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Encyclopedia > Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth Realms (more...)
Elizabeth II in 2007
Elizabeth II in 2007
Reign 6 February 1952 to present (55 years)
Coronation 2 June 1953
Predecessor George VI
Heir Apparent Charles, Prince of Wales
Consort Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Issue
Charles, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Full name
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary[1]
Titles
HM The Queen
HRH The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh
HRH The Princess Elizabeth
HRH Princess Elizabeth of York
Royal house House of Windsor
Royal anthem God Save the Queen
Father George VI
Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Born 21 April 1926 (1926-04-21) (age 81)
Mayfair, London
Baptised 29 May 1926[2]
Buckingham Palace, London[2]

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary [1]; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, and their respective overseas territories and dependencies. She holds each crown and title equally; however, she is most directly involved with the United Kingdom, the country in which she customarily lives and over parts of whose territories her ancestors have reigned for more than a thousand years. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 433 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 2060 pixel, file size: 544 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Sleeping Beauty character (actually spelled Phillip), see Sleeping Beauty (1959 film). ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Princess Anne, Princess Royal (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950), is a member of the British Royal Family and the only daughter of Elizabeth II. She is the seventh holder of the title Princess Royal, and is currently ninth in the line of succession to the British... The Prince Andrew, Duke of York (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ... The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, KG, KCVO, SOM (Edward Antony Richard Louis Mountbatten-Windsor; born 10 March 1964) is a member of the British Royal Family, the youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Earl of Wessex since 1999. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Windsor, previously called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other Commonwealth Realms. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002), was the Queen Consort of George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Apart from the United Kingdom, Elizabeth II is also Queen of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts and Nevis, where she is represented by Governors-General. The 16 countries of which she is Queen are known as Commonwealth Realms, and their combined population is over 129 million. Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


Elizabeth became Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon[3] upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952. As other colonies of the British Empire (now the Commonwealth of Nations) attained independence from the UK during her reign, she acceded to the newly created thrones as Queen of each respective realm so that throughout her 55 years on the throne she has been Monarch of 32 nations, half of which either subsequently adopted other royal houses or became republics. (See also Former Commonwealth Realms.) George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


She is currently one of the longest-reigning monarchs of the UK or any of its predecessor states, ranking behind Victoria (who reigned over the UK for sixty-three years), George III (who reigned over Great Britain and subsequently the UK for fifty-nine), James VI (who reigned over Scotland for fifty-seven years), and Henry III (who reigned over England for fifty-six). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ...


She is one of only two people who are simultaneously head of state of more than one independent nation. (The other being the President of France, who is ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra.) In practice, she personally exercises virtually no political executive power. Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra. ...


Elizabeth also holds the positions of Head of the Commonwealth, Lord High Admiral, Supreme Governor of the Church of England (styled Defender of the Faith), Lord of Mann, and Paramount Chief of Fiji. Following tradition, she is also styled Duke of Lancaster and Duke of Normandy. She is also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of many of her realms. The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... The current Lord of Mann is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... The Paramount Chief of Fiji (Fijian:Ilisapeci-Na Radi ni Viti kei Peritania or Ilisapeci-Na Tui Viti) is the official name given to Queen Elizabeth II in Fiji. ... There were several Dukes of Lancaster in the 14th and early 15th Centuries. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...

Contents

Early life

Elizabeth was born at 17 Bruton Street, in Mayfair, London, on 21 April 1926.[2] Her father was Prince Albert, Duke of York (the future King George VI) and her mother was the Duchess of York (born Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth, and, after her daughter's accession to the throne, the Queen Mother). Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002), was the Queen Consort of George VI from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... A Queen Mother is a person satisfying the following criteria: She is the mother of the current monarch, or possibly of the consort of the monarch (though this would not be normal practice). ...


She was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace by Cosmo Gordon Lang, the Archbishop of York. Her godparents were her paternal grandparents King George V and Queen Mary, the Princess Royal, the Duke of Connaught, her maternal grandfather the Earl of Strathmore, and Lady Elphinstone. Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... Cosmo Gordon Lang, Baron Lang of Lambeth (1864-1945) was Archbishop of York (1908-1928) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1928-1942). ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India and Queen of Ireland. ... The Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood, (Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary Lascelles, née Windsor) (25 April 1897 – 28 March 1965) was a member of the British Royal Family. ... Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 1850 – 16 January 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family, a son of Queen Victoria. ... Claude George Bowes-Lyon, 14th and 1st Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (14 March 1855–7 November 1944) was the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II. He was born at Lowndes Square in London, the son of Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and his wife, the... Mary Frances Elphinstone, Lady Elphinstone (August 30, 1883–February 8, 1961) was a maternal aunt and a godparent of Elizabeth II. Born Lady Mary Frances Bowes-Lyon, she was the daughter of Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and the elder sister of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (later...


Elizabeth was named after her mother, while her two middle names are those of her paternal great-grandmother, Queen Alexandra, and grandmother, Queen Mary, respectively. As a child her close family knew her as "Lilibet".[4] Her grandmother Queen Mary doted on her[citation needed] and George V found her very entertaining.[5] At 10 years old, the young Princess was introduced to a preacher at Glamis Castle. As he left, he promised to send her a book. Elizabeth replied, "Not about God. I already know all about Him."[citation needed] Princess Alexandra of Denmark (later Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925), was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom and thus Empress of India during her husbands reign. ... Glamis Castle Glamis Castle is situated beside the village of Glamis — pronounced Glahmz (in IPA: ) — in Angus, Scotland. ...


As a granddaughter of the British sovereign in the male line, she held the title of a British princess with the style Her Royal Highness. Her full style was Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle the Prince of Wales, and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, there was no reason at the time to believe that she would ever become queen, as it was widely assumed that the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII) would marry and have children in due course. This is a list of British princesses from the accession of King George I in 1714. ... Royal Highness (abbreviation HRH) is a style (His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness). ... HRH The Prince of Wales, the Heir Apparent. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the...

British Royalty
Royal Family
HM The Queen
HRH The Duke of Edinburgh

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However, Edward did not produce any legitimate heirs, and Elizabeth's parents had no sons (who would have taken precedence over her). Therefore, she would eventually have become queen whether Edward had abdicated or not, assuming she outlived both her father and her uncle. The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is a shared royal family. ... Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_England. ... Sleeping Beauty character (actually spelled Phillip), see Sleeping Beauty (1959 film). ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (Camilla Rosemary; formerly Parker Bowles; née Shand, born 17 July 1947) is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and the other 15 Commonwealth Realms. ... “Prince William” redirects here. ... Prince Henry of Wales (Henry Charles Albert David; born 15 September 1984; commonly known as Prince Harry) is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and his first wife, the late Diana, Princess of Wales. ... The Prince Andrew, Duke of York (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ... Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary; born 8 August 1988) is a member of the British Royal Family. ... Princess Eugenie of York (Eugenie Victoria Helena Mountbatten-Windsor; born 23 March 1990) is a member of the British Royal Family and a granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth II. Princess Eugenie is sixth in the Line of succession to the British Throne. ... The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, KG, KCVO, SOM (Edward Antony Richard Louis Mountbatten-Windsor; born 10 March 1964) is a member of the British Royal Family, the youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Earl of Wessex since 1999. ... The Countess of Wessex (Sophie Helen; neé Rhys-Jones, born 20 January 1965), is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Lady Louise Windsor (Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 November 2003) is a member of the British Royal Family. ... The Princess Anne, Princess Royal (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950), is a member of the British Royal Family and the only daughter of Elizabeth II. She is the seventh holder of the title Princess Royal, and is currently ninth in the line of succession to the British... Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester KG GCVO (Richard Alexander Walter George Windsor; born 26 August 1944) is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of King George V. He has been Duke of Gloucester since his fathers death in 1974. ... The Duchess of Gloucester (born 20 June 1946), is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, a grandchild of King George V. The Duchess of Gloucester, with her husband, undertakes royal duties on behalf of the Dukes cousin, Queen Elizabeth II... Field Marshal Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (Edward George Nicholas Patrick Paul Windsor; born 9 October 1935) is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandchild of George V. He has held the title of Duke of Kent since 1942. ... The Duchess of Kent (Katharine Lucy Mary Windsor; born Worsley, 22 February 1933) is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, a grandson of King George V and cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. The Duchess of Kent gained attention for her conversion... Prince Michael of Kent, GCVO (Michael George Charles Franklin Windsor; born 4 July 1942) is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of King George V and Queen Mary. ... Princess Michael of Kent (née Baroness Marie-Christine Agnes Hedwig Ida von Reibnitz, 15 January 1945), is a member of the British Royal Family. ... Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy (Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel; born 25 December 1936), is a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George V. She was married to the late Sir Angus Ogilvy. ...


