growing, the antlers are covered with and protected by a soft layer of highly vascularised skin known as velvet. The velvet is shed in the summer when the antlers have fully developed. Bull elk may have six or more tines on each antler, however the number of tines has little to do with the age or maturity of a particular animal. The Siberian and North American elk carry the largest antlers while the Altai wapiti have the smallest.[8] The formation and retention of antlers is testosterone-driven.[18] After the breeding season in late fall, the level of pheromones released during estrus declines in the environment and the testosterone levels of males drop as a consequence. This drop in testosterone leads to the shedding of antlers, usually in the early winter. A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Moose antler Antlers are the large and complex horn-like appendages of deer, consisting of bony outgrowths from the head with no covering of keratin as is found in true horns. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ...


During the fall, elk grow a thicker coat of hair, which helps to insulate them during the winter. Males, females and calves of Siberian and North American elk all grow thick neck manes; female and young Manchurian and Alashan wapitis do not.[13] By early summer, the heavy winter coat has been shed, and elk are known to rub against trees and other objects to help remove hair from their bodies. All elk have large and clearly defined rump patches with short tails. They have different coloration based on the seasons and types of habitats, with gray or lighter coloration prevalent in the winter and a more reddish, darker coat in the summer. Subspecies living in arid climates tend to have lighter colored coats than do those living in forests.[19] Most have lighter yellow-brown to orange-brown coats in contrast to dark brown hair on the head, neck, and legs during the summer. Forest adapted Manchurian and Alashan wapitis have darker reddish-brown coats with less contrast between the body coat and the rest of the body during the summer months.[8] Calves are born spotted, as is common with many deer species, and they lose their spots by the end of summer. Adult Manchurian wapiti may retain a few orange spots on the back of their summer coats until they are older. This has also been observed in the forest-adapted European red deer.[8]


Distribution

Bull elk bugling during the rut
Bull elk bugling during the rut

Modern subspecies are descended from elk that once inhabited Beringia, a steppe region between Asia and North America that connected the two continents during the Pleistocene. Beringia provided a migratory route for numerous mammal species, including brown bear, caribou, and moose, as well as humans.[20] As the Pleistocene came to an end, ocean levels began to rise; elk migrated southwards into Asia and North America. In North America they adapted to almost all ecosystems except for tundra, true deserts, and the gulf coast of the U.S. The elk of southern Siberia and central Asia were once more widespread but today are restricted to the mountain ranges west of Lake Baikal including the Sayan and Altai Mountains of Mongolia and the Tianshan region that borders Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and China's Xinjiang Province.[21] The habitat of Siberian elk in Asia is similar to that of the Rocky Mountain subspecies in North America. Image File history File links Bull_elk_bugling_during_the_fall_mating_season. ... Image File history File links Bull_elk_bugling_during_the_fall_mating_season. ... The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times during the ice ages. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... “Baikal” redirects here. ... Lake Gornyh Duhov Western Sayan, Ergaki mountains The Sayan Mountains (Russian: , Sayany) are a mountain range in southern Siberia, Asia. ... For the republic in Russia, see Altai Republic. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


Throughout their range, they live in forest and in forest edge habitat, similar to other deer species. In mountainous regions, they often dwell at higher elevations in summer, migrating down slope for winter. The highly adaptable elk also inhabit semi-deserts in North America, such as the Great Basin. Manchurian and Alashan wapiti are primarily forest dwellers and their smaller antler sizes is a likely adaptation to a forest environment. This article is about a community of trees. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) The Great Basin is a large, arid region of the western United States. ...


Introductions

Bull elk on a captive range in Nebraska. These elk, originally from Rocky Mountain herds, exhibit modified behavior due to having been held in captivity, under less selective pressure
Bull elk on a captive range in Nebraska. These elk, originally from Rocky Mountain herds, exhibit modified behavior due to having been held in captivity, under less selective pressure

