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Encyclopedia > Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II
Queen of the United Kingdom and
the other Commonwealth Realms
(more...)
Photograph by Richard Gifford
Photograph by Richard Gifford
Reign 6 February 1952 to date
Coronation 2 June 1953
Predecessor George VI
Heir Apparent Charles, Prince of Wales
Consort Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Issue
Charles, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Full name
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor
Titles
HM The Queen
HRH The Duchess of Edinburgh
HRH The Princess Elizabeth
HRH Princess Elizabeth of York
Royal house House of Windsor
Royal anthem God Save the Queen
Father George VI
Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Born 21 April 1926
Mayfair, London
Baptised 29 May 1926[1]
Buckingham Palace, London[1]
British Royalty
Royal Family
HM The Queen
This box: view  talk  edit

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. However, she is more directly involved with the United Kingdom, where the Royal Family resides, and the Monarchy is historically indigenous. This is a list of awards, decorations, honours, orders and titles belonging to Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1879x2304, 819 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The Bahamas Politics of Grenada Head of State Politics of Jamaica Politics of Papua New Guinea Politics of... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, (Philip Mountbatten; born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the second cousin once removed, husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip abandoned those titles to serve in the Royal Navy of... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Princess Anne, Princess Royal, (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise Laurence; formerly Mountbatten-Windsor, Phillips; born Windsor, 15 August 1950), is a member of the British Royal Family and the only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II. She is the seventh holder of the title Princess Royal, and is currently ninth in... The Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG, KCVO, ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 19 February 1960), is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ... The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, (Edward Antony Richard Louis Mountbatten-Windsor), styled HRH The Earl of Wessex, KG (born March 10, 1964), is a member of the British royal family, the youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Earl of Wessex... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Windsor, previously called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other Commonwealth Realms. ... God Save the King/Queen is a patriotic hymn, and the national anthem of the United Kingdom. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the Queen Consort of King George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The British Monarchy is a shared monarchy. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony Close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom are known by the appellation The Royal Family. ... Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_England. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, (Philip Mountbatten; born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the second cousin once removed, husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip abandoned those titles to serve in the Royal Navy of... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall (Camilla Rosemary Mountbatten-Windsor; formerly Parker Bowles; born Shand, 17 July 1947) is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and the other 15 Commonwealth Realms. ... Prince William redirects here. ... Prince Henry of Wales (Henry Charles Albert David Mountbatten-Windsor; born September 15, 1984; commonly known as Prince Harry) is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and his first wife, the late Diana, Princess of Wales. ... The Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG, KCVO, ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 19 February 1960), is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ... Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 August 1988) is a member of the British Royal Family. ... Princess Eugenie of York (Eugenie Victoria Helena Mountbatten-Windsor; born 23 March 1990) is a member of the British Royal Family and a granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth II. Princess Eugenie is sixth in the Line of succession to the British Throne. ... The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, (Edward Antony Richard Louis Mountbatten-Windsor), styled HRH The Earl of Wessex, KG (born March 10, 1964), is a member of the British royal family, the youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Earl of Wessex... The Countess of Wessex (Sophie Helen Mountbatten-Windsor; born Rhys-Jones, 20 January 1965), is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Lady Louise Windsor (Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 November 2003) is a member of the British Royal Family. ... The Princess Anne, Princess Royal, (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise Laurence; formerly Mountbatten-Windsor, Phillips; born Windsor, 15 August 1950), is a member of the British Royal Family and the only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II. She is the seventh holder of the title Princess Royal, and is currently ninth in... Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester KG GCVO (Richard Alexander Walter George Windsor; born 26 August 1944) is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of King George V. He has been Duke of Gloucester since his fathers death in 1974. ... The Duchess of Gloucester (born 20 June 1946), is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, a grandchild of King George V. The Duchess of Gloucester, with her husband, undertakes royal duties on behalf of the Dukes cousin, Queen Elizabeth II... Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, KG, GCMG, GCVO (Edward George Nicholas Patrick Paul Windsor; born 9 October 1935), is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandchild of King George V. He has held the title of Duke of Kent since 1942. ... The Duchess of Kent (Katharine Lucy Mary Windsor; born Worsley, 22 February 1933) is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, a grandson of King George V and cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. The Duchess of Kent gained attention for her conversion... Prince Michael of Kent, GCVO (Michael George Charles Franklin Windsor; born 4 July 1942) is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of King George V and Queen Mary. ... Princess Michael of Kent (Marie-Christine Anna Agnes Hedwig Ida Windsor; born Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz, 15 January 1945), is a member of the British Royal Family. ... Princess Alexandra Princess Alexandra of Kent, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy (Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel Ogilvy, née Windsor), (born 25 December 1936), is a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King George V. She was married to the late Sir Angus Ogilvy. ... The House of Windsor, previously called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other Commonwealth Realms. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... A queen regnant is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Crown is a term which is used to separate the government authority and property of the state in a kingdom from any personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch. ... This is a list of awards, decorations, honours, orders and titles belonging to Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony Close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom are known by the appellation The Royal Family. ... The British Monarchy is a shared monarchy. ...


Apart from the United Kingdom, Elizabeth II is also Queen of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts and Nevis, where she is represented by Governors-General. The sixteen countries of which she is Queen are known as Commonwealth Realms, and their combined population is 128 million. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ...


Elizabeth became Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Ceylon upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952. As other colonies of the British Empire (now the Commonwealth of Nations) attained independence from the UK during her reign, she acceded to the newly created thrones as Queen of each respective realm so that throughout her 55 years on the throne she has been Monarch of 32 nations, half of which either moved to different royal houses, or became republics. (See also Former Commonwealth Realms.) George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ...


She is presently the world's only monarch who is simultaneously Head of State of more than one independent nation. In legal theory she is the most powerful head of state in the world, although in practice she personally exercises very little political executive power. Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ...


Elizabeth also holds the positions of Head of the Commonwealth, Lord High Admiral, Supreme Governor of the Church of England (styled Defender of the Faith), Lord of Mann, and Paramount Chief of Fiji. Following tradition, she is also styled Duke of Lancaster and Duke of Normandy. She is also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed forces of many of her Realms. The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... The current Lord of Mann is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... The Paramount Chief of Fiji (Fijian:Ilisapeci-Na Radi ni Viti kei Peritania or Ilisapeci-Na Tui Viti) is the official name given to Queen Elizabeth II in Fiji. ... There were several Dukes of Lancaster in the 14th and early 15th Centuries. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...

Contents

Early life

"P'incess Lilybet" made the cover of Time in 1929, at age three.

Elizabeth was born at 17 Bruton Street, in Mayfair, London, on 21 April 1926.[1] Her father was Prince Albert, Duke of York (the future George VI), the second eldest son of George V and Queen Mary. Her mother was The Duchess of York (née Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth, and, after her daughter's accession to the throne, the Queen Mother), the daughter of Claude George Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and his wife, Nina Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck, the Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne. This is a magazine cover. ... This is a magazine cover. ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V of the United Kingdom. ... Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the Queen Consort of King George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... A Queen Mother is a person satisfying the following criteria: She is the mother of the current monarch, or possibly of the consort of the monarch (though this would not be normal practice). ... Claude George Bowes-Lyon, 14th and 1st Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (14 March 1855–7 November 1944) was the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II. He was born at Lowndes Square in London, the son of Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and his wife, the... Nina Cecilia Bowes-Lyon née Cavendish-Bentinck, (11 September 1862–23 June 1938) was the mother of Queen Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother). ...


She was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace by Cosmo Lang, the Archbishop of York. Her godparents were King George and Queen Mary, the Princess Royal, the Duke of Connaught, the Earl of Strathmore and Lady Elphinstone. Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth (31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945) was Archbishop of York (1908–1928) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1928–1942). ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood, (Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary Lascelles, née Windsor) (25 April 1897 – 28 March 1965) was a member of the British Royal Family. ... Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 1850 – 16 January 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family, a son of Queen Victoria. ... Claude George Bowes-Lyon, 14th and 1st Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (14 March 1855–7 November 1944) was the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II. He was born at Lowndes Square in London, the son of Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and his wife, the... Mary Frances Elphinstone, Lady Elphinstone (August 30, 1883–February 8, 1961) was a maternal aunt and a godparent of Elizabeth II. Born Lady Mary Frances Bowes-Lyon, she was the daughter of Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and the elder sister of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (later...


Elizabeth was named after her mother, while her two middle names are those of her paternal great-grandmother, Queen Alexandra, and grandmother, Queen Mary, respectively. As a child her close family knew her as "Lillibet".[2] Her grandmother Queen Mary doted on her [citation needed] and George V found her very entertaining [citation needed]. At 10 years old, the young Princess was introduced to a preacher at Glamis Castle. As he left, he promised to send her a book. Elizabeth replied, "Not about God. I already know all about Him." [citation needed] This page is about the wife of Edward VII of the United Kingdom. ...


As a granddaughter of the British sovereign in the male line, she held the title of a British princess with the style Her Royal Highness. Her full style was Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the crown, behind her uncle, the Prince of Wales, and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, there was no reason at the time to believe that she would ever become queen, as it was widely assumed that her uncle, the Prince of Wales, would marry and have children in due course. This is a list of British princesses from the accession of King George I in 1714. ... Royal Highness (abbreviation HRH) is a style His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness. ... HRH The Prince of Wales, the Heir Apparent. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on...


However, Edward was destined not to have any legitimate heirs. Since Elizabeth's parents had no sons who would have had precedence over her regardless of when they were born, she would eventually become queen whether Edward had abdicated or not, assuming she outlived her father.


Education

The young Princess Elizabeth was educated at home, as was her younger sister, Princess Margaret, under the supervision of their mother. Her governess was Marion Crawford, better known as "Crawfie."[3] She studied history with C. H. K. Marten, Provost of Eton, and also learned modern languages; she speaks French fluently[4]. She was instructed in religion by the Archbishop of Canterbury and has remained a devout member of the Church of England, of which, as Queen, she is Supreme Governor. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A governess is a female employee from outside of the family who teaches children within the family circle. ... Marion Crawford (June 5, 1909 – February 11, 1988) was a servant with the British Royal Family, and governess of the children of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, the future Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret who gave her the nickname Crawfie. Marion was the named author of the book... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is an internationally renowned public school (privately funded and independent) for male students, founded in 1440 by Henry VI. It is located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor in England, situated north... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Sovereign of the United Kingdom is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ...


Heiress presumptive

When her father became King in 1936 upon the abdication of her uncle, King Edward VIII, she became Heiress Presumptive and was thenceforth known as Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth. There was some demand in Wales for her to be created The Princess of Wales, but the King was advised that this was the title of the wife of the Prince of Wales, not a title in its own right. Some feel the King missed the opportunity to make an innovation in Royal practice, by re-adopting King Henry VIII's idea of proclaiming his eldest daughter, Lady Mary, Princess of Wales in her own right.[citation needed] However, the possibility, however remote, remained that her father could have a son, who would have been heir apparent, supplanting Elizabeth in the line of succession to the throne. That son would have been eligible to be named Prince of Wales, and his wife (if any) would have been Princess of Wales. Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales forever) Anthem: (Welsh for Land of My Fathers) Capital Cardiff (Caerdydd) Largest city Cardiff (Caerdydd) Official language(s) Welsh, English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056... Camilla Mountbatten-Windsor, the current Princess of Wales. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Mary Tudor is the name of both Mary I of England and her fathers sister, Mary Tudor (queen consort of France). ...