Education

Princess Elizabeth's only sibling was the late Princess Margaret, who was born in 1930. The two young princesses were educated at home, under the supervision of their mother. Their governess was Marion Crawford, better known as "Crawfie."[6] She studied history with C. H. K. Marten, Provost of Eton, and also learned modern languages; she speaks French fluently.[7] She was instructed in religion by the Archbishop of Canterbury and has remained a devout member of the Church of England, of which, as Queen, she is Supreme Governor. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A governess is a female employee from outside of the family who teaches children within the family circle. ... Marion Crawford (June 5, 1909 – February 11, 1988) was a servant with the British Royal Family, and governess of the children of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, the future Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret who gave her the nickname Crawfie. Marion was the named author of the book... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor in England, situated north of Windsor... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Sovereign of the United Kingdom is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ...


Heiress presumptive

When her father became King in 1936 upon the abdication of her uncle, King Edward VIII, she became Heiress Presumptive and was thenceforth known as Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth. There was some demand in Wales for her to be created The Princess of Wales, but the King was advised that this was the title of the wife of the Prince of Wales, not a title in its own right. Some feel the King missed the opportunity to make an innovation in Royal practice by re-adopting King Henry VIII's idea, who proclaimed his eldest daughter, Lady Mary, Princess of Wales in her own right.[citation needed] However, the possibility, however remote, remained that her father could have a son, who would have been heir apparent, supplanting Elizabeth in the line of succession to the throne. Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... This article is about the sub-division of the United Kingdom. ... Camilla Mountbatten-Windsor, the current Princess of Wales. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ...


Elizabeth was thirteen years old when World War II broke out, and she and her younger sister, Princess Margaret, were evacuated to Windsor Castle, Berkshire. There was some suggestion that the two princesses be evacuated to Canada, to which their mother made the famous reply: "The children won't go without me. I won't leave the King. And the King will never leave." While at Windsor, Princess Elizabeth and her sister staged pantomimes at Christmas with the children of members of staff of the Royal Household. In 1940, Princess Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated. When she was 13 years old, she first met her future husband Prince Philip. She fell in love with him and began writing to him when he was in the Royal Navy. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... // In the 1930s, aerial bombing became an ever larger spectre in the minds of the government and the public (see Trenchard, Douhet, Spain). ... Windsor castle, a thousand-year-old fortress transformed into a royal palace. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pantomime may refer to two different types of performing arts. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... In all the medieval monarchies of western Europe the general system of government sprang from, and centred in, the royal household. ... See also The Childrens Hour Childrens Hour—at first: The Childrens Hour, from a verse by Longfellow (1)—was the name of the BBCs principal recreational service for children (as distinct from Broadcasts to Schools) during the period when radio dominated broadcasting. ... HRH The Duke of Edinburgh His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten), styled HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (born June 10, 1921), is the consort of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Military career

Princess Elizabeth changing a vehicle wheel during WWII

In 1945, Princess Elizabeth convinced her father that she should be allowed to contribute directly to the war effort. She joined the Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service, where she was known as No 230873 Second Subaltern Elizabeth Windsor, trained as a driver, and drove a military truck while she served. This training was the first time she had been taught together with other students. It is said that she greatly enjoyed this and that this experience led her to send her own children to school rather than have them educated at home. She was later praised by many for her hard labour during the war period. She was the first, and so far only, female member of the royal family to actually serve in the armed forces, though Queen Victoria was Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian militia, and other royal women have been given honorary ranks. During the VE Day celebrations in London, she and her sister dressed in ordinary clothing[citation needed] and slipped into the crowd secretly to celebrate with everyone. Image File history File links Lizwar. ... Image File history File links Lizwar. ... The Womens Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) was formed on 9 September 1938, initially as a womens voluntary service of the British Army and existed until 1 February 1949. ... A subaltern is a military term for a junior officer. ... Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945. ...


Royal duties

Elizabeth made her first official overseas visit in 1947, when she accompanied her parents to South Africa. During her visit to Cape Town, she and her father were accompanied by Prime Minister Jan Smuts when they went to the top of Table Mountain by cable car. On her 21st birthday, she made a broadcast to the British Commonwealth and Empire, pledging: City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... Jan Smuts Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... For other uses, see Table Mountain (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

"I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong."

Marriage

Elizabeth married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark) on 20 November 1947. The couple are second cousins once removed: they are both descended from Christian IX of Denmark - Elizabeth II is a great-great-granddaughter through her paternal great-grandmother Alexandra of Denmark, and the Duke is a great-grandson through his paternal grandfather George I of Greece. As well as second cousins once removed, the couple are third cousins: they share Queen Victoria as a great-great-grandmother. Elizabeth's great-grandfather was Edward VII, while Edward's sister Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine was the Duke's great-grandmother. Prince Philip had renounced his claim to the Greek throne and was simply referred to as Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten before being created Duke of Edinburgh prior to their marriage. As a Greek royal, Philip is a member of the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, the Danish royal house and a line of the House of Oldenburg. Mountbatten was an Anglicisation of his mother's name, Battenberg. The marriage was controversial. Philip was Greek Orthodox, with no financial resources behind him, and had sisters who had married Nazi supporters. Elizabeth's mother was reported in later biographies to have strongly opposed the marriage, even referring to Philip as "the Hun".[8] Sleeping Beauty character (actually spelled Phillip), see Sleeping Beauty (1959 film). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... “Nephew” redirects here. ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Princess Alexandra of Denmark (later Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925), was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom and thus Empress of India during her husbands reign. ... George I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (December 24, 1845 – March 18, 1913) was King of the Hellenes (Greece) from 1863 to 1913. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Edward VII King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VII (Albert Edward) (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Princess Alice (Alice Maud Mary), (25 April 1843 – 14 December 1878), was a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria. ... The Duke of Edinburgh is a dukedom associated with Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ...

The Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh on their wedding day

After their wedding, Philip and Elizabeth took up residence at Clarence House, London. At various times between 1946 and 1953, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. Lord Mountbatten of Burma had purchased the Villa Gwardamangia (also referred to as the Villa G'Mangia), in the hamlet of Gwardamangia in Malta, in about 1929. Princess Elizabeth stayed there when visiting Philip in Malta. Philip and Elizabeth lived in Malta for a period between 1949 and 1951 (Malta being the only other country in which the Queen has lived, although at that time Malta was a British Protectorate). Image File history File links Source: WorldRoots File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Source: WorldRoots File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A residence may be a house, a place to live, like a nursing home. ... Clarence House, London Clarence House is a royal home in London, situated in The Mall. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Gwardamangia, is a hamlet in Pietà, Malta. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ...


On 14 November 1948, Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Charles. Several weeks earlier, letters patent had been issued so that her children would enjoy a royal and princely status they would not otherwise have been entitled to.[citation needed] Otherwise they would have been styled merely as children of a duke. The couple had four children (see below) in all. Though the Royal House is named Windsor, it was decreed, via a 1960 Order-in-Council, that those descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip who were not Princes or Princesses of the United Kingdom should have the personal surname Mountbatten-Windsor.[9] In practice all of their children, in honour of their father, have used Mountbatten-Windsor as their surname (or in Anne's case, her maiden surname). Both Charles and Anne used Mountbatten-Windsor as their surname in the published banns for their first marriages.[10] The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh have four children; November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Windsor, previously called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other Commonwealth Realms. ... An Order-in-Council is an executive order issued in Commonwealth Realms operating under the Westminster system. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The banns of marriage or, simply the banns, (from an Old English word meaning to summon) are the public announcement from the pulpit that a marriage is going to take place in that church between two specified persons at a specified time. ...

The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Princess Anne, Princess Royal (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950), is a member of the British Royal Family and the only daughter of Elizabeth II. She is the seventh holder of the title Princess Royal, and is currently ninth in the line of succession to the British... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prince Andrew, Duke of York (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, KG, KCVO, SOM (Edward Antony Richard Louis Mountbatten-Windsor; born 10 March 1964) is a member of the British Royal Family, the youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Earl of Wessex since 1999. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...

