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Encyclopedia > Elizabeth of Russia
Charles van Loo. H.I.M. Yelizaveta Petrovna, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias (1709–62)
Charles van Loo. H.I.M. Yelizaveta Petrovna, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias (1709–62)

Yelizaveta Petrovna (Russian: Елизаве́та (Елисаве́т) Петро́вна) (December 29, 1709January 5, 1762 (New Style); December 18, 1709December 25, 1761 (Old Style)), also known as Yelisavet and Elizabeth, was an Empress of Russia (17411762) who took the country into the War of Austrian Succession (17401748) and the Seven Years' War (1756 – 1763). Her domestic policies allowed the nobles to gain dominance in local government while shortening their terms of service to the state. She encouraged Lomonosov's establishment of the University of Moscow and Shuvalov's foundation of the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg. She also spent exorbitant sums of money on the grandiose baroque projects of her favourite architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli, particularly in Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo. The Winter Palace and the Smolny Cathedral remain the chief monuments of her reign in St Petersburg. Generally, she was one of the best loved Russian monarchs, because she didn't allow Germans in the government and not one person was executed during her reign. Elizabeth Petrovna, as painted by Charles Van Loo (1705-65) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Elizabeth Petrovna, as painted by Charles Van Loo (1705-65) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Portrait of Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo by Adelaide Labille-Guiard Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (1719-08-25 – 1795-11-15) was a French painter of allegorical scenes and portraits. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... In the Gregorian Calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), at which point there will be 13 days remaining to the end of the year. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Holy Roman/Austrian Empire Kingdom of France Russian Empire Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... The name Lomonosov may refer to: Mikhail Lomonosov, a polymath and writer of Imperial Russia Lomonosov Gold Medal, an annual award given by the Russian Academy of Sciences Lomonosov, Russia, a city named for Mikhail Lomonosov (formerly Oranienbaum) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Moscow State University campus M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Московский Государственный Университет име&#1085... Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov. ... The edifice for the academy was built in 1764-89 to a design by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe and Alexander F. Kokorinov. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-71) was the most important baroque architect working in Russia. ... Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally Piterhof, Dutch for Peters Court) is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south... Catherine Palace and Park Tsarskoye Selo (Russian: ; may be translated as Tsar’s Village) is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... The Smolny Institute is the Neoclassical edifice in St Petersburg, which has played an important part in the Russian history. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...

Contents

Life before becoming Empress

Elizabeth, the second oldest daughter of Peter the Great and Martha Skavronskaya, was born at Kolomenskoye, near Moscow, on December 18, 1709 (O.S.). As her parents were not married at that time, her illegitimacy would be used by political opponents to challenge her right to the throne. Peter the Great or Peter Alexeyevich Romanov(Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.] [1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... H.I.M. Ekaterina I, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Kolomenskoye (Russian/Cyrillic: Коломенское) is a former royal estate situated several miles to the south-east of Moscow downtown, on the ancient road leading to the town of Kolomna (hence the name). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... In the Gregorian Calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), at which point there will be 13 days remaining to the end of the year. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ...


Even as a child she was bright, if not brilliant, but unfortunately her education was both imperfect and desultory. Her father had no leisure to devote to her training, and her mother was too illiterate to superintend her studies. She had a French governess, however, and later picked up some Italian, German and Swedish, and could converse in these languages with more fluency than accuracy. From her earliest years she delighted every one by her extraordinary beauty and vivacity.


It was Peter's intention to marry his second daughter to the young French king Louis XV, but the pride of the Bourbons revolted against any such alliance. Other connubial speculations foundered on the personal dislike of the princess for the various suitors proposed to her, so that on the death of her mother (May 1727) and the departure to Holstein of her beloved sister Anne, her only remaining near relation, the princess found herself at the age of eighteen practically her own mistress. Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion _ Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Portrait by Ivan Nikitin Anna Petrovna, Tsesarevna of Russia (27 January 1708, Moscow – 4 March 1728) was the eldest daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Catherine I of Russia. ...


So long as Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov remained in power, she was treated with liberality and distinction by the government of her adolescent nephew Peter II, who was rumoured to be her lover. The Dolgorukovs, who supplanted Menshikov and hated the memory of Peter the Great, practically banished Peter's daughter from court. Elizabeth had inherited her father's sensual temperament and, being free from all control, abandoned herself to her appetites without reserve. Menshikov in Exile Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov (Александр Данилович Меншиков) (1673 – 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimo, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Izhora. ... Peter II (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич or Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (October 23, 1715 – January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... Dolgoroukov (Долгоруков) is the name of a princely Russian family of Rurikid stock. ...