Elizabeth was thirteen years old when World War II broke out, and she and her younger sister, Princess Margaret, were evacuated to Windsor Castle, Berkshire. There was some suggestion that the princesses be sent to Canada, but their mother refused to consider this, famously saying, "The children could not possibly go without me, I will never leave the King, and the King will never leave his country." While at Windsor, Princess Elizabeth and her sister staged pantomimes at Christmas with the children of members of staff of the Royal Household. In 1940, Princess Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated. When she was 13 years old, she first met her future husband Prince Philip. She fell in love with him and began writing to him when he was in the British Royal Navy. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... // In the 1930s, aerial bombing became an ever larger spectre in the minds of the government and the public (see Trenchard, Douhet, Spain). ... Windsor Castle: The Round Tower or keep dominating the castle, as seen from the River Thames. ... Berks redirects here. ... Pantomime may refer to two different types of performing arts. ... Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday that marks the traditional birthdate of Jesus of Nazareth. ... In all the medieval monarchies of western Europe the general system of government sprang from, and centred in, the royal household. ... See also The Childrens Hour Childrens Hour—at first: The Childrens Hour, from a verse by Longfellow (1)—was the name of the BBCs principal recreational service for children (as distinct from Broadcasts to Schools) during the period when radio dominated broadcasting. ... HRH The Duke of Edinburgh His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten), styled HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (born June 10, 1921), is the consort of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


Military career

In 1945, Princess Elizabeth convinced her father that she should be allowed to contribute directly to the war effort. She joined the Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service, where she was known as No 230873 Second Subaltern Elizabeth Windsor, and was trained as a driver. This training was the first time she had been taught together with other students. It is said that she greatly enjoyed this and that this experience led her to send her own children to school rather than have them educated at home. She was the first, and so far only, female member of the royal family to actually serve in the armed forces, though Queen Victoria was Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian militia, and other royal women have been given honorary ranks. During the VE Day celebrations in London, she and her sister dressed in ordinary clothing [citation needed] and slipped into the crowd secretly to celebrate with everyone. The Womens Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) was formed on 9 September 1938, initially as a womens voluntary service of the British Army and existed until 1 February 1949. ... A subaltern is a military term for a junior officer. ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day or VE Day) was May 7/8, 1945, the date when the Allies during World War II formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Third Reich. ...

Princess Elizabeth changing a vehicle wheel during WWII.The image above is proposed for deletion. See images and media for deletion to help reach a consensus on what to do.
Princess Elizabeth changing a vehicle wheel during WWII.

The image above is proposed for deletion. See images and media for deletion to help reach a consensus on what to do.

Image File history File links Lizwar. ... Image File history File links Lizwar. ...

Royal duties

Elizabeth made her first official overseas visit in 1947, when she accompanied her parents to South Africa. During her visit to Cape Town, she and her father were accompanied by Prime Minister Jan Smuts when they went to the top of Table Mountain by cable car. On her 21st birthday, she made a broadcast to the British Commonwealth and Empire, pledging to devote her life to the service of the people of the Commonwealth and Empire. City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... Jan Smuts Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... For other uses, see Table Mountain (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Marriage

Elizabeth married The Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark) on 20 November 1947. The Duke is Queen Elizabeth's second cousin once removed. They are both descended from Christian IX of Denmark (she being a great-great-granddaughter through Alexandra of Denmark, and the Duke a great-grandson through George I of Greece). The couple are also third cousins. They share Queen Victoria as a great-great-grandmother. Prince Philip had renounced his claim to the Greek throne and was simply referred to as Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten before being created Duke of Edinburgh prior to their marriage. As a Greek royal, Philip's surname was actually Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glucksborg, the name of the Danish royal house. Mountbatten was an Anglicisation of his mother's name. The marriage was controversial. Philip was Greek Orthodox, with no financial resources behind him, and had sisters who had married Nazi supporters. Elizabeth's mother was reported in later biographies to have strongly opposed the marriage, even referring to Philip as "the Hun."[5] The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, (Philip Mountbatten; born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the second cousin once removed, husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip abandoned those titles to serve in the Royal Navy of... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... This page is about the wife of Edward VII of the United Kingdom. ... George I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (December 24, 1845 – March 18, 1913) was King of the Hellenes (Greece) from 1863 to 1913. ... Queen Victoria, see Queen Victoria (ship). ... The Duke of Edinburgh is a British dukedom. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The (German: Nazional- socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) [National Socialist German Workers Party]); generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ...

The Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh on their wedding day.

After their wedding, Philip and Elizabeth took up residence at Clarence House, London. At various times between 1946 and 1953, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. Lord Mountbatten of Burma had purchased the Villa Gwardamangia (also referred to as the Villa G'Mangia), in the hamlet of Gwardamangia in Malta, in about 1929. Princess Elizabeth stayed there when visiting Philip in Malta. Philip and Elizabeth lived in Malta for a period between 1949 and 1951 (Malta being the only other country in which the Queen has lived, although at that time Malta was a British Protectorate). Image File history File links Source: WorldRoots File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Source: WorldRoots File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A residence may be a house, a place to live, like a nursing home. ... Clarence House, London Clarence House is a royal home in London, situated in The Mall. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Gwardamangia, is a hamlet in Pietà, Malta. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On 14 November 1948, Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Charles. Several weeks earlier, letters patent had been issued so that her children would enjoy a royal and princely status they would not otherwise have been entitled to [citation needed]. Otherwise they would have been styled merely as children of a duke. The couple had four children (see below) in all. Though the Royal House is named Windsor, it was decreed, via a 1960 Order-in-Council, that those descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip who were not Princes or Princesses of the United Kingdom should have the personal surname Mountbatten-Windsor.[6]In practice all of their children, in honour of their father, have used Mountbatten-Windsor as their surname (or in Anne's case, her maiden surname). Both Charles and Anne used Mountbatten-Windsor as their surname in the published banns for their first marriages.[7] November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Windsor, previously called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other Commonwealth Realms. ... An Order-in-Council is an executive order issued in Commonwealth Realms operating under the Westminster system. ... Under an ambiguously-worded Order-in-Council issued in 1960, the name Mountbatten-Windsor is the personal surname of some of the descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The banns of marriage or, simply the banns, (from an Old English word meaning to summon) are the public announcement from the pulpit that a marriage is going to take place in that church between two specified persons at a specified time. ...


Succession

The coronation of the Queen, 2 June 1953- Prince Philip swears his allegiance to his wife and Queen.
The coronation of the Queen, 2 June 1953- Prince Philip swears his allegiance to his wife and Queen.

Her father's health declined during 1951, and Elizabeth was soon frequently standing in for him at public events. She visited Greece, Italy and Malta (where Philip was then stationed) during that year. In October, she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C. In January 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand. They had reached Kenya when word arrived of the death of her father, on 6 February 1952, from lung cancer. Image File history File links Queencrown. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 — December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Elizabeth was staying at the Treetops Hotel in Thika, (today just two hours away from Nairobi) when she was told of her father's death and of her own succession to the throne — a unique circumstance for any such event. She was the first British monarch since the accession of George I to be outside the country at the moment of succession, and also the first in modern times not to know the exact time of her accession (because her father had died in his sleep at an unknown time). On the night her father died, the Chief Justice of Kenya Sir Horace Hearne, who would later accompany the Royal Party back to the UK, escorted the Princess Elizabeth, as she then was, to a dinner at the Treetops Hotel, which is now a very popular tourist retreat in Kenya. It was there that she "went up a princess and came down a Queen". Treetops Hotel is a hotel in Aberdare National Park in Kenya, 6,450 feet above sea level and in sight of Mount Kenya. ... Thika is a market town in Central Province, Kenya, lying on the A2 road north east of Nairobi, and on the Thika River. ... Nairobi (pronounced )is the capital of Kenya. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Treetops Hotel is a hotel in Aberdare National Park in Kenya, 6,450 feet above sea level and in sight of Mount Kenya. ...


It was Prince Philip who broke the news of her father's death to Elizabeth. After that, Martin Charteris, then Assistant Private Secretary to the new Queen, asked her what she intended to be called. "Elizabeth, of course," she replied. The royal party returned immediately to England. HRH The Duke of Edinburgh His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten), styled HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (born June 10, 1921), is the consort of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Martin Michael Charles Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield GCB GCVO OBE QSO PC (7 September 1913–23 December 1999) was a confidante and aide to Queen Elizabeth II. Charteris was the son of Hugo Charteris, Lord Elcho and a brother of the 12th Earl of Wemyss. ... A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some popes and monarchs during their reigns. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...


Elizabeth II's Proclamation of Accession was read at St James's Palace, on Thursday, 7 February, 1952. In Canada, a separate proclamation was issued by the Queen's Privy Council for Canada on the same day. Queen Elizabeth II was proclaimed Sovereign of each of the Commonwealth Realms on February 7, 1952, after the death of her father King George VI in the night between February 5 and February 6, and while the Princess was in Kenya. ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the...


The following year, the Queen's grandmother, Queen Mary, died of lung cancer on 24 March 1953. Reportedly, the Dowager Queen's dying wish was that the coronation not be postponed. Elizabeth's coronation took place in Westminster Abbey, on 2 June 1953. Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V of the United Kingdom. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in leap years). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... A Queen Dowager or Dowager Queen is a title or status generally held by the widow of a reigning king. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Life as Queen

Elizabeth II wearing the Imperial State Crown and fur cape and holding the Sceptre with the Cross and the Orb at her Coronation (2 June 1953).
Elizabeth II wearing the Imperial State Crown and fur cape and holding the Sceptre with the Cross and the Orb at her Coronation (2 June 1953).

© Cecil Beaton / Camera Press. ... © Cecil Beaton / Camera Press. ... The Imperial State Crown is one of the British Crown Jewels. ... A mysterious man in a cape, in Seinfeld, in episode 6-4. ... Queen Elizabeth II holding the Sceptre with the Cross The Sceptre with the Cross, also known as the St Edwards Sceptre, the Sovereigns Sceptre or the Royal Sceptre, is a sceptre of the British Crown Jewels. ... Queen Elizabeth II holding the Orb The Sovereigns Orb is a type of regalia known as a globus cruciger and is one of the British Crown Jewels. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...

Residence

After the Coronation, Elizabeth and Philip moved to Buckingham Palace, in central London. It is reported, however, that, as with many of her predecessors, she dislikes the Palace as a residence and considers Windsor Castle, west of London, to be her home.[8] She also spends time at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh, Balmoral Castle, in Aberdeenshire, and at Sandringham House, in Norfolk. Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... Windsor Castle: The Round Tower or keep dominating the castle, as seen from the River Thames. ... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... Balmoral Castle. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sandringham House is a country house on 8000 acres (32 km²) of land near the village of Sandringham, Norfolk, which is privately owned by the British Royal Family. ... Norfolk (pronounced IPA: ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


Travels

Queen Elizabeth is the most widely-travelled British head of state in history. In 1953 – 1954 she and Philip made a six-month around-the-world tour, becoming the first British monarch to circumnavigate the globe. She also became the first reigning monarch of Australia, New Zealand and Fiji to visit those nations (which she visited again numerous times following). In October 1957, she made a state visit to the United States and toured Canada, opening the first session of that nation's 23rd parliament and addressing the United Nations General Assembly. In 1959, she made another tour of Canada, as well as undertaking a state visit to the United States as Queen of Canada, hosting the return dinner for President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the Canadian embassy in Washington. In February 1961, she visited Ankara, as the guest of Turkish President Cemal Gürsel, and later toured India and Pakistan for the first time. She has made state visits to most European countries and to many outside Europe. She toured the United States for the 1976 Bicentennial, attending festivities with President Ford, and again in 1991 at the invitation of President George H.W. Bush, during which she became the first British monarch to address a joint session of the United States Congress. She regularly attends Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings. The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... State visits usually involve a military review. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... Eisenhower redirects here. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... Cemal Gürsel (October 13, 1895— September 14, 1966), a statesman and a soldier, was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the 4th president of Turkey. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... The United States Bicentennial was celebrated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ...


Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth

The British Empire began its metamorphosis following the Balfour Declaration at the Imperial Conference of 1926, followed by the formalization of the declaration in the Statute of Westminster, 1931. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a statement of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... ...