Succession

The coronation of the Queen, 2 June 1953- Prince Philip swears his allegiance to his wife and Queen
The coronation of the Queen, 2 June 1953- Prince Philip swears his allegiance to his wife and Queen

Her father's health declined during 1951, and Elizabeth was soon frequently standing in for him at public events. She visited Greece, Italy and Malta (where Philip was then stationed) during that year. In October, she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C. In January, 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand. They had reached Kenya when word arrived of the death of her father, on 6 February 1952, from lung cancer. Image File history File links Queencrown. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Elizabeth was staying at the Treetops Hotel in Thika (today just two hours away from Nairobi) when she was told of her father's death and of her own succession to the throne — a unique circumstance for any such event. She was the first British monarch since the accession of George I to be outside the country at the moment of succession, and also the first in modern times not to know the exact time of her accession (because her father had died in his sleep at an unknown time). On the night her father died, the Chief Justice of Kenya Sir Horace Hearne, who would later accompany the Royal Party back to the UK, escorted the Princess Elizabeth, as she then was, to a dinner at the Treetops Hotel, which is now a very popular tourist retreat in Kenya. It was there that she "went up a princess and came down a Queen". The present Treetops hotel Treetops Hotel is a hotel in Aberdare National Park in Kenya near the township of Nyeri, 6,450 feet above sea level on the Aberdare Range and in sight of Mount Kenya. ... Thika is a market town in Central Province, Kenya, lying on the A2 road north east of Nairobi, and on the Thika River. ... Nairobi (pronounced ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The present Treetops hotel Treetops Hotel is a hotel in Aberdare National Park in Kenya near the township of Nyeri, 6,450 feet above sea level on the Aberdare Range and in sight of Mount Kenya. ...


It was Prince Philip who broke the news of her father's death to Elizabeth. After that, Martin Charteris, then Assistant Private Secretary to the new Queen, asked her what she intended to be called. "Elizabeth, of course," she replied. The royal party returned immediately to the United Kingdom. HRH The Duke of Edinburgh His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten), styled HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (born June 10, 1921), is the consort of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Martin Michael Charles Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield GCB GCVO OBE QSO PC (7 September 1913–23 December 1999) was a confidante and aide to Queen Elizabeth II. Charteris was the son of Hugo Charteris, Lord Elcho and a brother of the 12th Earl of Wemyss. ... A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some popes and monarchs during their reigns. ...


Elizabeth II's Proclamation of Accession was read at St James's Palace, on Thursday, 7 February 1952. In Canada, a separate proclamation was issued by the Queen's Privy Council for Canada on the same day. Queen Elizabeth II was proclaimed Sovereign of each of the Commonwealth Realms on February 7, 1952, after the death of her father King George VI in the night between February 5 and February 6, and while the Princess was in Kenya. ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the...

A detail of Elizabeth II's coronation gown, showing the embroidered national floral emblems of Commonwealth countries.

The following year, the Queen's grandmother, Queen Mary, died of lung cancer on 24 March 1953. Reportedly, the Dowager Queen's dying wish was that the coronation not be postponed. Elizabeth's coronation took place in Westminster Abbey, on 2 June 1953. Her coronation gown, commissioned from Norman Hartnell, was embroidered with the floral emblems of the countries of the Commonwealth: the Tudor rose of England, the Scots thistle, the Welsh leek, shamrock of Ireland, wattle of Australia, the maple leaf of Canada, the New Zealand fern, South Africa's protea, two lotus flowers for India and Ceylon, and Pakistan's wheat, cotton and jute.[11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India and Queen of Ireland. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Queen Dowager or Dowager Queen is a title or status generally held by the widow of a reigning king. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Norman Bishop Hartnell, KCVO, (b. ... When Henry Tudor took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he brought about the end of the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster (Red Rose) and the House of York (White Rose). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Milk thistle flowerhead Thistledown a method of seed dispersal by wind. ... Trinomial name Allium ampeloprasum var. ... The Shamrock Oxalis acetosella as The Shamrock The shamrock, an unofficial symbol of Ireland and Boston, Massachusetts, is a three-leafed old white clover, sometimes (rarely nowadays) Trifolium repens (white clover, known in Irish as seamair bhán) but more usually today Trifolium dubium (lesser clover, Irish: seamair bhuí). However... Media:Example. ... Maple leaves in fall For other meanings, see maple leaf (disambiguation). ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... species see text Protea is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of flowering plants. ... Binomial name Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ...


Life as Queen

Elizabeth II wearing the Imperial State Crown and fur cape and holding the Sceptre with the Cross and the Orb at her Coronation (2 June 1953)

© Cecil Beaton / Camera Press. ... © Cecil Beaton / Camera Press. ... The Imperial State Crown is one of the British Crown Jewels. ... A mysterious man in a cape, in Seinfeld, in episode 6-4. ... Queen Elizabeth II holding the Sceptre with the Cross The Sceptre with the Cross, also known as the St Edwards Sceptre, the Sovereigns Sceptre or the Royal Sceptre, is a sceptre of the British Crown Jewels. ... Queen Elizabeth II holding the Orb The Sovereigns Orb is a type of regalia known as a globus cruciger and is one of the British Crown Jewels. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Residence

After the Coronation, Elizabeth and Philip moved to Buckingham Palace, in central London. It is reported, however, that, as with many of her predecessors, she dislikes the Palace as a residence and considers Windsor Castle, west of London, to be her home.[12] She also spends time at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh, Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire, and at Sandringham House in Norfolk. Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... Windsor castle, a thousand-year-old fortress transformed into a royal palace. ... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Balmoral Castle. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sandringham House is a country house on 8000 acres (32 km²) of land near the village of Sandringham, Norfolk, which is privately owned by the British Royal Family. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


Travels

Queen Elizabeth II reads a speech in Sydney, upon her visit in Australia in 1954
Queen Elizabeth II reads a speech in Sydney, upon her visit in Australia in 1954

Queen Elizabeth is the most widely-travelled head of state in history.[13][14] From 1953 to 1954 she and Philip made a six-month, around the world tour, becoming the first monarch to circumnavigate the globe. She also became the first reigning monarch of Australia, New Zealand and Fiji to visit those nations (which she visited again numerous times following). In October, 1957, she made a state visit to the United States, addressing the United Nations General Assembly, and proceeded to tour Canada, opening the first session of that nation's 23rd parliament. In 1959, she made another tour of Canada, as well as undertaking a state visit to the United States as Queen of Canada, hosting the return dinner for President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the Canadian Embassy in Washington. In February, 1961, she visited Ankara, as the guest of Turkish President Cemal Gürsel, and later toured India, Iran, Pakistan and Nepal for the first time. She has made state visits to most European countries and to many outside Europe. She toured the United States for the 1976 Bicentennial, attending festivities with President Ford, and again in 1991 at the invitation of President George H.W. Bush, during which she became the first British monarch to address a joint session of the United States Congress. She regularly attends Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings since the practice was established in Canada in 1973. The Queen again visited India and Pakistan in 1997, the fiftieth anniversary of independence of both states from Britain. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x701, 35 KB) Summary From: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x701, 35 KB) Summary From: http://www. ... The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of over 4,200,000 people, and 151,920 in the City of Sydney. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... The 23rd Canadian parliament was in session from 1957 until 1958. ... State visits usually involve a military review. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Arthur Ericksons combination of modernism and neoclassicism evokes I.M. Peis design for the East Building of the National Gallery of Art accross Pennsylvania Avenue. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... Cemal Gürsel (October 13, 1895— September 14, 1966), a statesman and a soldier, was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the 4th president of Turkey. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The United States Bicentennial was celebrated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. ... this guy is awsome i played him in a school play he also has some pretty funky history Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ...


In May of 2005 the Queen and Prince Phillip visited the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta to commermorate those provinces centennials. During a special dinner in Edmonton Premier Ralph Klein officially renamed Alberta's highway 2 the Queen Elizabeth II Highway. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Nickname: Motto: Industry - Integrity - Progress Location of Edmonton within census division number 11, Alberta, Canada. ... Categories: Canada-related stubs | Alberta premiers ... Ralph Phillip Klein MLA (born November 1, 1942), leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservatives, is the current premier of the Canadian province of Alberta. ...

The Queen and Prince Philip join U.S. President George W. Bush and Mrs. Bush at the White House on 7 May 2007.

On 7 May 2007, Queen Elizabeth attended a state dinner at the White House, hosted by President George W. Bush, and First Lady Laura Bush.[15] Elizabeth and her husband were both in attendance at the dinner, with the Queen sitting next to President Bush, who sat next to former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan, wife of the late U.S. President Ronald Reagan, both of whom Queen Elizabeth visited in California in 1983. The Royal Couple were in the United States for the 400th anniversary celebration in honour of Jamestown, Virginia, Britain's first successful American colony (the city and state both named for her ancestors, Elizabeth I and James I), and attended the Kentucky Derby the next day. During the visit she became the first British monarch to address the Virginia State Assembly. She met and exchanged gifts with descendants of the Powhatan Confederation and met privately with relatives and survivors of the recent Virginia Tech Massacre, expressing her and Britain's grief and sorrow over their loss. [16][15] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... -1... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... State dinners in different countries follow different rules and are governed by different protocols. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The presidential seal is a well-known symbol of the presidency. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... -1... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of former United States President Ronald Reagan and was an influential First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... See James VI of Scotland and I of England James I of Scotland James I of Aragon James I of Sicily James I of Cyprus This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Kentucky Derby is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ... The Virginia Tech massacre was a school shooting comprised of two separate attacks about two hours apart on April 16, 2007, on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, Virginia, United States. ...


Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth

Further information: Commonwealth Realm: Historical development, Commonwealth Realm: Former Commonwealth Realms, and George VI: Empire to Commonwealth

The British Empire began its metamorphosis following the Balfour Declaration at the Imperial Conference of 1926, followed by the formalization of the declaration in the Statute of Westminster, 1931. The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a statement of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... ...


By the time of Elizabeth's accession in 1952, there was much talk of a "new Elizabethan age." Since then, one of Elizabeth's roles has been to preside over the United Kingdom as it has shared world economic and military power with a growing host of independent nations and principalities. As nations have developed economically and culturally, the Queen has witnessed, over the past 50 years, a gradual transformation of the British Empire into its modern successor, the Commonwealth of Nations. She has worked hard to maintain links with former British possessions, and in some cases, such as South Africa, she has played an important role in retaining or restoring good relations. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


In 2007, it was discovered in declassified papers that in 1956 French Prime Minister Guy Mollet and British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden discussed the possibility of France joining in a union with the United Kingdom; amongst the ideas put forward was having Elizabeth II as the French head of state. A paper from 28 September 1956, stated that Mollet "had not thought there need be difficulty over France accepting the headship of Her Majesty." This proposal was never accepted, and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome.[17] Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975), French politician, was born in Flers, in Normandy, the son of a textile worker. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British politician who was Foreign Secretary for three periods between 1935 and 1955, including World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ...


Views and perceptions

Elizabeth is a conservative in matters of religion, moral standards and family matters.[citation needed] She has a strong sense of religious duty and takes her Coronation Oath seriously.[18] This is one reason (as well as the example set by her uncle who abdicated) why it is considered highly unlikely that she will ever abdicate.[19] For years, she refused to acknowledge Prince Charles's relationship with Camilla Parker-Bowles,[citation needed] but since their marriage, an appearance of acceptance has been established. Camilla Parker Bowles (born July 17 1947) was mistress, now girlfriend, of Charles, Prince of Wales. ...

Visiting Turkey, with Cemal Gürsel.

Elizabeth has shown a strong constitution in the face of turmoil; for example, during a trip to Ghana in 1961 she pointedly refused to keep her distance from the then President, Kwame Nkrumah, despite the fact that he was a target for assassins. Harold Macmillan wrote at the time: "the Queen has been absolutely determined all through. She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as… a film star... She has indeed 'the heart and stomach of a man'... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen." A similar situation arose three years later when Elizabeth was to tour Quebec. According to Robert Speaight in his book Vanier, Soldier, Diplomat and Governor General: A Biography, there were fears for the Queen's safety, while the media stirred up a campaign of fear around the risks that could arise from separatist threats, and there was talk of cancelling the tour. The Queen's Private Secretary replied that the Queen would have been horrified to have been prevented from going because of the activities of extremists. Further, during the Trooping the Colour in 1981 there was an apparent attempt on the Queen's life: six rounds of blanks were fired at her from close range as she rode down The Mall. Her only reaction was to duck slightly and then continue on. The Canadian House of Commons was so impressed by her display of courage that a motion was passed praising her composure.[20] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Cemal Gürsel (October 13, 1895— September 14, 1966), a statesman and a soldier, was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the 4th president of Turkey. ... Prior to independence Ghana was the British Gold Coast colony. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Major-General Georges-Philéas Vanier, PC DSO MC & Bar (April 23, 1888 - March 5, 1967) was a Canadian soldier and diplomat who was Governor General of Canada from 1959 until his death. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is Canadas Head of State; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share a single... Elizabeth II riding to Trooping the Colour for the last time in 1986 Trooping the Colour is a military pageant or ceremony performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and the British Army. ... The Mall, looking towards Buckingham Palace The Mall (/mæl/) in London is the road running from Buckingham Palace at its western end to Admiralty Arch and on to Trafalgar Square at its eastern end, where it crosses Spring Gardens, which was where the Metropolitan Board of Works and for... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...


Politics

As a constitutional monarch, Elizabeth does not express her personal political opinions publicly. She has maintained this discipline throughout her reign, doing little in public to reveal what they might be, and thus her political views are not clearly known. However, there is some evidence to suggest that, in economic terms, she leans towards a One Nation point of view. During Margaret Thatcher's years as British Prime Minister, it was rumoured that the Queen worried that Mrs. Thatcher's economic policies were fostering social divisions, and she was reportedly alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots in 1981, and the violence of the miners' strike.[21] Mrs. Thatcher once said to Brian Walden, referring to the Social Democratic Party: "The problem is, the Queen is the kind of woman who could vote SDP."[21] This does not cite any references or sources. ... One Nation, One Nation Conservatism, or Tory Democracy is a term used in political debate in the United Kingdom to refer to one wing of the Conservative Party. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Brian Walden (born July 8, 1932) was a Labour Member of Parliament and is now a journalist and broadcaster. ... The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was a political party of the United Kingdom that existed nationwide between 1981 and 1988. ...


Canadian national unity

While not speaking directly against Quebec sovereignty in Canada, she has publicly praised Canada's unity and expressed her wish to see the continuation of a unified Canada, sometimes courting controversy over the matter. Like her mother, Elizabeth has shown an affection for Canada, stating in 1983, when departing California, "I am going home to Canada tomorrow," and at a dinner in Saskatchewan in 2005: "this country and Canadians everywhere have been a constant presence in my life and work."[22] She has also stated that Canada feels like "a home away from home."[23] The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

Elizabeth presents a tablet of Balmoral granite with the cyphers of both herself and her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria, at the First Nations University of Canada, 17 May 2005

In a speech to the Quebec Legislature, at the height of the Quiet Revolution of 1964, she ignored the national controversy (including riots during her appearance in Quebec City — see History of Monarchy in Canada) in favour of praising Canada's two "complementary cultures", speaking, in both French and English, about the strength of Canada's two founding peoples, stating, "I am pleased to think that there exists in our Commonwealth a country where I can express myself officially in French," and, "whenever you sing [the French words of] 'O Canada' you are reminded that you come of a proud race."[24][25] From govt of Saskatchewan: http://www. ... From govt of Saskatchewan: http://www. ... Balmoral Castle. ... The Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II, surmounted with a crown. ... A Grandfather teaches his young grandaughter how to ride a scooter. ... The First Nations University of Canada (formerly Saskatchewan Federated Indian College) is a university in Saskatchewan, Canada with campuses in Regina, Saskatoon, and Prince Albert. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de... The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... O Canada is the national anthem of Canada. ...


After she proclaimed the Constitution Act in 1982, which was the first time in Canadian history that a major constitutional change had been made without the agreement of the government of Quebec, Elizabeth attempted to demonstrate her position as head of the whole Canadian nation, and her role as conciliator, by privately expressing to journalists her regret that Quebec was not part of the settlement.[24] The Constitution Act, 1982 (Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.)) is a part of the Constitution of Canada. ... This is an article about the politics of the Province of Quebec, Canada. ...


Rhodesia

On 18 November 1965, the Governor of Rhodesia, Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs, was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, an honour in the personal gift of the Queen, a week after Ian Smith had made his Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Gibbs was intensely loyal to Rhodesia, and, although he had refused to accept the UDI, the award was criticised by some as badly timed. Others praised it as indicating support for her Rhodesian representative in the face of an illegal action by her Rhodesian prime minister. is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Sir Humphrey Gibbs, c1965. ... Queen Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was signed on November 11, 1965 by the white minority government of Ian Smith, whose Rhodesian Front party opposed rushed moves by the United Kingdom towards black majority rule in the then British colony. ...