The Rocky Mountain elk subspecies has been reintroduced by hunter-conservation organizations in the Appalachian region of the eastern U.S., where the now extinct Eastern elk once lived[22] After elk were reintroduced in the states of Kentucky, North Carolina and Tennessee, they migrated into the neighboring states of Virginia and West Virginia, and have established permanent populations there.[23] Elk have also been reintroduced to a number of other states, including Pennsylvania, Michigan and Wisconsin. As of 1989, population figures for the Rocky Mountain subspecies were 782,500, and estimated numbers for all North American subspecies exceeded 1 million.[24] Prior to the European colonization of North America, there were an estimated 10 million elk on the continent.[15] Worldwide population of elk, counting those on farms and in the wild, is approximately 2 million. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2830 KB) Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), also known as Wapiti or Elk bulls File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Red Deer User:MONGO/Elk User:MONGO... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2830 KB) Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), also known as Wapiti or Elk bulls File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Red Deer User:MONGO/Elk User:MONGO... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Evolutionary pressure or selection pressure can be formalized as an external pressure applied to a process, thereby pushing that process in a distinct direction. ... It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked...


Outside their native habitat, elk and other deer species were introduced in areas that previously had few if any large native ungulates. Brought to these countries for hunting and ranching for meat, hides and antler velvet, they have proven highly adaptable and have often had an adverse impact on local ecosystems. Elk and red deer were introduced to Argentina and Chile in the early 20th century.[25] There they are now considered an invasive species, encroaching on Argentinian ecosystems where they compete for food with the indigenous Chilean Huemul and other herbivores.[26] This negative impact on native animal species has led the IUCN to identify the elk as one of the world's 100 worst invaders.[27] Both elk and red deer have also been introduced to Ireland and Australia.[28][29] (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... The Chilean Huemul, also known as the South Andean deer, has a stocky, thick, and short-legged body. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...


The introduction of deer to New Zealand began in the middle of the 19th century, and current populations are primarily European red deer, with only 15 percent being elk.[30] These deer have had an adverse impact on forest regeneration of some plant species, as they consume more palatable species which are replaced with those that are less favored by the elk. The long term impact will be an alteration of the types of plants and trees found, and in other animal and plant species dependent upon them.[31] As in Chile and Argentina, the IUCN has declared that red deer and elk populations in New Zealand are an invasive species.[27] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Behavior

American elk bugling spectrogram,— Play audio (OGG format, 25kB),— Play audio (wav format).
American elk bugling spectrogram,
Play audio (OGG format, 25kB),
Play audio (wav format).

Adult elk usually stay in single-sex groups for most of the year. During the mating period known as the rut, mature bulls compete for the attentions of the cows and will try to defend females in their harem. Rival bulls challenge opponents by bellowing and by paralleling each other, walking back and forth. This allows potential combatants to assess the others antlers, body size and fighting prowess. If neither bull backs down, they engage in antler wrestling, and bulls sometimes sustain serious injuries. Bulls also dig holes in the ground, in which they urinate and roll their body. The urine soaks into their hair and gives them a distinct smell which attracts cows.[32] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (898x278, 54 KB) Summary Based on the sound file Image:American Elk Bugling. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (898x278, 54 KB) Summary Based on the sound file Image:American Elk Bugling. ... The Rut is the period of time when antlered ungulates, such as deer, sheep, elk, moose, caribou, ibex, goats, pronghorn and Asian and African antelope, mate. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ...


Dominant bulls follow groups of cows during the rut, from August into early winter. A bull will defend his harem of 20 cows or more from competing bulls and predators.[33] Only mature bulls have large harems and breeding success peaks at about eight years of age. Bulls between two to four years and over 11 years of age rarely have harems, and spend most of the rut on the periphery of larger harems. Young and old bulls that do acquire a harem hold it later in the breeding season than do bulls in their prime. A bull with a harem rarely feeds and he may lose up to 20 percent of his body weight. Bulls that enter the rut in poor condition are less likely to make it through to the peak conception period or have the strength to survive the rigors of the oncoming winter.[32]


Bulls have a loud vocalization consisting of screams known as bugling, which can be heard for miles. Bugling is often associated with an adaptation to open environments such as parklands, meadows, and savannas, where sound can travel great distances. Females are attracted to the males that bugle more often and have the loudest call.[34] Bugling is most common early and late in the day and is one of the most distinctive sounds in nature, akin to the howl of the gray wolf. “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ...


Reproduction and lifecycle

Female nursing young.
Female nursing young.