By the time of Elizabeth's accession in 1952, there was much talk of a "new Elizabethan age." Since then, one of Elizabeth's roles has been to preside over the United Kingdom as it has shared world economic and military power with a growing host of independent nations and principalities. As nations have developed economically and culturally, the Queen has witnessed, over the past 50 years, a gradual transformation of the British Empire into its modern successor, the Commonwealth of Nations. She has worked hard to maintain links with former British possessions, and in some cases, such as South Africa, she has played an important role in retaining or restoring good relations. The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ...

Further information: Commonwealth Realm: Historical development, Commonwealth Realm: Former Commonwealth Realms, and George VI: Empire to Commonwealth

In 1956, it was discovered in declassified papers that French Prime Minister Guy Mollet and British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden discussed the possibility of France joining in a union with the United Kingdom; amongst the ideas put forward was having Elizabeth II as the French head of state. A paper from September 28, 1956, stated that Mollet "had not thought there need be difficulty over France accepting the headship of Her Majesty." This proposal was never accepted, and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome.[9] The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975), French politician, was born in Flers, in Normandy, the son of a textile worker. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (June 12, 1897– January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary for three periods between 1935 and 1955, including World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg (the latter three as part of the Benelux) on March 25, 1957. ...


Golden Jubilee

In 2002, she celebrated her Golden Jubilee, marking the 50th anniversary of her accession to the Throne. The year saw an extensive tour of the Commonwealth Realms, including the first ever pop concert in the gardens of Buckingham Palace, a service of thanksgiving at St. Paul's Cathedral and a lunch at London's Guildhall. Queen Elizabeth II makes an official appearance at the CBC Headquarters as part of her Jubilee goodwill tour, October 2002. ... Queen Elizabeth II makes an official appearance at the CBC Headquarters as part of her Jubilee goodwill tour, October 2002. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... A Guildhall is a building historically used by guilds for meetings. ...


Family relations

The Jubilee year coincided with the deaths, within a few months, of Elizabeth's mother and sister. Elizabeth's relations with her children have become much warmer since these deaths. She is particularly close to her daughter-in-law, Sophie, The Countess of Wessex. She is known to have disapproved of Prince Charles's long-standing relationship with Camilla Parker-Bowles, but with their recent marriage, has come to accept it.[citation needed] On the other hand, she is very close to her grandchildren, noticeably Prince William, Princess Beatrice and Zara Phillips. The Countess of Wessex (Sophie Helen Mountbatten-Windsor; born Rhys-Jones, 20 January 1965), is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall (Camilla Rosemary Mountbatten-Windsor; formerly Parker Bowles; born Shand, 17 July 1947) is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and the other 15 Commonwealth Realms. ... Prince William redirects here. ... Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 August 1988) is a member of the British Royal Family. ... Zara Anne Elizabeth Phillips MBE (born 15 May 1981) is the only daughter of Princess Anne, the Princess Royal and her first husband, Captain Mark Phillips. ...


Health and longevity

HM Queen Elizabeth II, in her official Australian portrait
HM Queen Elizabeth II, in her official Australian portrait

In late February 2003, the Queen's reign, then just over 51 years, surpassed the reigns of all four of her immediate predecessors combined — (Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII and George VI). She is currently the second-longest-serving head of state in the world, after King Bhumibol of Thailand (fourth if one includes the rulers of the subnational entity Ras Al Khaimah and of the Government of Tibet in Exile), and the fourth-longest serving British or English monarch. Her reign of over half a century has seen ten different Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom and numerous Prime Ministers in the Commonwealth Realms. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (894x1197, 97 KB) Queen Elizabeth the second portrait - Parliament House, Canberra author of painting unknown Reason for deletion request:[[Category:Deletion requests|]] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (894x1197, 97 KB) Queen Elizabeth the second portrait - Parliament House, Canberra author of painting unknown Reason for deletion request:[[Category:Deletion requests|]] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... List of currently enthroned monarchs and lifelong leaders sorted by length of service: Current See also List of longest reigning monarchs of all time Categories: | | ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ; IPA: ; Royal Institute: Phumiphon Adunyadet;  ) (born December 5, 1927), officially styled the Great (Thai: มหาราช, Maharaja) and also known as Rama IX, is the current King of Thailand. ... Ras Al-Khaimah (Arabic: رأس الخيمة) is one of the United Arab Emirates. ... Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala Head of State (Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Government of Tibet in Exile, officially named the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a theocratic government-like entity headed by Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai... Queen Victoria, the longest-reigning monarch of the UK The following is a list of the monarchs who have reigned for the longest amount of time in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (Northern Ireland after 1922), the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of England, or the... The Prime Minister is in practice the most important political office in the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ...


In June 2005, she was forced to cancel several engagements after contracting what the Palace described as a bad cold. Nonetheless, the Queen has been described as being in excellent health, and is seldom ill.[10]


In October 2006, she suffered a burst blood vessel in her right eye, causing her entire eye to appear deep red in colour.[11] While the palace would not comment on the Queen's condition, medical experts stated that the Queen would be in no pain and that her eye would heal within a week or two with no lasting damage. They also stated that blood vessel bursts are common for seniors, but can also be a sign of high blood pressure. Later that month, on 26 October, she was due officially to open the new Emirates Stadium, the home of Arsenal F.C., but she was forced to cancel the engagement due to a strained back muscle that had troubled her since the end of her Balmoral holiday.[12]; her back troubles appear to be ongoing. There was serious concern in November, 2006, that she wouldn't be well enough to open Parliament, and plans were drawn up to cover her possible absence. However, she was able to attend. The following month, The Queen faced more rumours that she was in declining health when she was seen in public with a plaster on her right hand; the positioning of the plaster seemed to suggest that the Queen may have been fitted with an intravenous drip. Medical experts suggest that given her back troubles and age she may be suffering from osteoporosis. Buckingham Palace refused comment.[13] However, it was later revealed that the plaster was as a result of one of her Corgis biting her hand as she separated two fighting pets.[14] October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... The Emirates Stadium is a football stadium located on Ashburton Grove, north London, and the home of Arsenal Football Club since it opened in July 2006; the stadium has an all-seated capacity of 60,432. ... Arsenal Football Club (also known as Arsenal, The Arsenal or The Gunners) are an English professional football club based in north London. ... Painting of a womans back by Edgar Degas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muscular system. ... Balmoral Castle. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ...


Reduced duties

On Friday, April 21, 2006, the Queen turned 80, making her the third oldest reigning monarch in British and Commonwealth history. She has begun to hand over some public duties to her children, as well as to other members of the Royal Family, and in early 2006, reports began to surface that the Queen planned to reduce her official duties significantly, though she has made it clear that she has no intention of abdicating.[8] It is believed by both the press and Palace insiders that Prince Charles will start to perform many of the day-to-day duties of the Monarch, while the Queen will effectively go into "retirement"[citation needed]. It was later confirmed by the Palace that Prince Charles will begin to hold the regular audiences with the Prime Minister and other Commonwealth leaders, but also that, while the Queen would be increasing the length of her weekends by two days, she would continue with public duties well into the future. [citation needed] Buckingham Palace is also reported to be considering giving the Prince more access to government papers, and is to allow him to preside over more investitures, meet more foreign dignitaries and take the place of the Queen in welcoming ambassadors at the Court of St. James's. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Court of St Jamess is the popular name of the royal court of the United Kingdom. ...


It has been rumoured that her recent trip to Canada and Australia will be amongst her last visits to her overseas realms, though both the Canadian and Australian governments, and the Palace, have denied it.


In November, 2006, the Queen announced that she and Prince Philip would be making a state visit to the United States in May of 2007, in honour of the 400th anniversary of the Jamestown settlement. Jamestown is the name of the following places in the United States of America: Jamestown, California Jamestown, Colorado Jamestown, Indiana Jamestown, Kansas Jamestown, Kentucky Jamestown, Louisiana Jamestown, Missouri Jamestown, New York Jamestown, North Carolina Jamestown, North Dakota Jamestown, Ohio Jamestown, Oklahoma Jamestown, Pennsylvania Jamestown, Rhode Island Jamestown, South Carolina Jamestown...


Despite her good health and intention to stay on the throne, some saw the wedding of the Prince of Wales to Camilla as a message from the Queen that, by allowing Charles to marry, she is attempting to ensure that Charles' succession to the throne will be smooth. In 2004, a copy of the Queen's newly-revised funeral plans was stolen.[15] And for the first time, in September 2005, a mock version of the Queen's funeral march was held in the middle of the night (this was also done once a year after the late Queen Mother turned 80). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


If the Queen lives until December 21, 2007, she will become the oldest reigning monarch in both British and the Commonwealth Realms' history, surpassing King George III and Queen Victoria, both of whom died before the age of 82. December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ...


Should she still be reigning on September 9, 2015, at the age of 89, her reign will surpass that of Queen Victoria and she will become the longest reigning monarch in British history. If she lives that long, and the Prince of Wales does also, he would be the oldest to succeed to the throne, surpassing William IV, who was 64. September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 2015 (MMXV) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, the longest-reigning monarch of the UK The following is a list of the monarchs who have reigned for the longest amount of time in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (Northern Ireland after 1922), the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of England, or the... William IV (William Henry) (21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ...


Shortly before her 80th birthday, polls were conducted that showed the majority of the British public wish for the Queen to remain on the throne until her death — many feel that the Queen has become an institution in herself.[16]


Views and perceptions

Elizabeth is a conservative in matters of religion, moral standards and family matters [citation needed]. She has a strong sense of religious duty and takes her Coronation Oath seriously [citation needed]. This is one reason (as well as the example set by her uncle who abdicated) why it is considered highly unlikely that she will ever abdicate [citation needed]. For years, she refused to acknowledge Prince Charles's relationship with Camilla Parker-Bowles [citation needed], but since their marriage, an appearance of acceptance has been established.


Elizabeth's political views are supposed to be less clear-cut, as she has done little in public to reveal what they might be. However, there is some evidence to suggest that, in economic terms, she leans towards a One Nation point of view. During Margaret Thatcher's years as Prime Minister, it was rumoured that the Queen worried that Mrs. Thatcher's economic policies were fostering social divisions, and she was reportedly alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots in 1981, and the violence of the miners' strike.[17] Mrs. Thatcher once said to Brian Walden, referring to the Social Democratic Party: "The problem is, the Queen is the kind of woman who could vote SDP."[17] It is believed that her favourite Prime Ministers have been Winston Churchill, Harold Macmillan and Harold Wilson [citation needed]. She was thought to have very good relations with her current Prime Minister, Tony Blair, during the first years of his term in office; however, there has been mounting evidence in recent years that her relationship with Blair has hardened.[18] One Nation, One Nation Conservatism, or Tory Democracy is a term used in political debate in the United Kingdom to refer to one wing of the Conservative Party. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... The Prime Minister is in practice the most important political office in the United Kingdom. ... Brian Walden (born July 8, 1932) was a Labour Member of Parliament and is now a journalist and broadcaster. ... The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was a political party of the United Kingdom that existed nationwide between 1981 and 1988. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament...


The only public issues on which Elizabeth makes her views known are those affecting the unity of each of her Realms. During an event in Westminster Hall marking her Silver Jubilee, in 1977, her speech was considered by some to be critical of the then Government's devolution proposals [citation needed]. She has spoken in favour of the continued union of England and Scotland, [citation needed] angering some Scottish nationalists [citation needed]. Her statement of praise for the Northern Ireland Belfast Agreement raised some complaints among some Unionists (who were traditionally strong monarchists). Ian Paisley, leader of the rightwing Democratic Unionist Party and founder of the evangelical Free Presbyterian church, famously broke with Unionism's traditional deference for the British Crown by calling the Queen "a parrot" of Tony Blair and suggested that her support for the Belfast Agreement would weaken the monarchy's standing amongst Northern Irish Protestants, a substantial number of whom remained opposed to certain parts of the Agreement. However, Paisley's criticism of the Queen on this matter was rejected by more traditional and moderate unionists.[19] Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the Acts of Union, the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Motto:  (Latin for Who will separate us?)[1] Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Ulster Scots, Irish3, Northern Ireland Sign Language, Irish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... Unionism, in the context of Ireland, is a belief in the continuation of the Act of Union 1800 (as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920) so that Northern Ireland (created by the 1920 Act) remains part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other political parties named Democratic Unionist Party, see Democratic Unionist Party (disambiguation). ... The Free Presbyterian Church is a Presbyterian denomination founded and moderated by the cleric and politician, Ian Paisley¹. Most of its membership live in Ulster. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


Also, while not speaking directly against Quebec sovereignty in Canada, she has publicly praised Canada's unity and expressed her wish to see the continuation of a unified Canada, sometimes courting controversy over the matter. (See Constitutional controversies below). Like her mother, Elizabeth has shown an affection for Canada, stating in 1983, when departing California, "I am going home to Canada tomorrow," and at a dinner in Saskatchewan in 2005: "this country and Canadians everywhere have been a constant presence in my life and work."[20] She has also stated that Canada feels like "a home away from home."[21] The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

With Adrienne Clarkson, then Governor-General of Canada, during her tour of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 2005.
With Adrienne Clarkson, then Governor-General of Canada, during her tour of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 2005.