Australia

During the Australian constitutional crisis of 1975, when the Governor-General of Australia Sir John Kerr dismissed Gough Whitlam from the office of Prime Minister, the Queen received petitions and letters from Whitlam, the Speaker and private citizens asking the Queen to reverse the action of the Governor-General. The Queen's Private Secretary answered these petitions and letters by saying the matter was, under the Australian Constitution, for the Governor-General of Australia to decide.[26] Whitlam and others many years later declared their support for Australia becoming a republic. Evidence suggests that the Queen did not approve of Governor-General Kerr's removal of the elected government.[citation needed] The secretary of the Governor-General, David Smith, announcing the dissolution of Parliament on November 11th, 1975. ... Michael Jeffery, the current Governor-General of Australia The Governor-General of Australia is the representative in Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, who lives in the United Kingdom. ... Sir John Kerr Alternative meanings: John Kerr (disambiguation). ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), Australian politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 (in full, An Act to constitute the Commonwealth of Australia) is the primary constitutional text of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Michael Jeffery, the current Governor-General of Australia The Governor-General of Australia is the representative in Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, who lives in the United Kingdom. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose...


The United Kingdom

During an event in Westminster Hall marking her Silver Jubilee, in 1977, Elizabeth stated, "I cannot forget that I was crowned Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland." This reference came at a time when the Labour government was attempting to introduce a controversial devolution policy to Scotland and Wales, and was interpreted as opposition to devolution. She has spoken in favour of the continued union of England and Scotland,[citation needed] angering some Scottish nationalists[citation needed]. Her statement of praise for the Northern Ireland Belfast Agreement raised some complaints among some Unionists (who were traditionally strong monarchists). Ian Paisley, leader of the rightwing Democratic Unionist Party and founder of the evangelical Free Presbyterian church, famously broke with Unionism's traditional deference for the British Crown by calling the Queen "a parrot" of Tony Blair. He suggested that her support for the Belfast Agreement would weaken the monarchy's standing amongst Northern Irish Protestants, a substantial number of whom remained opposed to certain parts of the Agreement. However, Paisley's criticism of the Queen on this matter was rejected by more traditional and moderate unionists.[27] Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article is about the sub-division of the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Scotlands (in dark blue) location within the United Kingdom Scottish independence is an ideal advocated by certain political movements within the Scottish electorate that desires that Scotland secede from the United Kingdom and become a sovereign independent state as it was prior to the Act of Union in 1707. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... Unionism, in the context of Ireland, is a belief in the continuation of the Act of Union 1800 (as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920) so that Northern Ireland (created by the 1920 Act) remains part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Ian Richard Kyle Paisley MP MLA (born 6 April 1926) is the current First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... “DUP” redirects here. ... The Free Presbyterian Church is a Presbyterian denomination founded and moderated by the cleric and politician, Ian Paisley¹. Most of its membership live in Ulster. ...


In the late 1990s, after referendums approved a devolution policy, Elizabeth sent her best wishes to the new Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly of Wales, the first sessions of which she opened in person. Several MSPs stayed away from the ceremony attending a republican rally instead. A number of AMs boycotted her opening of the first session of the National Assembly for Wales. Plaid Cymru's Leanne Wood AM also boycotted the opening of National Assembly's new building (the Senedd) in 2006 and was thrown out of chamber for calling the Queen 'Mrs Windsor' during an Assembly debate.[28] Her reference in the Silver Jubilee speech is also believed, by some, to refer to the disturbances in Northern Ireland at that time. The National Assembly for Wales (or NAfW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) is a devolved assembly (not a full legislature) with power to make regulations in Wales, and also is responsible for most UK government departments in Wales. ... Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPA) in Gaelic) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. ... This article requires some copyediting, to be brought in line with the Manual of Style and does not cite its references or sources. ... An Assembly Member (Welsh: ) (AM) is a member of the Welsh Assembly in Wales, UK; or the London Assembly in London, UK. Categories: | ... Plaid Cymru – The Party of Wales (pronounced IPA: ; Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... Leanne Wood is the Plaid Cymru Assembly Member for South Wales Central contituency. ... The National Assembly for Wales Building at night The Senedd in the daytime The Senedd (Welsh for Parliament or Senate) is the home of the National Assembly for Wales. ...

With Adrienne Clarkson, then Governor General of Canada, during her tour of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 2005

Image File history File links ClarksonandQueen2005. ... Image File history File links ClarksonandQueen2005. ... Adrienne Louise Clarkson (née Poy) (Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hakka: Ńg Pên-kî, Cantonese: Ng5 Bing1 zi1), PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, LL.D (born February 10, 1939) is an accomplished Canadian journalist. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is Canadas Head of State; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share a single... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked...

Religion

Further information: Religious role of the Monarchy in the Commonwealth Realms

Elizabeth, as the Monarch of the United Kingdom, is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England and sworn protector of the Church of Scotland. Elizabeth holds no religious role as Sovereign of the other Realms. Countries that are Commonwealth Realms share the same monarch. ... The Sovereign of the United Kingdom is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ...


The Queen takes a keen personal interest in the Church of England, but, in practice, delegates authority in the Church of England to the Archbishop of Canterbury. She regularly worships at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, or at St. Mary Magdalene Church when staying at Sandringham House, Norfolk. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Members of the public outside St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting to watch the Garter Procession St Georges Chapel is the place of worship at Windsor Castle in England. ...


The Royal Family also regularly attends services at Crathie Kirk when holidaying at Balmoral Castle, and when in residence at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the family attends services at the Canongate Kirk. The Queen has attended the annual General Assembly of the Church of Scotland on several occasions, most recently in 1977 and 2002, although, in most years, she appoints a Lord High Commissioner to represent her. Crathie Kirk Crathie Kirk is a small Church of Scotland parish church in the Scottish village of Crathie, best known for being the regular place of worship of the British Royal Family when they are holidaying at nearby Balmoral Castle. ... The Kirk of the Canongate - or Canongate Kirk - serves the Parish of Canongate in Edinburghs Old Town, in Scotland. ... The 2004 Assembly with Dr Alison Elliot as Moderator The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Churchs governing body. ... The Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the British Sovereigns personal representative to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland (the Kirk). ...


The Queen made particular reference to her Christian convictions in her Christmas Day television broadcast in 2000, in which she spoke about the theological significance of the Millennium as marking the 2000th anniversary of the birth of Jesus Christ: "To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me, the teachings of Christ, and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example." Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Elizabeth often meets with leaders from other religions as well. She is Patron of the Council of Christians and Jews in the UK.[29] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Family relations

The Jubilee year coincided with the deaths, within a few months, of Elizabeth's mother and sister. Elizabeth's relations with her children have become much warmer since these deaths.[citation needed] She is particularly close to her daughter-in-law, Sophie, The Countess of Wessex and is very close to her grandchildren, noticeably Prince William, Princess Beatrice and Zara Phillips. The Countess of Wessex (Sophie Helen; neé Rhys-Jones, born 20 January 1965), is a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... “Prince William” redirects here. ... Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary; born 8 August 1988) is a member of the British Royal Family. ... Zara Anne Elizabeth Phillips, MBE (born 15 May 1981) is an elite standard equestrienne and is the current European and World Champion in eventing. ...


Finances

The Queen's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years. Sometimes estimated at US$10 billion, recently Forbes magazine conservatively estimated her fortune at around US$500 million (£280 million).[30] This figure seems to agree with official Palace statements that called reports of the Queen's supposed multibillion-dollar wealth "grossly over-exaggerated;" however, it conflicts with a total addition of the Queen's personal holdings. Her personal art collection is worth at least £10 billion, but is held in trust for the nation, and cannot be sold.[citation needed] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The Queen also owns large amounts of property privately that have never been valued, including Sandringham House, Balmoral Castle — reputedly worth £160 million — and the Castle of Mey. Press reports upon the death of the Queen Mother, the previous owner of the Castle of Mey, speculated that by the Queen's inheritance, £28 million of death duties were avoided on an estate worth £70 million.[31] Furthermore there is control and ownership of the Duchy of Lancaster, which is valued at £310 million and transferred a private income to the Monarch of £9.811 million in 2006. The Castle of Mey (formerly Barrogill Castle) is in dramatic situation on the north coast of Scotland, about 6 miles west of John OGroats. ... A not-so-nice duchy. ...


The Queen also technically owns the Crown Estate with holdings of £6 billion; however, the income of this is transferred to the Treasury in return for the civil list payments, and the legal effects of the Monarch reclaiming it and giving up civil list payments in exchange are unknown. In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a property portfolio associated with the monarchy. ... A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ...


Health and longevity

The Queen (left) walks with former American First Lady Pat Nixon upon the Nixons' visit to the United Kingdom in 1972.