While still in her teens, she made a lover of Alexis Shubin, a sergeant in the Semyonovsky Guards regiment, and after his banishment to Siberia, minus his tongue, by order of the empress Anne, consoled herself with a handsome young Cossack, Alexis Razumovski, who, there is good reason to believe, subsequently became her husband. Leib Guards reception at the Constantine Palace. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... H.I.M. Anna Ioannovna, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias, Duchess of Courland Anna Ioannovna (In Russian: Анна Иоанновна) (February 7, 1693 - October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Count A. G. Razumovsky Count Alexei Grigorevich Razumovsky (Алексей Григорьевич Разумовский) (1709–1771), was a Ukrainian Cossack who rose to become lover and...


Palace Revolution of 1741

During the reign of her cousin Anne (1730 – 1740), Elizabeth effaced herself as much as possible; but under the regency of Anna Leopoldovna the course of events compelled the indolent but by no means incapable beauty to overthrow the existing government. The idea seems to have been first suggested to her by the French ambassador, La Chetardie, who was plotting to destroy the Austrian influence then dominant at the Russian court. It is a mistake to suppose, however, that La Chetardie took a leading part in the revolution which placed the daughter of Peter the Great on the Russian throne. As a matter of fact, beyond lending the tsesarevna 2000 ducats, instead of the 15,000 she demanded of him, he took no part whatever in the actual coup d'etat which was as great a surprise to him as to every one else. The merit and glory of that singular affair belong to Elizabeth alone. The fear of being imprisoned in a convent for the rest of her life was the determining cause of her irresistible outburst of energy. H.I.M. Anna Ioannovna, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias, Duchess of Courland Anna Ioannovna (In Russian: Анна Иоанновна) (February 7, 1693 - October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... Anna Leopoldovna (А́нна Леопо́льдовна) (1718 - 18 March 1746), also known as Anna Karlovna (А́нна Ка́рловна), regent of Russia for a few months... Jacques-Joachim Trotti, marquis de La Chétardie (3 October 1705 — 1 January 1759) was a French diplomat who engineered the coup detat that brought Elizaveta Petrovna to the Russian throne in 1741. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ...

The portrait of Elizabeth as Venus, painted in the 1710s for the Grand Peterhof Palace
The portrait of Elizabeth as Venus, painted in the 1710s for the Grand Peterhof Palace

At midnight on November 25, 1741 (Old Style))/December 6, 1741 (New Style), with a few personal friends, including her physician, Armand Lestocq, her chamberlain, Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov, her future husband, Aleksey Razumovsky, and Alexander and Peter Shuvalov, two of the gentlemen of her household, she drove to the barracks of the Preobrazhensky Guards regiment, enlisted their sympathies by a stirring speech, and led them to the Winter Palace, where the regent was reposing in absolute security. Having on the way thither had all the ministers arrested, she seized the regent and her children in their beds, and summoned all the notables, civil and ecclesiastical, to her presence. So swiftly and noiselessly indeed had the whole revolution proceeded that as late as eight o'clock the next morning very few people in the city were aware of it. Elizabeth Petrovna as Venus, painted when she was a child This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Elizabeth Petrovna as Venus, painted when she was a child This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally Piterhof, Dutch for Peters Court) is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Count Jean Armand de LEstocq (German: Johann Hermann Lestocq, Russian: Иван Иванович Лесток, 29 April 1692, Luneburg — 12 June 1767, Saint Petersburg) was a French adventurer who wielded immense influence on the foreign policy of Russia during the early reign of Empress Elizabeth. ... Count Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov (Михаи́л Илларио́нович Воронцо́в) (1714 - 1767) was a Russian statesman and diplomat. ... Count A. G. Razumovsky Count Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky (Алексей Григорьевич Разумовский) (1709–1771), was a Ukrainian Cossack who rose to become lover and, probably, a secret spouse of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. ... Count Aleksandr Ivanovich Shuvalov (1710-1771) was a Russian statesman from the Shuvalov family. ... Count Pyotr Ivanovich Shuvalov (Петр Иванович Шувалов in Russian) (1711 - 1762) was a Russian statesman and Field Marshal. ... The term Leib Guard (Russian: ) collectively distinguished military units serving as personal guards of the Emperor of Russia. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ...