The Queen's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years. Sometimes estimated at US$10 short billion, recently Forbes magazine conservatively estimated her fortune at around US$500 million (£280 million).[22] This figure seems to agree with official Palace statements that called reports of the Queen's supposed multibillion-dollar wealth "grossly over exaggerated". [citation needed] Image File history File links ClarksonandQueen2005. ... Image File history File links ClarksonandQueen2005. ... Adrienne Louise Clarkson (Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hakka: Ńg Pên-kî), PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, LL.D(honoris causa) (born February 10, 1939) is an accomplished Canadian journalist. ... The Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada, normally simply known as the Governor General of Canada in French, Gouverneur(e) général(e) is the Canadian representative of the monarch (presently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II). ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Official languages English Flower Western Red Lily Tree Paper Birch Bird Sharp-tailed Grouse Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... Forbes Building on Fifth Avenue in New York City Forbes is a publishing and media company. ...


Her personal relationships with world leaders are warm and informal. On a BBC documentary broadcast in 1992, Elizabeth R, she was shown teasing former Prime Minister Sir Edward Heath about how he could travel to world trouble spots like Iraq because politicians saw him as "expendable" — he laughed at the comment. Mary McAleese, now President of Ireland, recounted how, as Pro Vice-Chancellor of the Queen's University of Belfast, she was, to her shock, invited to a lunch with the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh, on the basis that the Queen wished to talk to her, as a leading Northern Ireland nationalist, and hear her views on Anglo-Irish relations. The two women struck up an instant rapport [citation needed], with McAleese, during the 1997 Irish presidential election, calling the Queen "a dote" (a Hiberno-English term meaning a "really lovely person") in an Irish Independent interview. Nelson Mandela, in the BBC documentary, repeatedly referred to her as "my friend, Elizabeth". She has a very friendly relationship with Jacques Chirac of France, who is the only Head of State allowed to drink his favoured Corona-brand beer at official dinners at Buckingham Palace instead of the fine French wines of the Palace's cellar. [citation needed] The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is one of the largest broadcasting corporations in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of more than £4 billion. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), soldier and politician, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish name Máire Mhic Ghiolla Íosa; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... Official Seal of the President of Ireland Mary McAleese, the current President of Ireland. ... The Queens University of Belfast (QUB) is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland; the university is often called Queens University Belfast. ... Motto:  (Latin for Who will separate us?)[1] Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Ulster Scots, Irish3, Northern Ireland Sign Language, Irish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of... The term Anglo-Irish means British-Irish and is used frequently to describe formal contacts, negotiations or treaties between both states. ... The Irish general election of 1997 was held on October 30, 1997. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Irish Independents header consists of its name and a green harp The Irish Independent is Irelands best-selling broadsheet newspaper. ... Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA )) (born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932 in Paris) is a French politician and the current President of the French Republic. ... A bottle of Corona Grupo Modelo is a large brewery in Mexico. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ...


Recent public image

Elizabeth's public image has softened noticeably in recent years, particularly since the death of the Queen Mother [citation needed]. Although she remains reserved in public, she has been seen laughing and smiling much more than in years past, and, to the shock of many [citation needed], she shed tears during emotional occasions such as at Remembrance Day services, the memorial service at St Paul's Cathedral for those killed in the September 11, 2001 attacks, and in Normandy, for the 60th anniversary of D-Day, where she addressed the Canadian troops. Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance Remembrance Day (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom), also known as Poppy Day (South Africa and Malta), and Armistice Day (United Kingdom, New Zealand and many other Commonwealth countries; and the original name of the holiday internationally) is a day to commemorate... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ...


Queen Elizabeth has never suffered from severe public disapproval. However, in 1997, she and other members of the Royal Family were perceived in the British tabloid press as cold and unfeeling when they did not participate in the public outpouring of grief at the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Some people [citation needed] deny that Elizabeth held negative feelings towards Diana and thought that she had damaged the institution of the monarchy and cite as evidence of this the Queen bowing to Diana's coffin as it passed Buckingham Palace, something unprecedented and unexpected. She also gave a live television broadcast paying tribute to Diana. These actions redressed tabloid opinion. Elizabeth's behaviour during the funeral is believed to have resulted from strong advice from the Queen Mother and Tony Blair. This difficult period for the monarch is dramatized in the acclaimed 2006 film, The Queen. Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony Close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom are known by the appellation The Royal Family. ... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances Mountbatten-Windsor; née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was the first wife of Charles, the Prince of Wales, eldest son and heir apparent of Elizabeth II. Her two sons, Princes William and Harry, are second and third, respectively, in line to... This article is about motion pictures. ... The word Queen may have many meanings: Political A queen regnant is a female monarch A queen consort is the wife of a king. ...


Constitutional role

Role in government

The Queen (wearing the insignia of the Sovereign of the Order of Canada and of the Order of Military Merit) pictured with her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
The Queen (wearing the insignia of the Sovereign of the Order of Canada and of the Order of Military Merit) pictured with her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

Constitutionally, the Queen is an essential part of the legislative process of her Realms. The Queen-in-Parliament (the Queen, acting with the advice and consent of Parliament), in each country, is an integral part of Parliament, along with the upper and lower houses. In all of her realms outside of the United Kingdom, she retains her constitutional powers, but her direct participation usually consists only of the appointment of representatives within the Realm in question, usually a Governor-General, who exercises her executive power in a fashion closely resembling her own exercise of power within the United Kingdom - in Canada, this participation stretches to include the appointment of additional Senators to break deadlocks in the Canadian Senate. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (857x732, 67 KB) Offical potrait from Canadas government website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (857x732, 67 KB) Offical potrait from Canadas government website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country. ... The Order of Military Merit is an Order (decoration) issued by Canada to members of the Canadian Forces who have demonstrated dedication and devotion beyond the call of duty. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, (Philip Mountbatten; born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the second cousin once removed, husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip abandoned those titles to serve in the Royal Navy of... The Queen-in-Parliament (or King-in-Parliament when there is a male monarch) is a British constitutional law term for the British Crown in its legislative role, acting with the advice and consent of the House of Commons and House of Lords. ... An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


In practice, much of the Queen's role in the legislative process is ceremonial, as her reserve powers are rarely exercised. For example, the Queen may legally withhold Royal Assent from Bills, but no monarch has refused his or her assent to a Bill since Queen Anne, in 1708. In Realms outside of the United Kingdom, the power to give Royal Assent is also practised by her designated representative in the Realm. The Queen, or her Governors-General, in the Realms outside the United Kingdom, also gives a speech at the annual State Opening of Parliament, outlining the government's legislative agenda for the year, but the speech is written by government ministers and reflects the view of the elected government. // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England and Ireland and Queen of Scots on 8 March 1702. ... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ...


The Queen also has a functional role in executive government. In the United Kingdom, she chooses her prime minister in accordance with constitutional requirements. In her realms outside the United Kingdom, this power is exercised by her representatives. In reality no actual choice is required, as the issue of whom to ask to form a government is clear from who controls the House of Commons, except in exceptional circumstances. She also decides the basis on which a person is asked to form a government. That is, whether a government should be formed capable of surviving in the House of Commons — the standard requirement — or capable of commanding majority support in the House of Commons (i.e. forming a coalition if no one party has a majority). This requirement was last set in 1940, when King George VI asked Winston Churchill to form a government capable of commanding a majority in parliament[citation needed]. This necessitated the wartime coalition. The requirement is normally only made in emergencies or in wartime, and happened only three times in the 20th century: with Andrew Bonar Law and David Lloyd George in 1916 (Bonar Law declined and recommended King George V ask Lloyd George to form a government), and Churchill, in 1940. To date, Elizabeth has never set it. All of her prime ministers have had to meet the lower requirement of simply surviving in the House of Commons. The Queen also appoints ministers of the United Kingdom and all government is carried out legally in her name. The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858–30 October 1923) was a Conservative British statesman and Prime Minister. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ...


Theoretically, she still holds a large proportion of power in international affairs. The Queen, as Head of State, has the power to declare war, to make peace, to recognise foreign states, to conclude treaties, and to take over, or give up, territory, on behalf of the United Kingdom. In her other realms, she leaves the exercise of these powers to her representatives, who likewise exercise it at the behest of elected governments.

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of New Zealand, wearing the sash and the star of the New Zealand Order of Merit, as well as the badges on her shoulder of the Order of New Zealand and the Queen's Service Order.
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of New Zealand, wearing the sash and the star of the New Zealand Order of Merit, as well as the badges on her shoulder of the Order of New Zealand and the Queen's Service Order.

United Kingdom Orders-in-Council are issued only when approved by her at Privy Council meetings. Canadian Orders are issued only when approved by her Governor General-in-Council. She has access to all government minutes and documentation from all her Realms, and has a weekly meeting with the British Prime Minister when the British parliament is in session. In the UK, she also signs executive orders, financial papers and treasury papers, with her signature required on all major financial transactions of state (countersigned by the relevant minister). The role of Commander-in-Chief is held, in each realm, either by the Queen, or by her Governor-General, as her representative. Image File history File links Queen_Elizabeth_II_of_New_Zealand_cropped. ... Image File history File links Queen_Elizabeth_II_of_New_Zealand_cropped. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... // History Royal honours were awarded in New Zealand from the very beginning of settlement. ... Badge of the Order of New Zealand The Order of New Zealand is the highest locally awarded honour in the New Zealand Honours System. ... Male Companions Badge of the Queens Service Order for Community Service The Queens Service Order was established by Queen Elizabeth II on 13 March 1975. ... An Order-in-Council is an executive order issued in Commonwealth Realms operating under the Westminster system. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


On three occasions during her reign, the Queen has had to deal with constitutional problems over the formation of UK governments. In 1957 and again in 1963, the absence of a formal open mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that following the sudden resignations of Sir Anthony Eden and Harold Macmillan it fell on the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. In 1957, Eden did not proffer advice, and so the Queen consulted Lords Salisbury and Kilmuir for the opinion of the Cabinet, and Winston Churchill, as the only living former Conservative Prime Minister (following the precedent of George V consulting Salisbury's father and Arthur Balfour upon Andrew Bonar Law's resignation in 1923). In October 1963, the outgoing Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, advised the Queen to appoint the late Alec Douglas-Home, the Earl of Home. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative & Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), and the largest in terms of public membership. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (June 12, 1897– January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary for three periods between 1935 and 1955, including World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... The Right Honourable Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, KG (August 27, 1893–February 23, 1972) was a grandson of the great 3rd Marquess. ... David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir (1900-1967) was an important British politician and jurist. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (October 23, 1861 - April 4, 1947) was the eldest son and heir of the Victorian statesman Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury. ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 – 19 March 1930) was a British statesman and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 until 1905. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858–30 October 1923) was a Conservative British statesman and Prime Minister. ... Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home1, Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC (July 2, 1903 – October 9, 1995), 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October 1964. ... The title Earl of Home (pronounced Hume) was created in 1605 in the Peerage of Scotland for Alexander Home, who was also the sixth Lord Home. ...