In late February 2003, the Queen's reign, then just over 51 years, surpassed the reigns of all four of her immediate predecessors combined — (Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII and George VI). She is currently the second-longest-serving head of state in the world, after King Bhumibol of Thailand (fourth if one includes the rulers of the subnational entity Ras Al Khaimah and of the Government of Tibet in Exile), and the fourth-longest serving British or English monarch. Her reign of over half a century has seen eleven different Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom and numerous Prime Ministers in the Commonwealth Realms. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thelma Catherine Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of former President Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States of America from 1969 to 1974. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... List of currently enthroned monarchs and lifelong leaders sorted by length of service: Time served is in years as of 2007-05-12, rounded down. ... Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ; IPA: ; Royal Institute: Phumiphon Adunyadet;  ) (born December 5, 1927), is the current King of Thailand. ... Ras Al-Khaimah (Arabic: رأس الخيمة) is one of the United Arab Emirates. ... Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala Head of State (Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Government of Tibet in Exile, officially named the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a theocratic government-like entity headed by Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai... Queen Victoria, the longest-reigning monarch of the UK The following is a list of the monarchs who have reigned for the longest amount of time in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (Northern Ireland after 1922), the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of England, or the... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


In June 2005, she was forced to cancel several engagements after contracting what the Palace described as a bad cold. Nonetheless, the Queen has been described as being in excellent health, and is seldom ill.[32]


In October 2006, she suffered a burst blood vessel in her right eye, causing her entire eye to appear deep red in colour.[33] While the palace would not comment on the Queen's condition, medical experts stated that the Queen would be in no pain and that her eye would heal within a week or two with no lasting damage. They also stated that blood vessel bursts are common amongst the elderly, but can also be a sign of high blood pressure. Later that month, on 26 October, she was due officially to open the new Emirates Stadium, the home of Arsenal F.C., but she was forced to cancel the engagement due to a strained back muscle that had troubled her since the end of her Balmoral holiday.[34] Her back troubles appear to be ongoing. There was serious concern in November, 2006, that she wouldn't be well enough to open Parliament, and plans were drawn up to cover her possible absence. However, she was able to attend. The following month, The Queen faced more rumours that she was in declining health when she was seen in public with a plaster on her right hand. The positioning of the plaster seemed to suggest that the Queen may have been fitted with an intravenous drip. Medical experts suggest that given her back troubles and age she may be suffering from osteoporosis. Buckingham Palace refused comment.[35] However, it was later revealed that the plaster was as a result of one of her corgis biting her hand as she separated two fighting pets.[36] October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Emirates Stadium is a football stadium located on Ashburton Grove in Holloway, north London, and the home of Arsenal Football Club since it opened in July 2006. ... Arsenal Football Club (also known as Arsenal, The Arsenal or The Gunners) are an English professional football club based in Holloway, north London. ... Painting of a womans back by Edgar Degas. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Typical sticking plaster conditionnig Reverse of a sticking plaster Opened sticking plaster, showing the non-adhesive absorbent pad and adhesive A sticking plaster (called an adhesive bandage in the United States) is a small medical dressing, used for injuries not serious enough to require a bandage. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ... The Pembroke Welsh Corgi (IPA: ) is one of two dog breeds known as Welsh Corgis that originated in Pembrokeshire, Wales. ...


Jubilees

In 1977, Elizabeth celebrated her Silver Jubilee, marking the 25th anniversary of her accession to the Throne. [37] The occasion was marked by a royal procession in the golden state coach and a service of thanksgiving at St. Paul's Cathedral attended by dignitaries and heads of state. Millions watched events on television and numerous public street parties were held across the UK to mark the occasion, culminating in several "Jubilee Days" held in June. A special first day cover of stamps was also printed. In 1979 the Jubilee Line of the London Underground was also retrospectively renamed in honour of the anniversary, and several other locations and public spaces were named to commemorate the Jubilee, including the Jubilee Gardens in London's South Bank. Elizabeth IIs Silver Jubilee and her domestic and international visits proved very popular with her subjects. ... Elizabeth IIs Silver Jubilee and her domestic and international visits proved very popular with her subjects. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Jubilee Line is a line on the London Underground, coloured silver grey on the Tube map. ... The London Underground is a transit system that serves much of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... Jubilee Gardens was created in 1977 to mark the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II and sits at the heart of London’s cultural centre, South Bank. ... The National Theatre is one of the collection of arts buildings that make up the South Bank Centre. ...

In 2002, Elizabeth celebrated her Golden Jubilee, marking the 50th anniversary of her accession to the Throne. [38] The year saw an extensive tour of the Commonwealth Realms, including the first ever pop concert in the gardens of Buckingham Palace, and as had been held in 1977, a service of thanksgiving took place at St. Paul's Cathedral. Public celebrations in the UK were more muted than they had been 25 years previously, in part because earlier the same year both the Queen's mother and sister had died, and in part due to changing public attitudes towards the monarchy. However, street parties and commemorative events were still organised in many areas. Queen Elizabeth II makes an official appearance at the CBC Headquarters as part of her Jubilee goodwill tour, October 2002. ... Queen Elizabeth II makes an official appearance at the CBC Headquarters as part of her Jubilee goodwill tour, October 2002. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


If both the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh are still alive on 20 November 2007, the Queen will become the first monarch to celebrate a Diamond wedding anniversary. Sleeping Beauty character (actually spelled Phillip), see Sleeping Beauty (1959 film). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... A wedding anniversary is an anniversary which falls on the month and day a particular wedding took place, and which recurs every subsequent year. ...


Reduced duties

On Friday, 21 April 2006, the Queen turned 80, making her the third-oldest reigning monarch (and fourth-oldest ruler) in British and Commonwealth history. She has begun to hand over some public duties to her children, as well as to other members of the Royal Family, and in early 2006, reports began to surface that the Queen planned to reduce her official duties significantly, though she has made it clear that she has no intention of abdicating.[12] The 2007 State Visit to the United States tends to show this to be an unfounded rumour. It is believed by the press that Prince Charles will start to perform many of the day-to-day duties of the Monarch, while the Queen will effectively go into "retirement"[citation needed]. It was later confirmed by the Palace that Prince Charles will begin to hold the regular audiences with the Prime Minister and other Commonwealth leaders, but also that, while the Queen would be increasing the length of her weekends by two days, she would continue with public duties well into the future.[citation needed] The Queen still meets with the Prime Minister. She has not handed over this duty to the Prince of Wales. Buckingham Palace already gives the Prince access to government papers. For a number of years he has been deputising when the Queen has been unavailable at investitures. The Princess Royal has also done so. He regularly meets more foreign dignitaries. He does not take the place of the Queen in welcoming ambassadors at the Court of St. James's unless he is acting as a Counsellor of State with another senior member of the royal family in the same role. is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This is a list of British monarchs by longevity since the Union of the Crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1603. ... The Court of St Jamess is the popular name of the royal court of the United Kingdom. ...


Unproven media speculation rumoured that her recent trip to Canada and Australia will be amongst her last visits to her overseas realms. Both the Canadian and Australian governments and the Palace have denied it.


In May of 2007 the Queen and Prince Philip made a state visit to the United States, in honour of the 400th anniversary of the Jamestown settlement. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Despite her good health and intention to stay on the throne, some saw the wedding of the Prince of Wales to Camilla as a message from the Queen that, by allowing Charles to marry, she is attempting to ensure that Charles' succession to the throne will be smooth. In 2004, a copy of the Queen's newly-revised funeral plans was stolen.[39] And for the first time, in September, 2005, a mock version of the Queen's funeral march was held in the middle of the night (this was also done once a year after the late Queen Mother turned 80). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


If the Queen lives until 21 December 2007, she will become the oldest reigning monarch in both British and the Commonwealth Realms' history, surpassing King George III and Queen Victoria, both of whom died before the age of 82. Should she still be living on 29 January 2012, she would surpass Richard Cromwell as the longest lived British ruler. December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ...


Should she still be reigning on 9 September 2015, at the age of 89, her reign will surpass that of Queen Victoria and she will become the longest reigning monarch in British history. If she lives that long, and the Prince of Wales does also, he would be the oldest to succeed to the throne, surpassing William IV, who was 64. September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2015 (MMXV) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, the longest-reigning monarch of the UK The following is a list of the monarchs who have reigned for the longest amount of time in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (Northern Ireland after 1922), the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of England, or the... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ...