Thus, at the age of thirty-three, this naturally indolent and self-indulgent woman, with little knowledge and no experience of affairs, suddenly found herself at the head of a great empire at one of the most critical periods of its existence. Fortunately for herself, and for Russia, Elizabeth Petrovna, with all her shortcomings, had inherited some of her father's genius for government. Her usually keen judgment and her diplomatic tact again and again recall Peter the Great. What in her sometimes seemed irresolution and procrastination, was, most often, a wise suspense of judgment under exceptionally difficult circumstances; and to this may be added that she was ever ready to sacrifice the prejudices of the woman to the duty of the sovereign.


Bestuzhev's policies

After abolishing the cabinet council system in favor during the rule of the two Annes, and reconstituting the senate as it had been under Peter the Great, with the chiefs of the departments of state, none of them Germans as used to be, the first care of the new empress was to compose her quarrel with Sweden. On the January 23, 1743, direct negotiations between the two powers were opened at Åbo (Turku), and on the August 7, 1743 (the Treaty of Åbo), Sweden ceded to Russia all the southern part of Finland east of the river Kymmene, which thus became the boundary between the two states, including the fortresses of Villmanstrand and Fredricshamn. A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Turku (IPA: , Swedish:  ), founded in the 13th century, is the oldest and fifth largest city in Finland, with a population of 174,868 (as of 2005). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... The Treaty of Ã…bo or Treaty of Turku is a Peace Treaty between Imperial Russia and Sweden after the Hats Russian War 1741-43. ...


This triumphant issue was mainly due to the diplomatic ability of the new vice chancellor, Aleksey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin, whom Elizabeth, much as she disliked him personally, had wisely placed at the head of foreign affairs immediately after her accession. He represented the anti-Franco-Prussian portion of her council, and his object was to bring about an Anglo-Austro-Russian alliance which, at that time, was undoubtedly Russia's proper system. Hence the bogus Lopukhina Conspiracy and other attempts of Frederick the Great and Louis XV to get rid of Bestuzhev, which made the Russian court during the earlier years of Elizabeths reign the centre of a tangle of intrigue impossible to unravel by those who do not possess the clue to it. Count Aleksei Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (Алексе́й Петро́вич Бесту́жев-Рю́мин) (1693 - 1768), Grand Chancellor of Russia, who was chiefly responsible for the Russian... Coat of arms of the Lopukhin family. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ...

Promenade of Elizaveta Petrovna through the streets of St Petersburg (1903), watercolour by Alexandre Benois.
Promenade of Elizaveta Petrovna through the streets of St Petersburg (1903), watercolour by Alexandre Benois.

Ultimately, however, the minister, strong in the support of Elizabeth, prevailed, and his faultless diplomacy, backed by the despatch of an auxiliary Russian corps of 30,000 men to the Rhine, greatly accelerated the peace negotiations which led to the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (October 18, 1748). By sheer tenacity of purpose, Bestuzhev had extricated his country from the Swedish imbroglio; reconciled his imperial mistress with the courts of Vienna and London, her natural allies; enabled Russia to assert herself effectually in Poland, Turkey and Sweden, and isolated the restless king of Prussia by environing him with hostile alliances. But all this would have been impossible but for the steady support of Elizabeth, who trusted him implicitly, despite the insinuations of the chancellor's innumerable enemies, most of whom were her personal friends. Image File history File links Elizabenois. ... Image File history File links Elizabenois. ... Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois (May 4, 1870, St Petersburg - February 9, 1960, Paris) was probably the most important member of the artistic Benois family. ... The River Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... There were two Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2...


Seven Years' War

The great event of Elizabeth's later years was the Seven Years' War. Elizabeth regarded the treaty of Westminster (January 16, 1756, whereby Great Britain and Prussia agreed to unite their forces to oppose the entry into, or the passage through, Germany of the troops of every foreign power) as utterly subversive of the previous conventions between Great Britain and Russia. A by no means unwarrantable fear of the king of Prussia, who was to be reduced within proper limits, so that he might be no longer a danger to the empire, induced Elizabeth to accede to the treaty of Versailles, in other words the Franco-Austrian league against Prussia, and on the May 17, 1757 the Russian army, 85,000 strong, advanced against Königsberg. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Holy Roman/Austrian Empire Kingdom of France Russian Empire Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ...