Female elk have a short estrus cycle of only a day or two and matings usually involve a dozen or more attempts. By the fall of their second year, females can produce one and, very rarely, two offspring, though reproduction is most common when cows weigh at least 200 kg (450 lb).[35] The gestation period is 240 to 262 days and the offspring weigh between 15 and 16 kg (33 to 35 lb). When the females are near to giving birth, they tend to isolate themselves from the main herd, and will remain isolated until the calf is large enough to escape predators.[36] Calves are born spotted, as is common with many deer species, and they lose their spots by the end of summer. Manchurian wapiti may retain a few orange spots on the back of their summer coats until they are older. After two weeks, calves are able to join the herd and are fully weaned at two months of age.[37] Elk calves weigh as much as an adult white-tailed deer by the time they are six months old.[38] The offspring will remain with their mothers for almost a year, leaving about the time that the next season's offspring are produced.[34] The gestation period is the same for all subspecies. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 770 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Red Deer User:MONGO/Elk (Cervus elaphus) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 770 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Red Deer User:MONGO/Elk (Cervus elaphus) ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Binomial name Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America and northern portions of South America as far south as Peru. ...


Elk live 20 years or more in captivity but average 10 to 13 years in the wild. In some subspecies that suffer less predation, they may live an average of 15 years in the wild.[39]


Protection from predators

Male elk retain their antlers for more than half the year and are less likely to group with other males when they have antlers. Antlers provide a means of defense, as does a strong front-leg kick, which is performed by either sex if provoked. Once the antlers have been shed, bulls tend to form bachelor groups which allow them to work cooperatively at fending off predators. Herds tend to employ one or more scouts while the remaining members eat and rest.[34]


After the rut, females form large herds of up to 50 individuals. Newborn calves are kept close by a series of vocalizations; larger nurseries have an ongoing and constant chatter during the daytime hours. When approached by predators, the largest and most robust females may make a stand, using their front legs to kick at their attackers. Guttural grunts and posturing are used with great effectiveness with all but the most determined of predators. Aside from man, wolf and coyote packs and the solitary cougar, are the most likely predators, although brown, grizzly and black bears also prey on elk.[34] In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem which includes Yellowstone National Park, bears are the most significant predators of calves.[40] Major predators in Asia include the wolf, dhole, brown bear, siberian tiger, Amur leopard, and snow leopard. Eurasian lynx and wild boar sometimes prey on the Asian wapiti.[8] For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... For the Brooklyn-based indie rock band, see Grizzly Bear (band). ... “Black Bear” redirects here. ... Greater Yellowstone is the last large, nearly intact ecosystem in the northern temperate zone of the Earth and is partly located in Yellowstone National Park. ... “Yellowstone” redirects here. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Binomial name Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811) The Dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a species of wild dog of the Canidae family. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1884 Distribution of the Siberian Tiger (in red) The Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (). Also known as the Amur, North China, Manchurian, Ussuri, or Korean Tiger, it is arguably the largest of the 5 extant tiger subspecies. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus orientalis Schlegel, 1857 Synonyms Panthera pardus amurensis Amur Leopard at the Philadelphia Zoo The Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis or Panthera pardus amurensis) is the rarest subspecies of leopard and also has the northernmost range. ... Binomial name Schreber, 1775 Range map Synonyms Uncia uncia The Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia[3] or Uncia uncia[1], sometimes known as the Ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of central and southern Asia. ... Binomial name Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat of European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the major predators. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ...


Migration

Elk wintering in Jackson Hole, Wyoming after migrating there during the fall
Elk wintering in Jackson Hole, Wyoming after migrating there during the fall

The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem elk herd numbers over 200,000 individuals and during the spring and fall, they take part in the longest elk migration in the continental U.S. Elk in the southern regions of Yellowstone National Park and in the surrounding National Forests migrate south towards the town of Jackson, Wyoming where they winter for up to six months on the National Elk Refuge. Conservationists there ensure the herd is well fed during the harsh winters.[41] Many of the elk that reside in the northern sections of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem migrate to lower altitudes in Montana, mainly to the north and west. Image File history File links Wapiti_on_the_National_Elk_Refuge. ... Image File history File links Wapiti_on_the_National_Elk_Refuge. ... Jackson Hole is a valley in the U.S. state of Wyoming. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Look up migration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ... Jackson is a town located in the Jackson Hole valley of Teton County, Wyoming. ... The National Elk Refuge, which was created in 1912 to promote the survival of the elk herd, lies northeast of the Town of Jackson, Wyoming. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked...