Shortly before her 80th birthday, polls were conducted that showed the majority of the British public wish for the Queen to remain on the throne until her death — many feel that the Queen has become an institution in herself.[40]


Role in government

Further information: Monarchy in the United Kingdom, Monarchy in Canada, Monarchy in Australia, Monarchy in New Zealand, Monarchy in Jamaica, Monarchy in the Cook Islands
The Queen (wearing the insignia of the Sovereign of the Order of Canada and of the Order of Military Merit) pictured with her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

Constitutionally, the Queen is an essential part of the legislative process of her Realms. In practice, much of the Queen's role in the legislative process is ceremonial, as her reserve powers are rarely exercised. The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... The Royal Arms of Jamaica, granted through Royal Warrant by King Charles II in 1661. ... The Cook Islands are a constitutional monarchy within the Realm of New Zealand with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since 4 August 1965. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (857x732, 67 KB) Offical potrait from Canadas government website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (857x732, 67 KB) Offical potrait from Canadas government website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... The Order of Military Merit is an Order (decoration) issued by Canada to members of the Canadian Forces who have demonstrated dedication and devotion beyond the call of duty. ... Sleeping Beauty character (actually spelled Phillip), see Sleeping Beauty (1959 film). ...


She does decide the basis on which a person is asked to form a government; that is, whether a government should be formed capable of surviving in the House of Commons — the standard requirement — or capable of commanding majority support in the House of Commons (i.e. forming a coalition if no one party has a majority). This requirement was last set in 1940, when King George VI asked Winston Churchill to form a government capable of commanding a majority in parliament,[citation needed] which necessitated the wartime coalition. The requirement is normally only made in emergencies or in wartime, and, to date, Elizabeth has never set it. The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of New Zealand, wearing the sash and the star of the New Zealand Order of Merit, as well as the badges on her shoulder of the Order of New Zealand and the Queen's Service Order.

On three occasions during her reign, Elizabeth has had to deal with constitutional problems over the formation of UK governments. In 1957 and again in 1963, the absence of a formal open mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that following the sudden resignations of Sir Anthony Eden and Harold Macmillan it fell to the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. In 1957, Eden did not proffer advice, and so the Queen consulted Lords Salisbury and Kilmuir for the opinion of the Cabinet, and Winston Churchill, as the only living former Conservative Prime Minister (following the precedent of George V consulting Salisbury's father and Arthur Balfour upon Andrew Bonar Law's resignation in 1923). In October, 1963, the outgoing Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, advised the Queen to appoint Alec Douglas-Home, the Earl of Home. Image File history File links Queen_Elizabeth_II_of_New_Zealand_cropped. ... Image File history File links Queen_Elizabeth_II_of_New_Zealand_cropped. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... // History Royal honours were awarded in New Zealand from the very beginning of settlement. ... Badge of the Order of New Zealand The Order of New Zealand is the highest honour in New Zealands honours system. ... Male Companions Badge of the Queens Service Order for Community Service The Queens Service Order was established by Queen Elizabeth II on 13 March 1975. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and is the second oldest extant political party in the world. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British politician who was Foreign Secretary for three periods between 1935 and 1955, including World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... The Right Honourable Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, KG (August 27, 1893–February 23, 1972) was a grandson of the great 3rd Marquess. ... David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir GCVO, PC, KC, (29 May 1900 – 27 January 1967) was a British politician and jurist who became Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, soldier in the British Army, orator, and strategist, and is studied as part of the modern British and world history. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (October 23, 1861 - April 4, 1947) was the eldest son and heir of the Victorian statesman Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury. ... Arthur James Balfour, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 1st Earl Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930) was a British Conservative politician and statesman, and the Prime Minister from 1902 to 1905. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a Conservative Party British statesman and Prime Minister. ... Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home1, Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC (July 2, 1903 – October 9, 1995), 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October 1964. ... The title Earl of Home (pronounced Hume) was created in 1605 in the Peerage of Scotland for Alexander Home, who was also the sixth Lord Home. ...


On the third occasion, in February, 1974, an inconclusive general election result meant that in theory the outgoing Prime Minister Edward Heath, who had won the popular vote, could stay in power if he formed a coalition government with the Liberals. Rather than immediately resign as prime minister he explored the option and only resigned when the discussions foundered. (Had he chosen to, he could have stayed on until defeated in the debate on the Queen's Speech.) Only when he resigned was the Queen able to ask the Leader of the Opposition, the Labour Party's Harold Wilson, to form a government. His minority government lasted for eight months before a new general election was held. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands reads her countrys Speech from the Throne Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne, sometimes referred to by the shorter term Throne Speech, is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or... The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in England, Scotland and Wales. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In all three cases, she appears to have acted in accordance with constitutional tradition, following the advice of her senior ministers and Privy Councillors. Indeed, since constitutional practice in the UK is based on tradition and precedent rather than a written set of rules, it is generally accepted that the Sovereign cannot be acting unconstitutionally when acting on the advice of her or his ministers.


Relations with ministers

See also: Prime Ministers of Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip, Ernest Harmon Air Force Base visit, 1959
Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip, Ernest Harmon Air Force Base visit, 1959

Since becoming Queen, Elizabeth spends an average of three hours every day "doing the boxes" — reading state papers sent to her from her various departments, embassies, and government offices.[41] Having done so since 1952, she has seen more of public affairs from the inside than any other person, and is thus able to offer advice to her ministers based on her experiences with her multiple previous prime ministers in various countries. She takes her responsibilities in this regard seriously, once mentioning an "interesting telegram" from the Foreign Office to then-Prime Minister Winston Churchill, only to find that her prime minister had not bothered to read it when it came in his box.[citation needed] HM the Queen with Commonwealth Prime Ministers, in the 1950s. ... Image File history File links Queen1959. ... Image File history File links Queen1959. ... Ernest Harmon AFB is a former United States Air Force base located in Stephenville, Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ...


British Prime Ministers take their weekly meetings with the Queen very seriously. One Prime Minister said he took them more seriously than Prime Minister's Questions in the House of Commons, because she would be better briefed and more constructive than anything he would face at the dispatch box. Elizabeth also has regular meetings with her individual British ministers, and occasional meetings with ministers from her other Realms, either when she is in the particular country, or the minister is in London. Tony Blair at PMQs Prime Ministers Questions (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Wednesday when the House of Commons is sitting the Prime Minister spends half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs). In Canada this convention...


Elizabeth's relations with her Canadian Prime Ministers have varied throughout the years. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau seemed to have caused her some concern, perhaps due to his documented antics around the Monarch, such as his sliding down Buckingham Palace banisters, and his famous pirouette behind the Queen, captured on film in 1977, as well as the removal of various royal symbols from Canada during his premiership. Elizabeth was reported, by Paul Martin, Sr., as worrying that the Crown "had little meaning for [Trudeau]". However, as part of the patriation of Canada's Constitution in 1982, orchestrated by Trudeau, the Monarchy was entrenched within Canada's governing system. Following this, Trudeau stated in his memoirs: "I always said it was thanks to three women that we were eventually able to reform our Constitution.­ The Queen, who was favourable, Margaret Thatcher, who undertook to do everything that our Parliament asked of her, and Jean Wadds, who represented the interests of Canada so well in London... The Queen favoured my attempt to reform the Constitution. I was always impressed not only by the grace she displayed in public at all times, but by the wisdom she showed in private conversation."[42] Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... The Right Hon. ... Look up Patriation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... Jean Casselman Wadds (born September 16, 1920 in Newton Robinson, Ontario) is a former Canadian politician, who represented the electoral district of Grenville—Dundas from 1958 to 1968. ...

Elizabeth II during a state banquet at Buckingham palace wearing the Grand Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross
Elizabeth II during a state banquet at Buckingham palace wearing the Grand Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross

Paul Martin, Sr. as well as John Roberts and Mark MacGuigan, who were both sent to the UK in 1980 to discuss the patriation project, noted that during this time the Queen had taken a great and deep interest in the constitutional debate, especially following the failure of Bill C-60, which affected her role as Head of State. They found the Queen "better informed on both the substance and politics of Canada's constitutional case than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats."[43] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (671x1800, 427 KB) Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (*1926), during a state banquet in honor of Brazilian president Lula da Silva and Brazils first lady, at Buckingham Palace, London, March 7th, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (671x1800, 427 KB) Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (*1926), during a state banquet in honor of Brazilian president Lula da Silva and Brazils first lady, at Buckingham Palace, London, March 7th, 2006. ... The Order of the Southern Cross was originally known as the Imperial Order of the Southern Cross and awarded to officers, NCOs and men of the Brazilian Imperial Army and Navy during the war against Paraguay (1865-1870), called War of the Triple Alliance (Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay against Paraguay). ... John Moody Roberts, PC (born 1933) is a former Canadian politician. ... Mark Rudolph MacGuigan (February 17, 1931, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island - January 12, 1998) was a Canadian academic and politician. ...