On the third occasion, in February 1974, an inconclusive general election result meant that in theory the outgoing Prime Minister Edward Heath, who had won the popular vote, could stay in power if he formed a coalition government with the Liberals. Rather than immediately resign as prime minister he explored the option and only resigned when the discussions foundered. (Had he chosen to, he could have stayed on until defeated in the debate on the Queen's Speech.) Only when he resigned was the Queen able to ask the Leader of the Opposition, the Labour Party's Harold Wilson, to form a government. His minority government lasted for 8 months before a new general election was held. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), soldier and politician, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands reads her countrys Speech from the Throne Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne, sometimes referred to by the shorter term Throne Speech, is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or... The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the largest party not in government in a Westminster System of parliamentary government. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... A minority government or a minority cabinet is a cabinet of a parliamentary system formed when no political party has won a majority of seats in the parliament, typically by the party that does have a plurality. ...


In all three cases, she appears to have acted in accordance with constitutional tradition, following the advice of her senior ministers and Privy Councillors. Indeed, since constitutional practice in the UK is based on tradition and precedent rather than a written set of rules, it is generally accepted that the Sovereign cannot be acting unconstitutionally when acting on the advice of her or his ministers.

See also: Prime Ministers of Queen Elizabeth II

HM the Queen with Commonwealth Prime Ministers, in the 1950s. ...

Relations with ministers

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip, Ernest Harmon Air Force Base visit 1959
Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip, Ernest Harmon Air Force Base visit 1959

British Prime Ministers take their weekly meetings with the Queen very seriously. One Prime Minister said he took them more seriously than Prime Minister's Questions in the House of Commons, because she would be better briefed and more constructive than anything he would face at the dispatch box. Elizabeth also has regular meetings with her individual British ministers, and occasional meetings with ministers from her other Realms. Image File history File links Queen1959. ... Image File history File links Queen1959. ... Ernest Harmon AFB is a former United States Air Force base located in Stephenville, Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Prime Ministers Questions is a Parliamentary practice in the United Kingdom where every Wednesday when the House of Commons is sitting, the Prime Minister spends half an hour answering questions from MPs. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


As with her British Prime Ministers, some Canadian Prime Ministers have commented on the Queen's knowledge of Canadian and international affairs. Former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau stated, "I was always impressed not only by the grace she displayed in public at all times, but by the wisdom she showed in private conversation."[23] The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... Trudeau redirects here. ...


The Queen also meets the First Minister of Scotland. The royal palace in Edinburgh, the Holyrood Palace, once home to Scottish kings and queens such as Mary, Queen of Scots, is now regularly used again, with at least one member of the Royal Family (often the Prince of Wales or Princess Royal) in residence. She also receives reports from the new National Assembly for Wales, and is continually kept abreast of goings on with her other governments. The Government of Wales Act of 2006 means that from 2007 the Queen will have a role in relation to Wales separate to her role as Queen of the UK. She will appoint Welsh Ministers and enact Welsh Orders in Council. The First Minister (First Meinister in Scots; Prìomh Mhinistear in Scots Gaelic) is the leader of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the reconvened Scottish Parliament. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Regional proportion of Yes vote in the 1997 referendum. ... The Government of Wales Act, 1998 or, to give it its full title , was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in 1998 by the incoming Labour government to create a National Assembly for Wales. ...

Queen Elizabeth II with Maharaja Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur.
Queen Elizabeth II with Maharaja Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur.

Though bound by convention not to intervene directly in politics, her length of service, and the fact that she has seen a great many prime ministers come and go in all of her realms, combined with her knowledge of world leaders, means that when she does express an opinion, however cautiously, her words are taken seriously. In her memoirs, Margaret Thatcher offered the following description of her weekly meetings with Elizabeth: "Anyone who imagines that they are a mere formality or confined to social niceties is quite wrong; they are quietly businesslike and Her Majesty brings to bear a formidable grasp of current issues and breadth of experience." Image File history File links Maharaja Jaya Chama Raja Wadiyar Bahadur File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Maharaja Jaya Chama Raja Wadiyar Bahadur File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


During an argument within the Commonwealth over sanctions on South Africa, Elizabeth made a pointed reference to her role as Head of the Commonwealth, which was interpreted at the time as a disagreement with Thatcher's policy of opposing sanctions. However, whatever the differences between them, Thatcher has clearly conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen and believes that the image of animosity between the two of them has been played up because they are both women. In the aforementioned BBC documentary Queen & Country, Thatcher describes Elizabeth as "marvelous" and "a perfect lady" who "always knows just what to say," referring in particular to her final meeting with the sovereign as prime minister. Since leaving office, Thatcher has been awarded a life peerage, the Order of Merit, and the Order of the Garter, which would seem to indicate a basic respect for Thatcher on the part of Elizabeth (membership of the two Orders are entirely the personal gift of the Sovereign). In October 2005, the Queen and Prince Philip attended Thatcher's 80th birthday party in London. In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ...


On occasion, her contacts have proved highly beneficial for her realms. For example, John Major, as British Prime Minister, once had difficulty working with Australian Prime Minister John Howard. The Queen suggested to Major that he and Howard shared a mutual sporting interest — that Howard was, like Major, a cricket fan. Major then broke the ice to establish a personal relationship which ultimately benefited both countries.[citation needed] Sir John Major KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to 1997. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ... For the insect, see Cricket (insect). ...


Canadian national unity

Her Majesty the Queen of Canada presents a tablet of Balmoral granite with the ciphers of both herself and her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria, at the First Nations University of Canada, May 17, 2005
Her Majesty the Queen of Canada presents a tablet of Balmoral granite with the ciphers of both herself and her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria, at the First Nations University of Canada, May 17, 2005

In a speech to the Quebec Legislature, at the height of the Quiet Revolution of 1964, she ignored the national controversy (including riots during her appearance in Quebec City — see History of Monarchy in Canada) in favour of praising Canada's two "complementary cultures", speaking, in both French and English, about the strength of Canada's two founding peoples, stating, "I am pleased to think that there exists in our Commonwealth a country where I can express myself officially in French," and, "whenever you sing [the French words of] 'O Canada' you are reminded that you come of a proud race."[24][25] From govt of Saskatchewan: http://www. ... From govt of Saskatchewan: http://www. ... Balmoral Castle. ... A grandfather teaches his little granddaughter how to ride a kick scooter. ... The First Nations University of Canada (formerly Saskatchewan Federated Indian College) is a university in Saskatchewan, Canada with campuses in Regina, Saskatoon, and Prince Albert. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de... The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... O Canada is the national anthem of Canada. ...


In 1995, during a separatist referendum campaign, 29-year-old Pierre Brassard, a DJ for Radio CKOI-FM Montreal, tricked her into speaking with him, in both French and English, for 14 minutes, pretending to be Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. When told that the separatists were showing a lead, the Queen did reveal that she felt the "referendum may go the wrong way," adding, "if I can help in any way, I will be very happy to do so". However, she pointedly refused to accept "Chrétien's" advice that she intervene on the issue without first seeing a draft speech sent by him. Her tactful handling of the call won plaudits from the DJ.[26] Pierre Brassard is a radio broadcaster from Radio CKOI-FM (Montreal, Canada), famous for his phone call hoaxes. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, LLL, LLD (born January 11, 1934), served as the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ...


Rhodesia

On 18 November 1965, the Governor of Rhodesia, Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs, was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, an honour in the personal gift of the Queen, a week after Ian Smith had made his Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Gibbs was intensely loyal to Rhodesia, and, although he had refused to accept the UDI, the award was criticised by some as badly timed. Others praised it as indicating support for her Rhodesian representative in the face of an illegal action by her Rhodesian prime minister. November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... National motto: Sit Nomine Digna (Latin: May she be worthy of the name) Official language English Capital Salisbury Political system Parliamentary system Form of government Constitutional monarchy (until 1970) Republic (March 2, 1970) - Last President John Wrathall - Prime Minister Ian Smith Area  - Total  - % water 390 580 km² 1% Population  - 1978... Sir Humphrey Gibbs, c1965. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) The Right Honourable Ian Douglas Smith, GCLM ID, (born April 8, 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from April 13, 1964 to November 11, 1965 and the Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was signed on November 11, 1965 by the white minority government of Ian Smith, whose Rhodesian Front party opposed rushed moves by the United Kingdom towards black majority rule in the then British colony. ...


Australia

During the Australian constitutional crisis of 1975, when the Governor-General of Australia Sir John Kerr dismissed Gough Whitlam from the office of Prime Minister, the Queen received petitions and letters from Whitlam, the Speaker and private citizens asking the Queen to reverse the action of the Governor-General. The Queen's Private Secretary answered these petitions and letters by saying the matter was under the Australian Constitution for the Governor-General of Australia to decide. [27] Whitlam and others many years later declared their support for Australia becoming a republic. Evidence suggests that the Queen did not approve of Governor-General Kerr's removal of the elected government.[citation needed] The secretary of the Governor-General, David Smith, announcing the dissolution of Parliament on November 11th, 1975. ... Michael Jeffery, the current Governor-General of Australia The Governor-General of Australia is the representative in Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, who lives in the United Kingdom. ... Sir John Kerr Alternative meanings: John Kerr (disambiguation). ... Edward Gough Whitlam AC QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), Australian politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ...


The United Kingdom

In her speech to Parliament at the Silver Jubilee in 1977, Elizabeth stated, "I cannot forget that I was crowned Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". This reference came at a time when the Labour government was attempting to introduce a controversial devolution scheme to Scotland and Wales, and was interpreted as opposition to devolution. However, in the late 1990s, after referendums approved a devolution scheme, Elizabeth sent her best wishes to the new Scottish Parliament, the first session of which she opened in person. Her reference in the Silver Jubilee speech is also believed, by some, to refer to the disturbances in Northern Ireland at that time. Devolution or home rule is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a state to government at national, regional or local level. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Motto: (Welsh for Wales forever) Anthem: (Welsh for Land of My Fathers) Capital Cardiff (Caerdydd) Largest city Cardiff (Caerdydd) Official language(s) Welsh, English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056...


Relations with world leaders

Elizabeth has developed friendships with many foreign leaders, including Nelson Mandela, Mary Robinson, and George H. W. Bush, whose son, George W. Bush, was the first American president in more than 80 years to stay at Buckingham Palace. Similarly, she displayed initiative when Irish President Mary Robinson began visiting Great Britain, by suggesting that she invite Robinson to visit her at the Palace. The Irish Government enthusiastically supported the idea. The result was the first ever visit by an Irish President to meet the British monarch. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA )) (born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ... Mary Robinson (Irish name Máire Mhic Róibín; born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Mary Robinson (Irish name Máire Mhic Róibín; born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. ...


Religious role

In some Realms, the Queen is the Sovereign "by Grace of God," and, in the United Kingdom, is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. As with her predecessors, the Coronation itself took place within the context of a church service, at Westminster Abbey, imbued with theological, as well as constitutional, meaning. In some Realms, the Queen retains the ancient title Fidei Defensor, a title first granted in 1521 by Pope Leo X to King Henry VIII, prior to the Reformation. Other Commonwealth nations have removed those words from the Queen's title.[28] The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The Sovereign of the United Kingdom is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... Pope Leo X Leo X, né Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (December 11, 1475 - December 1, 1521), was the only pope who has bestowed his own name upon his age, and one of the few whose original extraction has corresponded in some measure with the splendour of the pontifical dignity. ... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


The Church of England remains the established church in England; archbishops and bishops are formally appointed by the Crown and sit in the House of Lords as Lords Spiritual. The Queen takes a keen personal interest in the Church, but, in practice, delegates authority in the Church of England to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Queen regularly worships at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, or at St. Mary Magdalene Church when staying at Sandringham House, Norfolk. Certain churches (known as Royal Peculiars) have royal patronage, and are outside the normal diocesan administrative structures; the best-known example is Westminster Abbey. There are six Royal chapels outside of the UK. In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the twenty-six clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Members of the public outside St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting to watch the Garter Procession St Georges Chapel is the place of worship at Windsor Castle in England. ... A Royal Peculiar (or Royal Peculier) is a place of worship that falls directly under the jurisdiction of the British monarch, rather than a diocese. ...