Neither the serious illness of the empress, which began with a fainting-fit at Tsarskoe Selo (September 19, 1757), nor the fall of Bestuzhev (February 21, 1758), nor the cabals and intrigues of the various foreign powers at St Petersburg, interfered with the progress of the war, and the crushing defeat of Kunersdorf (August 12, 1759) at last brought Frederick to the verge of ruin. From that day forth he despaired of success, though he was saved for the moment by the jealousies of the Russian and Austrian commanders, which ruined the military plans of the allies. Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The battle of Kunersdorf was fought on August 23, 1759 during the Seven Years War near Kunersdorf, east of Frankfurt an der Oder. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


On the other hand, it is not too much to say that, from the end of 1759 to the end of 1761, the unshakable firmness of the Russian empress was the one constraining political force which held together the heterogeneous, incessantly jarring elements of the anti-Prussian combination. From the Russian point of view, Elizabeth's greatness as a stateswoman consists in her steady appreciation of Russian interests, and her determination to promote them at all hazards. She insisted throughout that the king of Prussia must be rendered harmless to his neighbors for the future, and that the only way to bring this about was to reduce him to the rank of a Prince-elector. The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ...

Elizaveta Petrovna in Tsarskoe Selo (1905), painting by Eugene Lanceray, now in the Tretyakov Gallery
Elizaveta Petrovna in Tsarskoe Selo (1905), painting by Eugene Lanceray, now in the Tretyakov Gallery

Frederick himself was quite alive to his danger. "I'm at the end of my resources", he wrote at the beginning of 1760, "the continuance of this war means for me utter ruin. Things may drag on perhaps till July, but then a catastrophe must come." On May 21, 1760 a fresh convention was signed between Russia and Austria, a secret clause of which, never communicated to the court of Versailles, guaranteed East Prussia to Russia, as an indemnity for war expenses. The failure of the campaign of 1760, wielded by the inept Count Buturlin, induced the court of Versailles, on the evening of January 22, 1761, to present to the court of St Petersburg a despatch to the effect that the king of France by reason of the condition of his dominions absolutely desired peace. The Russian empresss reply was delivered to the two ambassadors on February 12. It was inspired by the most uncompromising hostility towards the king of Prussia. Elizabeth would not consent to any pacific overtures until the original object of the league had been accomplished. Elizaveta Petrovna in Tsarskoe Selo, 1905. ... Elizaveta Petrovna in Tsarskoe Selo, 1905. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Portrait of Lanceray (1907), by Konstantin Somov. ... Portrait of Pavel Tretyakov (1883) The State Tretyakov Gallery is the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly the de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Count Alexander Borisovich Buturlin (Russian, in full: граф Александр Борисович Бутурлин; 1694–1767) was a Russian general and courtier whose career was much furthered by his good looks and personal affection of Empress Elizabeth. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Simultaneously, Elizabeth caused to be conveyed to Louis XV a confidential letter in which she proposed the signature of a new treaty of alliance of a more comprehensive and explicit nature than the preceding treaties between the two powers, without the knowledge of Austria. Elizabeth's object in this mysterious negotiation seems to have been to reconcile France and Great Britain, in return for which signal service France was to throw all her forces into the German war. This project, which lacked neither ability nor audacity, foundered upon Louis XV's invincible jealousy of the growth of Russian influence in eastern Europe and his fear of offending the Porte. It was finally arranged by the allies that their envoys at Paris should fix the date for the assembling of a peace congress, and that, in the meantime, the war against Prussia should be vigorously prosecuted. Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


The campaign of 1761 was almost as abortive as the campaign of 1760. Frederick acted on the defensive with consummate skill, and the capture of the Prussian fortress of Kolberg on Christmas day 1761, by Rumyantsev, was the sole Russian success. Frederick, however, was now at the last gasp. On January 6, 1762, he wrote to Finkenstein, "We ought now to think of preserving for my nephew, by way of negotiation, whatever fragments of my territory we can save from the avidity of my enemies", which means, if words mean anything, that he was resolved to seek a soldier's death on the first opportunity. A fortnight later he wrote to Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, "The sky begins to clear. Courage, my dear fellow. I have received the news of a great event." The great event which snatched him from destruction was the death of the Russian empress (January 5, 1762 (N.S.)). Kolberg is the German name for the Polish town of Kołobrzeg. ... The Rumyantsev family were the Russian counts prominent in the imperial politics of the 18th and early 19th century. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... PaÅ‚ac w KamieÅ„cu w stanie obecnym Kamieniec or Kamieniec Suski (German: Finckenstein; -1945) is a now village (wieÅ›) in the gmina Susz, powiat iÅ‚awski, Województwo WarmiÅ„sko-Mazurskie. ... The miracle of the House of Brandenburg refers to the death of Russias Empress Elizabeth at the beginning of 1762. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...

Preceded by
Ivan VI
Empress of Russia
December 6, 1741January 5, 1762
Succeeded by
Peter III

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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