As is true for many species of deer, especially those in mountainous regions, elk migrate into areas of higher altitude in the spring, following the retreating snows, and the opposite direction in the fall. Hunting pressure also impacts migration and movements.[42] During the winter, they favor wooded areas and sheltered valleys for protection from the wind and availability of tree bark to eat. Roosevelt elk are generally non-migratory due to less seasonal variability of food sources.[34]


Health issues

Brainworm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a parasitic nematode that has been known to affect the spinal cord and brain tissue of elk, leading to death. The nematode has a carrier in the white-tailed deer in which it normally has no ill effects. It is also carried by snails which can be inadvertently consumed by elk during grazing.[3] Parelaphostrongylus tenuis or brainworm is a small parasitic nematode that infects the brain of many ungulates. ...


Chronic Wasting Disease affects the brain tissue in elk, and has been detected throughout their range in North America. First documented in the late 1960s in mule deer, the disease has affected elk on game farms and in the wild in a number of regions. Elk that have contracted the disease begin to show weight loss, increased watering needs, disorientation and listlessness, and at an advanced stage the disease leads to death. The disease is similar to but not the same as Mad Cow Disease, and no dangers to humans have been documented, nor has the disease been demonstrated to pose a threat to domesticated cattle.[43] In 2002, South Korea banned the importation of elk antler velvet due to concerns about chronic wasting disease.[44] Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and American elk (wapiti). ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or commonly mad cow disease) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that shocked biologists on its discovery in late 20th century and appears transmissible to humans. ...


Brucellosis occasionally affect elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the only place in the U.S. where the disease is still known to exist. In domesticated cattle, brucellosis causes infertility, abortions and reduced milk production. It is transmitted to humans as undulant fever, producing flu-like symptoms which may last for years. Though bison are more likely to transmit the disease to other animals, elk inadvertently transmitted brucellosis to horses in Wyoming and cattle in Idaho. Researchers are attempting to eradicate the disease through vaccinations and herd management measures, which are expected to be successful.[45] Brucellosis (Undulant fever or Malta fever) is an infectious disease caused by the Brucella bacteria, which induces inconstant fevers, sweating, weakness, anorexia, headaches, depression and muscular and bodily pain. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ...


Cultural references

Elk have played an important role in the cultural history of a number of peoples. Pictograms and petroglyphs of elk were carved into cliffs thousands of years ago by the Anasazi of the southwestern U.S. More recent Native American tribes, including the Kootenai, Cree, Ojibwa and Pawnee, produced blankets and robes from elk hides. The elk was of particular importance to the Lakota, and played a spiritual role in their society.[46] At birth, Lakota males were given an elk's tooth to promote a long life since that was seen as the last part of dead elk to rot away. The elk was seen as having strong sexual potency and young Lakota males who had dreamed of elk would have an image of the mythical representation of the elk on their "courting coats" as a sign of sexual prowess. The Lakota believed that the mythical or spiritual elk, not the physical one, was the teacher of men and the embodiment of strength, sexual prowess and courage.[47] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American culture centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States, noted for their distinctive pottery and dwelling construction styles. ... The Kootenai (also spelled Kutenai) or Ktunaxa (pronounced in English as ) are an indigenous people of North America. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... This article is about the native North American people. ... The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ...


Neolithic petroglyphs from Asia depict antler-less female elk, which have been interpreted as symbolizing rebirth and sustenance. By the beginning of the Bronze Age, the elk is depicted less frequently in rock art, coinciding with a cultural transformation away from hunting.[48] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


The Rocky Mountain Elk is the official state animal for Utah. A state mammal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Commercial uses

Bull elk in spring are shedding their winter coats, and their antlers are covered in velvet
Bull elk in spring are shedding their winter coats, and their antlers are covered in velvet