The role of the Sovereign differs considerably in the other three nations of the United Kingdom. In Scotland, the Church of Scotland, with a Presbyterian system of church government, is recognised in law as the "national church" in which the Queen is an ordinary member. Her first act as monarch was to swear to uphold and protect the reformed church in Scotland; a similar oath for England had to wait for the coronation. The Royal Family regularly attends services at Crathie Kirk when holidaying at Balmoral Castle, and when in residence at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, in Edinburgh, the family attends services at the Kirk of the Canongate. The Queen has attended the annual General Assembly of the Church of Scotland on several occasions, most recently in 1977 and 2002, although, in most years, she appoints a Lord High Commissioner to represent her. Unusually for the Church of Scotland, Glasgow Cathedral and Dunblane Cathedral are both owned by the Crown. Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... Crathie Kirk Crathie Kirk is a small Church of Scotland parish church in the Scottish village of Crathie, best known for being the regular place of worship of the British Royal Family when they are holidaying at nearby Balmoral Castle. ... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... The Kirk of the Canongate serves the Parish of Canongate in Edinburghs Old Town. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... As the Sovereigns personal representative Lord High Commissioners were appointed to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Scotland between 1603 and 1707. ... Glasgow Cathedral Glasgow Cathedral is a Church of Scotland cathedral in Glasgow. ... Dunblane Cathedral is the larger of the two parish churches serving Dunblane in Scotland. ...


In Wales, Northern Ireland, and the other Realms, there is no official religion established by law. The Church in Wales and the Church of Ireland were both disestablished, in 1920 and 1871 respectively. Though Canadian coins are minted with the inscription D.G. Regina (Queen by the Grace of God) around her portrait, and her Canadian title includes the phrase "Defender of the Faith", Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada, plays no religious role in the country. (See Monarchy in Canada: Cultural Role.) Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ... Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... It has been suggested that Portrait painting be merged into this article or section. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ...


The Queen made particular reference to her Christian convictions in her Christmas Day television broadcast in 2000, in which she spoke about the theological significance of the Millennium as the marking the 2000th anniversary of the birth of Jesus Christ: "To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me, the teachings of Christ, and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example." Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The Queen often meets with leaders from other religions as well. She is Patron of the Council of Christians & Jews (CCJ) in the UK.


Personality and image

The 4 portraits of Elizabeth on UK coinage (clockwise from top left: 1st, 3rd, 4th, 2nd)
The 4 portraits of Elizabeth on UK coinage (clockwise from top left: 1st, 3rd, 4th, 2nd)

Elizabeth has never given press interviews, and her views on political issues are largely unknown except to those few heads of government who share her confidence. She is also regarded privately as an excellent mimic. Conservative in dress, she is well known for her solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats which allow her to be seen easily in a crowd. She attends many cultural events as part of her public role. Her main leisure interests include horse racing,[29] photography,[30] and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis.[31] Image File history File links FOUREFFIGIES.jpg http://www. ... Image File history File links FOUREFFIGIES.jpg http://www. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Cameron Frost is a good photographer! Photography is the process of making pictures by means of capturing light on a film. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog is a type of canine, a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... The Pembroke Welsh Corgi (IPA: ) is one of two dog breeds known as Welsh Corgis that originated in Pembrokeshire, Wales. ...


Elizabeth's first appearance on live television was in Prescott, Ontario in 1959 when, as Queen of Canada, she opened the Saint Lawrence Seaway.[32] She has given an annual Christmas Message to the Commonwealth every year apart from 1969 since she became Queen; in 2001 the Christmas Message was webcast on the Royal website for the first time, and in 2006 it was made available as a podcast. Live television refers to television broadcasts of events or performances on a delay of between zero and fifteen seconds, rather than from video recordings or film. ... Prescott is a town of approximately 4,200 people on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River in Ontario, Canada, directly across from Ogdensburg, New York. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St Lawrence Seaway is the common name for system of canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes as far as Lake Superior. ... The Royal Christmas Message (currently coined The Queens Christmas Message) is broadcast by the Sovereign of the Commonwealth Realms to the Commonwealth at Christmas. ... An orange square with waves was introduced by Mozilla Firefox to indicate that an RSS feed is present on a webpage. ...


In matters of diplomacy, Elizabeth is formal, and royal protocol is generally very strict. Though some of the traditional rules for dealing with the Monarch have been relaxed during her reign (bowing is no longer required, for example), other forms of close personal interaction, such as touching, are discouraged by officials. At least four people are known to have broken this rule, the first being Alice Frazier in 1991 during the Queen's 13-day United States visit, when Elizabeth, accompanied by Barbara Bush and Jack Kemp, visited a government housing project in Washington.[33] The second was Paul Keating, of the Labor Party, Prime Minister of Australia, when he was photographed with his arm around the Queen in 1992 (and was afterwards dubbed the "Lizard of Oz" by the British tabloid press). The third was the cyclist Louis Garneau, who did the same ten years later.[34] However the Queen appeared to take no offence at their actions, and Keating stayed as the Queen's guest in her private Balmoral home. The fourth was John Howard, of the Liberal Party, Prime Minister of Australia, who succeeded Keating. In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state. ... Bowing is the act of lowering the head, or sometimes the entire upper body from the waist, as a social gesture. ... Barbara Pierce Bush (born June 8, 1925) is the wife of the 41st President of the United States, George H. W. Bush, and was First Lady of the United States from 1989 to 1993. ... Jack French Kemp Jr. ... Paul John Keating (born January 18, 1944), was an Australian politician and the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, serving as Prime Minister from 1991 to 1996. ... The Australian Labor Party (ALP) is Australias oldest political party. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... A cyclist is a person who engages in cycling whether as a sport or rides a bicycle for recreation or transportation. ... Louis Garneau with his arm around the Queen in 2002. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ... The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ...


Her former prime ministers speak highly of her. Since becoming Queen, she spends an average of three hours every day "doing the boxes" — reading state papers sent to her from her various departments, embassies, and government offices.[35] Having done so since 1952, she has seen more of British public affairs from the inside than any other person, and is thus able to offer advice to Tony Blair based on her experiences with John Major, Harold Wilson, Margaret Thatcher, Harold Macmillan, Edward Heath, Winston Churchill and other senior leaders. She takes her responsibilities in this regard seriously, once mentioning an "interesting telegram" from the Foreign Office to then-Prime Minister Winston Churchill, only to find that her prime minister had not bothered to read it when it came in his box. [citation needed] To date, Sir Alec Douglas-Home was the last Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to be chosen personally by Queen Elizabeth, in 1963. Sir John Major KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to 1997. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), soldier and politician, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home1, Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC (July 2, 1903 – October 9, 1995), 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October 1964. ... The Prime Minister is in practice the most important political office in the United Kingdom. ...


Always a popular figure in England, not to mention other countries, opinion polls have almost always shown that she has an excellent approval rating, currently over 80%;[36] and often significantly higher than that of her elected Prime Ministers. Since she has little political power in the day-to-day running of the country outside of her traditional ceremonial and advisory duties, she is unlikely to be held responsible for unpopular policies followed by elected politicians. An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondants to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ...

Front of Canadian $20 note (see also: Canadian royal symbols)
Front of Canadian $20 note (see also: Canadian royal symbols)

In 2006, the Queen came close to an orthodox interview when she agreed to be portrait-painted by the popular Australian artist and personality Rolf Harris, who engaged in small talk with her, on film, and with Palace permission. It was shown on the BBC. However, their conversation ventured little beyond previous portraits of the Queen and Royal art history in general, and the Queen's responses to Harris's conversational overtures were notably crisp and monosyllabic. Image File history File links Canadian $20 bill, front Source: Bank of Canada File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Canadian $20 bill, front Source: Bank of Canada File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... There are many symbols reflecting Canadas status as a constitutional monarchy, including those of the Monarch, or the vice-regal representatives. ... It has been suggested that Portrait painting be merged into this article or section. ... Look up artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rolf Harris. ...


The journalist and BBC Radio 4 presenter John Humphrys has long stated that his career ambition is to get the first full interview with the Queen. The BBC's 1992 documentary on the Queen, Elizabeth R, directed on the fortieth anniversary of her accession by Edward Mirzoeff, attracted record audiences for a factual programme. This does not cite its references or sources. ... BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of chiefly spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... John Humphrys John Humphrys (born 17 August 1943) is a British radio and television presenter. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is one of the largest broadcasting corporations in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of more than £4 billion. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The Queen is the subject of "Her Majesty", written by Paul McCartney and featured on the Beatles' final album Abbey Road (1969); McCartney played the song at the Party at the Palace concert during the Golden Jubilee in 2002. In 1977, The Sex Pistols issued "God Save the Queen", which became a controversial hit single, inspiring the punk rock movement with its lyrics suggesting there was "no future" and comparing England to a "fascist regime". The Smiths released the song and album The Queen Is Dead in 1986. The Pet Shop Boys have a track called Dreaming of the Queen. The Queen also plays detective in the Her Majesty Investigates series of mystery novels by C.C. Benison, which includes Death at Buckingham Palace and Death at Windsor Castle. Her Majesty is the name of a song written by Paul McCartney (although credited to Lennon-McCartney) that appears on The Beatles album Abbey Road. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer, songwriter, and instrumentalist. ... Abbey Road is the eleventh official album released by The Beatles. ... The Party at the Palace was a pop concert held in London in 2002. ... A Golden Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary of a monarchs reign. ... The Sex Pistols in 1977. ... God Save the Queen (B-side Did You No Wrong) was the second single by punk band the Sex Pistols. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Smiths redirects here. ... The Queen Is Dead is the third studio album of The Smiths. ... Pet Shop Boys (often used without the definite article the) are a highly influential UK electronic music act. ... Douglas Whiteway is a journalist and author who lives in Winnipeg, Canada. ...

Helen Mirren as Queen Elizabeth II in The Queen.
Helen Mirren as Queen Elizabeth II in The Queen.

A 2006 film called The Queen starring Helen Mirren takes an intimate, behind-the-scenes glimpse at the interaction between Queen Elizabeth II and British Prime Minister Tony Blair during their struggle following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, to reach a compromise between treating her death as a private tragedy for the Royal Family and appeasing the public's demand for an overt display of mourning. Image File history File links HMirrenQueen. ... Image File history File links HMirrenQueen. ... Dame Helen Mirren, DBE (born Ilyena Vasilievna Mironov[1] on July 26, 1945) is a three-time Academy Award-nominated, as well as a BAFTA, Golden Globe, and Emmy Award-winning English stage, television and movie actress. ... The Queen is a 2006 Pathé Pictures film directed by Stephen Frears, written by Peter Morgan and produced by Scott Rudin. ... The Queen is a 2006 Pathé Pictures film directed by Stephen Frears, written by Peter Morgan and produced by Scott Rudin. ... Dame Helen Mirren, DBE (born Ilyena Vasilievna Mironov[1] on July 26, 1945) is a three-time Academy Award-nominated, as well as a BAFTA, Golden Globe, and Emmy Award-winning English stage, television and movie actress. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament...


In a 2006 book, Who Owns the World: The Hidden Facts Behind Landownership, Kevin Cahill claimed that Queen Elizabeth II holds ownership of one sixth of the land on the earth's surface, more than any other individual or nation. This amounts to a total of 6.6 billion acres in 32 countries. [37] However, this is based on the legal technicality that the Crown as an institution owns all the territory over which it rules, like any government of a non-allodial state; this land does not belong to the Queen personally, but to the governments of the respective realms over which she reigns. Allodial land, or allodium, is literally land which has no lord. ...


Fictional Portrayals

Elizabeth II as portrayed on The Simpsons
Elizabeth II as portrayed on The Simpsons

Elizabeth II has been portrayed in films and television in both serious and comedic ways Image File history File linksMetadata EIIR-Simpsons. ... Image File history File linksMetadata EIIR-Simpsons. ... Simpsons redirects here. ...

Jeanette Charles is best known as a look-alike actress as Queen Elizabeth II. External Link Jeanette Charles at IMDB.com Categories: Stub ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Dana Wynter (born June 8, 1931 in Berlin, Germany) was a popular actress in the 1950s. ... Prunella Scales CBE (born June 22, 1932) is an English actor best known for her role as Sybil Fawlty in the British sitcom Fawlty Towers. ... A Question of Attribution is a 1991 television play written by Alan Bennett and commissioned by the BBC. Directed by John Schlesinger it stars James Fox as Anthony Blunt and Prunella Scales as Queen Elizabeth II. Set around 1977 the play details the complex relationship between Blunt as Keeper of... Anne Stallybrass (born 1938) is a British actress. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... The Regina Monologues is the fourth episode of The Simpsons fifteenth season. ... Dame Helen Mirren, DBE (born Ilyena Vasilievna Mironov[1] on July 26, 1945) is a three-time Academy Award-nominated, as well as a BAFTA, Golden Globe, and Emmy Award-winning English stage, television and movie actress. ... The Queen is a 2006 Pathé Pictures film directed by Stephen Frears, written by Peter Morgan and produced by Scott Rudin. ... Scott Thompson (born June 12, 1959) is a Canadian television comedian, best known for his time as a member of the comedy troupe Kids in the Hall. ... The Kids in the Hall was a Canadian sketch comedy group, consisting of comedians Dave Foley, Kevin McDonald, Bruce McCulloch, Mark McKinney and Scott Thompson that was formed in 1984. ...

Patronage of Charities

The Queen is Patron of more than 620 charities and organisations[38] including:

Further information: List organisations in the United Kingdom with a royal charter ,  List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage, and List of New Zealand organisations with royal patronage

The Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE, formerly Council for the Preservation of Rural England ) is a registered charity with over 60,000 members and supporters. ... The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) is the largest association of doctors in Canada and represents their interests and the interests of patients nationally. ... The Kennel Club in the United Kingdom is a club aiming to improve the relationships between dogs and their owners. ... The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) is a UK charity specialising in child protection and the prevention of cruelty to children. ... The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC), founded in 1907, is a Canadian association representing over 3,200 architects, and faculty and graduates of Canadian Schools of Architecture. ... The Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children in London, England was formed from the 1942 merger of the Queens Hospital for Children in Bethnal Green and the Princess Elizabeth of York Hospital for Children, Shadwell. ... The largest church music organisation in Britain, the Royal School of Church Music was founded in 1927 by Sir Sydney Nicholson and has 11,000 members worldwide; it was originally named the School of English Church Music. ... The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) is the oldest Anglican mission organisation. ... The Boys Brigade Corporate Logo The Boys Brigade (the BB) is an international non-denominational Christian youth organisation. ... A Visitor, in United Kingdom law and history, is an overseer of an autonomous ecclesiastical or eleemosynary institution (i. ... College name Christ Church Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister College Trinity College Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR President William Dorsey Undergraduates 426 MCR or GCR President {{{MCR President}}} Graduates 154 Home page Boat Club Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house of Christ... List organisations in the United Kingdom with a royal charter is an incomplete list of organisations based in the United Kingdom that have received a royal charter from an English, Scottish, or British monarch. ... // Civilian King George III 1801: Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning 1810: Canada Club (under the patronage of HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh) Queen Victoria 1837: Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squadron (under patronage of HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh) 1851: Royal Canadian Institute (under patronage of Lieutenant... Corps of Royal New Zealand Engineers Corps of Royal New Zealand Military Police Royal Aeronautical Society (New Zealand Division) Royal Agricultural Society of New Zealand Royal Akarana Yacht Club Royal Arcadian Yacht Club Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand Royal Australasian College of Physicians Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Royal...

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Monarchical Styles of
Queen Elizabeth II
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Ma'am

Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ...

Titles

Further information: List of titles and honours of Queen Elizabeth II

Following Elizabeth's accession, a decision was reached by Commonwealth Prime Ministers at the Commonwealth Conference of 1953, whereby the Queen would be accorded different styles and titles in each of her Realms, reflecting that in each state she acts as the Monarch of that state, regardless of her other roles. Traditionally, Elizabeth II's titles as Queen Regnant are listed by the order in which the remaining original Realms first became Dominions of the Crown: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (original dominion), Canada (1867), Australia (1901), and New Zealand (1907); followed by the order in which the former Crown colony became an independent Realm: Jamaica (1962), Barbados (1966), the Bahamas (1973), Grenada (1974), Papua New Guinea (1975), the Solomon Islands (1978), Tuvalu (1978), Saint Lucia (1979), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1979), Antigua and Barbuda (1981), Belize (1981), and Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983). April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This is a list of awards, decorations, honours, orders and titles belonging to Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ... This is a page about Dominions of the British Empire/Commonwealth. ...


Scottish controversy

However, in Scotland, the title Elizabeth II caused some controversy, as there has never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. In a rare act of sabotage, new Royal Mail post boxes in bearing the initials "E II R" in Scotland were vandalised. (Prior to Queen Elizabeth, Scottish boxes had borne the monarch's initials, but no crown.) To avoid further problems, post boxes and Royal Mail vehicles in Scotland now bear only the Crown of Scotland and no Royal cypher. Royal Mails logo Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ... Royal Mails logo Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ... The Crown of Scotland, first worn by King James V in 1540. ...


A legal case, MacCormick v. Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), was taken to contest the right of the Queen to style herself Elizabeth II within Scotland, arguing that to do so would be a breach of the Act of Union. The case was lost on the grounds that the pursuers had no title to sue the Crown, and also that the numbering of monarchs was part of the royal prerogative, and not governed by the Act of Union. MacCormick v. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ...


There are also two other matters of controversy, publicised much less. First, the argument that the monarch was addressed as Your Grace, rather than Majesty, in pre-Union Scotland, and, second, that the preferred title had been King/Queen of Scots rather than of Scotland (although the latter was by no means unknown).


At the royal opening of the Scottish Parliament in 1999, the presiding officer David Steel referred to her as, "not only the Queen of the United Kingdom but seated as you are among us in the historic and constitutionally correct manner as Queen of Scots". The Scottish Parliaments logo in English and Gaelic. ... The Presiding Officer (Oifigear-Riaghlaidh in Scots Gaelic) is the person elected by the Members of the Scottish Parliament to chair their meetings. ...


Future British monarchs will be numbered according to either English or Scottish predecessors, whichever number is higher. Applying this policy retroactively to monarchs since the Act of Union yields the same numbering. However, equivalent rules have not been established in the Commonwealth Realms.

Further information: List of regnal numerals of future British monarchs

This is a list of the regnal numerals which may in time be used by future British monarchs. ...

Styles

The Queen has many titles within her various Realms and territories. In common practice, however, Queen Elizabeth II is referred to simply as "The Queen" or "Her Majesty". When in conversation with The Queen, one initially uses "Your Majesty", and thereafter "Ma'am".


In common practice, styled as "Her Majesty" The Queen (and, when the distinction is necessary, "Her Britannic Majesty," "Her Australian Majesty," or "Her Canadian Majesty," etc.)


Honours

This is a list of awards, decorations, honours, orders and titles belonging to Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. ...

Arms

The Queen's Coat of Arms in Barbados
The Queen's Coat of Arms in Barbados

The Queen has coats of arms in each of her Realms; these arms are also sometimes used by government agencies or ministries to symbolise the Crown. In the UK, they are known as the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Every British monarch has used these arms since the reign of Queen Victoria. A separate Royal Arms exists, for use in Scotland, which gives priority to Scottish elements and features the insignia of the Order of the Thistle. The Royal Coat of Arms of Canada has been used by each monarch of Canada since George V; it is based on the British Royal Arms but contains unique Canadian elements. The Queen also has Arms for use as sovereign of Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Each of these is different from the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Barbados coat of arms with 125px width (and . ... Barbados coat of arms with 125px width (and . ... The Coat of Arms of Barbados was adopted upon independence in 1966 by decree of Queen Elizabeth. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially known as... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially known as... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Coat of Arms of Canada (from 1994) The Royal Coat of Arms of Canada (formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada) was proclaimed by King George V on November 21, 1921, as the Arms or Ensigns Armorial of the Dominion of Canada. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...


The Royal Standard is the Queen's flag, and is a banner of the Royal Arms. In some of the Commonwealth Realms, the Queen has an official standard for use when acting as Queen of that Realm. Australia, Barbados, Canada, Jamaica, and New Zealand each have their own Royal Standard, each one a defaced banner of the relevant coat of arms, including the Queen's personal badge: a crowned letter E inside a circle of roses on a blue disc. This badge was also used in the Queen's personal flags in former realms, and also forms the flag used by the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth. Several countries use the term Royal Standard to describe the flag used by the monarch and members of the royal family. ...


From 1936 until her succession, Princess Elizabeth's arms were the Royal Arms, differenced by a label of three points argent (white), the centre bearing a Tudor Rose and the first and third points bearing a red cross. When Henry Tudor took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he brought about the end of the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster (Red Rose) and the House of York (White Rose). ...


Military positions

Military Force Unit Position Year
British Army Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service Second Subaltern 1945
Canadian Forces Commander-in-Chief of Canadian Forces 1952-present
Royal Navy Lord High Admiral 1964-present

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Army_flag. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A subaltern is a military term for a junior officer. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Forces_emblem. ... Although the HM Queen Elizabeth II is the Colonel-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, the Governor General of Canada in the name of the Queen is the official and cermonial head of the Canadian Forces. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...

Ancestry

Queen Elizabeth is the male-line great-granddaughter of Edward VII, who inherited the crown from his mother, Queen Victoria. His father, Victoria's consort, was Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; hence Queen Elizabeth is a patrilineal descendant of the German princely house of Wettin. Other notable members of the princely house are King Albert II of Belgium and former King Simeon II of Bulgaria. Through Victoria (as well as several other of her great-great-grandparents), she is descended from many English monarchs extending back to the House of Wessex in the 7th century, and from the Scottish royal house, the House of Stuart, and its predecessors, which can be traced back to the 6th century. There is a direct line of descent from William the Conqueror to Queen Elizabeth. As a great-great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria, she is related to the heads of most other reigning and non-reigning European royal houses such as the former Hohenzollern royal houses of Germany and Romania. Through her great-grandmother Queen Alexandra, she is descended from the Danish royal house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a line of the North German house of Oldenburg, and one of the oldest in Europe ; other members are the Duke of Edinburgh, Margrethe II of Denmark, Harald V of Norway, Queen Sofia of Spain, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and former King Constantine II of Greece, who are also all descended from Queen Victoria. She is further related to all ruling hereditary monarchs of Europe, as a descendant of Johan Willem Friso, Prince of Orange (1687 – 1711), common ancestor to all reigning European royal houses. This table shows the descent of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from Egbert, traditionally regarded as first King of England, and before that from Cerdic, founder of the House of Wessex. ... This table sets out the ancestry of Queen Elizabeth II for five generations, numbered according to the Ahnentafel genealogical numbering system. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (in full Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel), later The Prince Consort, (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Wettin is a German royal dynasty a city in Saxony-Anhalt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Albert II, King of the Belgians (Albert Félix Humbert Théodore Chrétien Eugène Marie), (born June 6, 1934), is the current King of the Belgians and a constitutional monarch. ... Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha as Prime Minister of Bulgaria Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria (born June 16, 1937) was the last Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946, and was Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 until August 2005. ... The House of Wessex refers to the family that ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... William of Normandy (French: Guillaume de Normandie; c. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... This page is about the wife of Edward VII of the United Kingdom. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Queen Margrethe II (Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid) (born 16 April 1940) is the Queen regnant and head of state of Denmark. ... Harald V, King of Norway, (born February 21, 1937), a title he assumed upon his fathers death on January 17, 1991. ... Queen Sofia of Spain Queen Sofía (Sophia Margarita Victoria Frederika), born Princess Sofia of Greece and Denmark is the Queen Consort of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus) (born April 30, 1946, at Haga Palace, Solna, Uppland), is the head of state of the Kingdom of Sweden. ... Constantine of Greece, formerly Constantine II, King of the Hellenes (born June 2, 1940) was King of Greece from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974. ... Johan Willem Friso Johan Willem Friso (4 August 1687 -14 July 1711) was stadholder of Friesland until his untimely death by drowning in the Hollands Diep in 1711. ... Missing link is a term for a transitional form from the fossil record that connects an earlier species to a later one, or which connects two different species to an earlier ancestor. ...