Elk are held in captivity for a variety of reasons. Hunting interests set aside game farms, where hunters can pay a fee and be essentially guaranteed a chance to shoot an elk in what is known as a canned hunt, as they are fenced in and have absolutely no opportunity to escape. They are not generally harvested for meat production on a large scale; however, some restaurants offer the meat as a specialty item and it is also available in some grocery stores. The meat has a taste somewhere between beef and venison and is higher in protein and lower in fat than either beef or chicken.[49] Elk meat is also a good source of iron, phosphorus and zinc, but is high in cholesterol.[50] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1577x877, 425 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Red Deer User:MONGO/Elk (Cervus elaphus) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1577x877, 425 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Red Deer User:MONGO/Elk (Cervus elaphus) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... A canned hunt is essentially a trophy hunt where the customer is guaranteed a kill by the simple expedient of the hosts pre-capturing the animal, and releasing it into an area where the hunter can take a shot at it, such as in a fenced-in area. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Leg of venison on apple sauce with dumplings and vegetables Venison is meat of the family Cervidae. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ...


A male elk can produce 10 to 11 kg (22 to 25 lb) of antler velvet annually and on ranches in the United States, Canada and New Zealand, this velvet is collected and sold to markets in east Asia, where it is used in medicine. Velvet is also considered by some cultures to be an aphrodisiac.[44] Antlers are also used in artwork, furniture and other novelty items. All Asian subspecies, along with other deer, have been raised for their antlers in central and eastern Asia by Han Chinese, Turkic peoples, Tungusic peoples, Mongolians, and Koreans. Elk farms are relatively common in North America and New Zealand.[30] An aphrodisiac is an agent which is used to increase sexual desire [1]. The name comes from the Greek goddess of Sensuality Aphrodite. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The term Tungusic peoples is used to describe a peoples speaking a Tungusic languages. ...


Elk hides have been used for thousands of years for tepee covering, blankets, clothing and footwear. Modern uses are more decorative, but elk skin shoes, gloves and belts are not uncommon.[15] Categories: Stub | Buildings and structures | Survival skills ...


Since 1967, the Boy Scouts of America have assisted employees at the National Elk Refuge in Wyoming by collecting the antlers which are shed each winter. The antlers are then auctioned with most of the proceeds returned to the refuge. In 2006, 3,200 kg (7,060 lb) of antlers were auctioned, bringing in almost $76,000. Another 980 kg (2,160 lb) were sold directly for local use, restoring some decorative arches in the Jackson Town Square.[51] For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Media

An elk bellowing Image File history File links Elkbellow. ...

Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Notes and references

  1. ^ Erxleben, J.C.P. (1777) Anfangsgründe der Naturlehre and Systema regni animalis.
  2. ^ Robb, Bob; Gerald Bethge (2001). The Ultimate Guide to Elk Hunting. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1585741809. 
  3. ^ a b Pennsylvania Elk Classification. Pennsylvania Elk Herd. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  4. ^ Wildlife - Wapiti (Elk). U.S. Forest Service (June 21, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  5. ^ Ecosystem and Climate History of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey (February 14, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  6. ^ The Case of the Irish Elk. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  7. ^ a b c Ludt, Christian J.; Wolf Schroeder, Oswald Rottmann, and Ralph Kuehn. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of red deer (Cervus elaphus) (pdf). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31 (2004) 1064–1083. Elsevier. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Geist, Valerius (1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology. Mechanicsburg, Pa: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-0496-0. 
  9. ^ Groves, Colin (November 11, 2005). "The genus Cervus in eastern Eurasia". European Journal of Wildlife Research 52 (1): 14-22. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  10. ^ Keck, Stu. Elk (Cervus canadensis). Bowhunting.net. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  11. ^ Gerhart, Dorothy C.. Skull and Antlers of Extinct Eastern Elk Unearthed at Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge in Northwestern N.Y.. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  12. ^ Allen, Craig. Elk Reintroductions. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  13. ^ a b c Geist, Valerius (June 1993). Elk Country. Minneapolis: Northword Press. ISBN 978-1559712088. 
  14. ^ Elk Habitat. Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  15. ^ a b c Fast Facts. Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  16. ^ Eide, Sterling. Roosevelt Elk. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  17. ^ What Are Elk?. Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  18. ^ Friends of the Prairie Learning Center. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  19. ^ Pisarowicz, Jim. American Elk - Cervus elephus. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  20. ^ Flannery, Tim (2001-05-10). The Eternal Frontier: An Ecological History of North America and Its Peoples. Atlantic Monthly Press, pp. 212-217. ISBN 0871137895. 
  21. ^ Cervus elaphus. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  22. ^ Fitzgerald, Maria. "Bears, elk make comeback in E. Ky.", Appalachian News-Express, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. 
  23. ^ Ledford, David. Seeing the Southern Appalachians with 2030 Vision. Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  24. ^ Peek, James. North American Elk. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  25. ^ Elk and Elk Hunting. Petersen's Hunting. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  26. ^ Diet of Huemul deer ( Hippocamelus bisulcus ) in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina. Taylor and Francis Ltd. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  27. ^ a b Flueck, Werner. Cervus elaphus (mammal). Global Invasive Species Database. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  28. ^ Distribution and Movement. Cervus elaphus - Red deer (North American Elk). Wildlife Information. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  29. ^ Corbet, G.B.; S. Harris (1996). The Handbook of British Mammals. Blackwell Science, Inc. ISBN 978-0865427112. 
  30. ^ a b Deer farming in New Zealand. Deer Farmer (November 29, 2003). Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  31. ^ Husheer, Sean W. (April 30, 2007). "Introduced red deer reduce tree regeneration in Pureora Forest, central North Island, New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Ecology 31 (1). New Zealand Ecological Society. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  32. ^ a b Walker, Mark. The Red Deer. World Deer Website. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  33. ^ Elk (Cervus elaphus). South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  34. ^ a b c d e Thomas, Jack Ward; Dale Toweill (2002). Elk of North America, Ecology and Management. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 158834018X. 
  35. ^ Sell, Randy. Elk. Alternative Agriculture Series. North Dakota State University. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  36. ^ Elk. Living with Wildlife. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  37. ^ Cervus elaphus. Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  38. ^ Elk Biology and interesting facts. History of Elk in Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Elk Reintroduction Project. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  39. ^ Elk. Great Smoky Mountains. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  40. ^ Barber, Shannon; L. David Mech, and P.J. White (Summer 2005). "Elk Calf Mortality Post–Wolf Restoration Bears Remain Top Summer Predators". Yellowstone Science 13 (3): 37-44. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-04. 
  41. ^ National Elk Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  42. ^ Jenkins, Kurt (May 31, 2001). Ecology Of Elk Inhabiting Crater Lake National Park And Vicinity. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  43. ^ Chronic Wasting Disease. Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  44. ^ a b Hansen, Ray (November 2006). Elk Profile. Agricultural Marketing Resource Center. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  45. ^ Brucellosis and Yellowstone Bison. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, USDA. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  46. ^ Elk In History. Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  47. ^ Halder, Bornali (2002). Lakota Sioux Animal Symbolism I. Lakota Archives. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  48. ^ Jacobson, Esther (1993). The Deer Goddess of Ancient Siberia: A Study in the Ecology of Belief. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-9004096288. 
  49. ^ Elk Meat Nutritional Information. Wapiti.net. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  50. ^ Nutritional Summary for Game meat, elk, raw. Condé Nast Publications (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  51. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (May 22, 2006). 39th annual elk antler auction held in Jackson. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Red Deer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2771 words)
Elk (also known as Wapiti, a Shawnee name meaning 'white rump') are an Old World deer species that originated in Eurasia and spread to North America, crossing the Bering Land Bridge during the ice age.
A population of Merriam's elk existed in the Guadalupe Mountains of Texas (present herds of elk in the mountains of Texas were released in 1928 from North Dakota).
Great herds of tule elk formerly inhabited the California Central Valley grasslands and the California Chaparral and Woodlands of central California, but were reduced to near-extinction by hunting and habitat loss, primarily the conversion of grasslands and wetlands to agriculture and pastureland.
Elk (1097 words)
Elk are found in woodlands, mountain meadows, foothills, plains, swamps, and coniferous forests.
Elk are herbivorous animals that mainly eat a diet of grasses and herbs in the spring and woody plants and shrubs in summer.
Elk are important to the economics of South Dakota due to the revenue hunters bring into the Black Hills.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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