Issue

Name Birth Marriage Issue
Charles, Prince of Wales 14 November 1948 1: 29 July 1981, Lady Diana Spencer; divorced, 28 August 1996
2: 9 April 2005, Camilla Parker-Bowles
Prince William of Wales
Prince Harry of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal 15 August 1950 1: 14 November 1973, Capt Mark Phillips; divorced, 28 April 1992
2: 12 December 1992, Cdr Timothy Laurence
Peter Phillips
Zara Phillips
Prince Andrew, Duke of York[39] 19 February 1960 23 July 1986, Sarah Ferguson; divorced, 30 May 1996 Princess Beatrice of York
Princess Eugenie of York
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex 10 March 1964 19 June 1999, Sophie Rhys-Jones Lady Louise Windsor

The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances Mountbatten-Windsor; née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was the first wife of Charles, the Prince of Wales, eldest son and heir apparent of Elizabeth II. Her two sons, Princes William and Harry, are second and third, respectively, in line to... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall (Camilla Rosemary Mountbatten-Windsor; formerly Parker Bowles; born Shand, 17 July 1947) is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and the other 15 Commonwealth Realms. ... Prince William redirects here. ... Officer Cadet Wales on parade when New Colours were presented to Sandhurst, 21 June 2005. ... The Princess Anne, Princess Royal, (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise Laurence; formerly Mountbatten-Windsor, Phillips; born Windsor, 15 August 1950), is a member of the British Royal Family and the only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II. She is the seventh holder of the title Princess Royal, and is currently ninth in... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Mark Antony Peter Phillips (born September 22, 1948), former Olympic gold-medal-winning horseman, was the first husband of Anne, Princess Royal. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Rear Admiral Timothy James Hamilton Laurence, MVO, ADC (born 1 March 1955) was Equerry to The Queen from 1986 to 1989 and is the second husband of Anne, Princess Royal. ... Peter Mark Andrew Phillips (born 15 November 1977) is a member of the British Royal Family, the only son of The Princess Anne, the Princess Royal and her first husband, Mark Phillips. ... Zara Anne Elizabeth Phillips MBE (born 15 May 1981) is the only daughter of Princess Anne, the Princess Royal and her first husband, Captain Mark Phillips. ... The Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG, KCVO, ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 19 February 1960), is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sarah, Duchess of York (Sarah Margaret Ferguson; born 15 October 1959), is the former wife of Prince Andrew, Duke of York. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 August 1988) is a member of the British Royal Family. ... Princess Eugenie of York (Eugenie Victoria Helena Mountbatten-Windsor; born 23 March 1990) is a member of the British Royal Family and a granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth II. Princess Eugenie is sixth in the Line of succession to the British Throne. ... The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, (Edward Antony Richard Louis Mountbatten-Windsor), styled HRH The Earl of Wessex, KG (born March 10, 1964), is a member of the British royal family, the youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Earl of Wessex... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Countess of Wessex (Sophie Helen Mountbatten-Windsor; born Rhys-Jones, 20 January 1965), is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Lady Louise Windsor (Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 November 2003) is a member of the British Royal Family. ...

See also

The British Monarchy is a shared monarchy. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... Queen Elizabeth II, the current Queen of Australia. ... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... In Jersey the Lieutenant-Governor hosts a reception for the public at Government House to mark the Queens Official Birthday at which he announces recipients of Birthday Honours The Queens Birthday or Queens Official Birthday is celebrated as a public holiday in several Commonwealth countries (usually Commonwealth... Elizabeth II riding to Trooping the Colour for the last time in 1986 Trooping the Colour is a military pageant or ceremony performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and the British Army. ... HRH The Prince of Wales, the Heir Apparent. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... The Queen is a 2006 Pathé Pictures film directed by Stephen Frears, written by Peter Morgan and produced by Scott Rudin. ... This table shows the descent of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from Egbert, traditionally regarded as first King of England, and before that from Cerdic, founder of the House of Wessex. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c 80 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Queen Elizabeth. Time Europe. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  2. ^ Quest, Richard (2002-06-03). Royals, Part 1: Rise to power. CNN. Retrieved on 18 January 2007.
  3. ^ The Real Crawfie. Channel 4. Retrieved on 18 January 2007.
  4. ^ 80 Facts About The Queen. British Monarchy Official Website. Retrieved on 18 January 2007.
  5. ^ Davies, Caroline (2006-04-20). Philip, the one constant through her life. Telegraph. Retrieved on 23 January 2007.
  6. ^ The London Gazette
  7. ^ Prince of Wales's press office.
  8. ^ a b English, Rebecca (2006-04-20). 'The Queen will NEVER consider abdicating'. Daily Mail.
  9. ^ The Guardian: France and UK considered 1950s 'merger'; January 15, 2007
  10. ^ Queen Catches A Cold. Sky News. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
  11. ^ Leyland, Joanne. The Queen Proves She's A Real Trooper. The Royalist. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
  12. ^ "Queen cancels visit due to injury", BBC, 26 October 2006.
  13. ^ "Plaster on Queen's hand: minor cut or IV drip?", The Daily Mail, 6 December 2006.
  14. ^ "Corgi put the queen in plaster", The Sun, 14 December 2006.
  15. ^ Queen's funeral plans 'stolen from car'
  16. ^ Bansal, Shaveta. Poll: Queen Elizabeth "Most Popular Royal". All Headline News. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
  17. ^ a b John Campbell, Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady (Jonathan Cape, 2003)
  18. ^ Queen Elizabeth feels snubbed by Blair. Sify (2004-06-23).
  19. ^ 'The Queen is a parrot' - Paisley
  20. ^ Struck, Doug; The Washington Post: A royal visit by Canada's head of state; May 17, 2005
  21. ^ CTV News: Queen says it's good to be back in Canada; May 19, 2005
  22. ^ A Birthday Fit for a Queen
  23. ^ Trudeau, Pierre E.; Memoirs; McClelland & Stewart/Tundra Books; Plattsburgh, NY; 1996. ISBN 0-7710858-8-5
  24. ^ The Canadian Royal Heritage Trust
  25. ^ CBC: 1964 Quebec visit speech
  26. ^ A Queen Canada Should be Proud Of
  27. ^ Letter from the Queen's Private Secretary to the Speaker whitlamdismissal.com, accessed 20 November 2006
  28. ^ The International Who's Who : Royal Families, United Kingdom
  29. ^ 80 Facts About The Queen. British Monarchy Official Website. Retrieved on 18 January 2007.
  30. ^ 80 Facts About The Queen. British Monarchy Official Website. Retrieved on 18 January 2007.
  31. ^ 80 Facts About The Queen. British Monarchy Official Website. Retrieved on 18 January 2007.
  32. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage: Test your royal skills
  33. ^ TOPICS OF THE TIMES; Things a Queen Can't Do. New York Times (1992-05-17). Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  34. ^ Family snap breaks royal protocol. BBC News (2002-10-16).
  35. ^ Information supplied by the Royal Household to a parliamentary inquiry into the workings of the monarchy in the early 1970s.
  36. ^ Monarchy Trends, Ipsos MORI. Accessed 31 July 2006.
  37. ^ Who Owns The World official website
  38. ^ 80 Facts About The Queen. British Monarchy Official Website. Retrieved on 18 January 2007.
  39. ^ The anti-monarchist Throne Out website notes reports of a close frienship between the Queen and Lord Porchester, 8th Earl Of Carnarvon. Citing several books and newspaper reports on the royal family, Throne Out collates reports that the two had an affair. Noting the strong phsical resemblance between the Earl and Prince Andrew, Duke of York, Throne Out notes several reports which allege that the Earl was Prince Andrew's father. (See Throne Out: Royal Affairs)

Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... Henry George Reginald Molyneux Herbert, 7th Earl of Carnarvon (January 19, 1924 - September 11, 2001), was Racing Manager to Queen Elizabeth II since 1969, and one of Her Majestys closest friends. ... The Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG, KCVO, ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 19 February 1960), is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ...

Further reading

  • Bond, J. (2002). Elizabeth. Reader's Digest Association. ISBN 0-7621-0369-8
  • Erickson, C. (2003). Lilibet : An Intimate Portrait of Elizabeth II. St. Martins Press. ISBN 0-312-28734-8

External links

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House of Windsor
Cadet Branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 21 April 1926
Preceded by
George VI
Queen of the United Kingdom
6 February 1952 -
Incumbent
Heir Apparent:
HRH The Prince of Wales
Preceded by
George VI
as King of the British
Dominions beyond the Seas
Queen of Canada
6 February 1952 -
Queen of Australia
6 February 1952 -
Queen of New Zealand
6 February 1952 -
Preceded by
Herself
as Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen of Jamaica
6 August 1962 -
Incumbent
Queen of Barbados
30 November 1966 -
Queen of the Bahamas
10 July 1973 -
Queen of Grenada
7 February 1974 -
Queen of the Solomon Islands
7 July 1978 -
Queen of Tuvalu
1 October 1978 -
Queen of Saint Lucia
22 February 1979 -
Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
27 October 1979 -
Queen of Belize
21 September 1981 -
Queen of Antigua and Barbuda
1 November 1981 -
Queen of Saint Christopher and Nevis
19 September 1983 -
Preceded by
Herself
as Queen of Australia
Queen of Papua New Guinea
16 September 1975 -
Preceded by
George VI
as King of the British
Dominions beyond the Seas
Queen of Ceylon
6 February 1952 - 22 May 1972
End of Title
Queen of Pakistan
6 February 1952 - 23 March 1956
Queen of South Africa
6 February 1952 - 31 May 1961
Preceded by
Herself
as Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen of Ghana
6 March 1957 - 1 July 1960
Queen of Nigeria
1 October 1960 - 1 October 1963
Queen of Sierra Leone
27 April 1961 - 19 April 1971
Queen of Tanganyika
9 December 1961 - 9 December 1962
Queen of Trinidad and Tobago
31 August 1962 - 1 August 1976
Queen of Uganda
9 October 1962 - 9 October 1963
Queen of Kenya
12 December 1963 - 12 December 1964
Queen of Malawi
6 July 1964 - 6 July 1966
Queen of Malta
21 September 1964 - 31 December 1974
Queen of The Gambia
18 February 1965 - 24 April 1970
Queen of Guyana
26 May 1966 - 23 February 1970
Queen of Mauritius
12 March 1968 - 1 March 1992
Queen of Fiji
10 October 1970 - 15 October 1987
Persondata
NAME Windsor, Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Queen Elizabeth II
SHORT DESCRIPTION Queen regnant
DATE OF BIRTH 21 April 1926
PLACE OF BIRTH London, United Kingdom
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

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Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom information - Search.com (0 words)
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor) (born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen independent nations known as the Commonwealth Realms.
Elizabeth II wearing the Imperial State Crown and fur cape and holding the Sceptre with the Cross and the Orb at her Coronation (2 June 1953).
The Queen, or her Governors-General in the realms outside the United Kingdom, also gives a speech at the annual State Opening of Parliament, outlining the government's legislative agenda for the year, but the speech is written by government ministers and reflects the view of the elected government.
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