The Queen also meets with the First Minister of Scotland. The royal palace in Edinburgh, the Holyrood Palace, once home to Scottish kings and queens such as Mary, Queen of Scots, is now regularly used again, with at least one member of the Royal Family (often the Prince of Wales or Princess Royal) in residence. She also receives reports from the new National Assembly for Wales, and is continually kept abreast of goings on with her other governments. The Government of Wales Act of 2006 means that from 2007 the Queen will have a role in relation to Wales separate to her role as Queen of the UK. She will appoint Welsh Ministers and enact Welsh Orders in Council. The First Minister (First Meinister in Scots; Prìomh Mhinistear in Scots Gaelic) is the leader of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the reconvened Scottish Parliament. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... Mary I (popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots: French: ); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542, to July 24, 1567. ... The National Assembly for Wales (Welsh: ) is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales. ... The Government of Wales Act, 1998 or, to give it its full title , was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in 1998 by the incoming Labour government to create a National Assembly for Wales. ...

Queen Elizabeth II with Maharaja Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur

Though bound by convention not to intervene directly in politics, her length of service, and the fact that she has seen a great many prime ministers come and go in all of her realms, combined with her knowledge of world leaders, means that when she does express an opinion, however cautiously, her words are taken seriously. In her memoirs, Margaret Thatcher offered the following description of her weekly meetings with Elizabeth: "Anyone who imagines that they are a mere formality or confined to social niceties is quite wrong; they are quietly businesslike and Her Majesty brings to bear a formidable grasp of current issues and breadth of experience." Image File history File links Maharaja Jaya Chama Raja Wadiyar Bahadur File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Maharaja Jaya Chama Raja Wadiyar Bahadur File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


During an argument within the Commonwealth over sanctions on South Africa, Elizabeth made a pointed reference to her role as Head of the Commonwealth, which was interpreted at the time as a disagreement with Thatcher's policy of opposing sanctions. However, whatever the differences between them, Thatcher has clearly conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen and believes that the image of animosity between the two of them has been played up because they are both women. In the aforementioned BBC documentary Queen & Country, Thatcher describes Elizabeth as "marvellous" and "a perfect lady" who "always knows just what to say," referring in particular to her final meeting with the sovereign as prime minister. Since leaving office, Thatcher has been awarded a life peerage, the Order of Merit, and the Order of the Garter, which would seem to indicate a basic respect for Thatcher on the part of Elizabeth. (Membership of the two Orders are entirely the personal gift of the Sovereign.) In October, 2005, the Queen and Prince Philip attended Thatcher's 80th birthday party in London. In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ...


It was revealed in May of 2007 that the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the actions of then Prime Minister Tony Blair, especially by what she saw as detachment from rural issues, as well as a too casual approach (he requested that the Queen call him "Tony"), and a contempt for British heritage, on his part. She was also rumoured to have showed concern with the overtaxation of the British Armed Forces though overseas engagements, particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as "surprise" over Blair's shifting of their weekly meeting from Tuesday to Wednesday afternoons – "surprise" being a genteel word to describe "seriously annoyed." She was supposed to have raised her concerns with Blair repeatedly at these meetings, though she has never revealed her opinions on the Iraq War itself.[44] The relationship between the Queen and her husband and Blair and his wife was also reported to be distant, as the two couples shared little common interests. The Queen did, however, apparently admire Blair's efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland.[45] For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


On a BBC documentary broadcast in 1992, Elizabeth R., she was shown teasing former Prime Minister Sir Edward Heath about how he could travel to world trouble spots like Iraq because politicians saw him as "expendable". He laughed at the comment. The British Broadcasting Corporation,which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ...


On occasion, her contacts have proved highly beneficial for her realms. For example, John Major, as British Prime Minister, once had difficulty working with Australian Prime Minister John Howard. The Queen suggested to Major that he and Howard shared a mutual sporting interest — that Howard was, like Major, a cricket fan. Major then broke the ice to establish a personal relationship which ultimately benefited both countries.[citation needed] Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC (born 29 March 1943) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and leader of the British Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician, is the Prime Minister of Australia. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ...


It is believed that her favourite British Prime Ministers have been Winston Churchill, Harold Macmillan and Harold Wilson.[citation needed] She was thought to have had very good relations with British Prime Minister Tony Blair, during the first years of his term in office. However, there has been mounting evidence in recent years that her relationship with Blair has hardened.[46] Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, soldier in the British Army, orator, and strategist, and is studied as part of the modern British and world history. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...


The Queen is also thought to have had strained relations with Margaret Thatcher during her eleven years as Prime Minister. Reports throughout the period varied over the extent of this difference and to what degree it was due to concerns over policies of the Thatcher government, or a personality clash between the two women themselves.[47] During the 1980s, the Queen was even reported to "cordially dislike" Prime Minister Thatcher.[48] Official Buckingham Palace sources, however, have always denied there were conflicts between the Queen and Thatcher.


Relations with foreign leaders

Elizabeth's personal relationships with world leaders are warm and informal, and she has developed friendships with many foreign leaders, including Nelson Mandela, Mary Robinson, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush, whose son, George W. Bush, was the first American President in more than 80 years to stay at Buckingham Palace. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA pronunciation: //) (born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ... Mary Robinson (Irish name Máire Mhic Róibín; born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ...


Mary McAleese, now President of Ireland, recounted how, as Pro Vice-Chancellor of the Queen's University of Belfast, she was, to her shock, invited to a lunch with the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh, on the basis that the Queen wished to talk to her, as a leading Northern Ireland nationalist, and hear her views on Anglo-Irish relations. The two women struck up an instant rapport, with McAleese, during the 1997 Irish presidential election, calling the Queen "a dote" (a Hiberno-English term meaning a "really lovely person") in an Irish Independent interview. Nelson Mandela, in the BBC documentary, repeatedly referred to her as "my friend, Elizabeth". She has a very friendly relationship with Jacques Chirac of France, who is the only Head of State allowed to drink his favoured Corona-brand beer at official dinners at Buckingham Palace instead of the fine French wines of the Palace's cellar.[citation needed] Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... -1... The Queens University of Belfast (QUB) is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland; the university is often called Queens University Belfast. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The term Anglo-Irish means British-Irish and is used frequently to describe formal contacts, negotiations or treaties between both states. ... The Irish general election of 1997 was held on October 30, 1997. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Irish Independent is Irelands best-selling daily newspaper. ... Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA pronunciation: //) (born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ... Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician. ... A bottle of Corona Grupo Modelo is a large brewery in Mexico. ...


Personality and image

Queen Elizabeth II has rarely given press interviews, and her views on political issues are largely unknown except to those few heads of government in her confidence. ...

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Monarchical Styles of
Queen Elizabeth II
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Ma'am

Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ...

Titles

Further information: List of titles and honours of Queen Elizabeth II

Following Elizabeth's accession, a decision was reached by Commonwealth Prime Ministers at the Commonwealth Conference of 1953, whereby the Queen would be accorded different styles and titles in each of her Realms, reflecting that in each state she acts as the Monarch of that state, regardless of her other roles. Traditionally, Elizabeth II's titles as Queen Regnant are listed by the order in which the remaining original Realms first became Dominions of the Crown: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (original dominion), Canada (1867), Australia (1901), and New Zealand (1907); followed by the order in which the former Crown colony became an independent Realm: Jamaica (1962), Barbados (1966), the Bahamas (1973), Grenada (1974), Papua New Guinea (1975), the Solomon Islands (1978), Tuvalu (1978), Saint Lucia (1979), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1979), Antigua and Barbuda (1981), Belize (1981), and Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983). is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ... This is a page about Dominions of the British Empire/Commonwealth. ...


Scottish controversy

See also: List of regnal numerals of future British monarchs

However, in Scotland, the title Elizabeth II caused some controversy, as there has never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. In a rare act of sabotage, new Royal Mail post boxes in Scotland, bearing the initials "E II R", were vandalised. (Prior to Queen Elizabeth, Scottish boxes had borne the monarch's initials, but no crown.) To avoid further problems, post boxes and Royal Mail vehicles in Scotland now bear only the Crown of Scotland and no Royal cypher. This is a list of the regnal numerals which may in time be used by future British monarchs. ... Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ... Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ... The Crowns modern usage: The Crown of Scotland at the opening of the Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood in 2004. ...


A legal case, MacCormick v. Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), was taken to contest the right of the Queen to style herself Elizabeth II within Scotland, arguing that to do so would be a breach of the Act of Union. The case was lost on the grounds that the pursuers had no title to sue the Crown, and also that the numbering of monarchs was part of the royal prerogative, and not governed by the Act of Union. MacCormick v. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ...


There are also two other matters of controversy, publicised much less. First, the argument that the monarch was addressed as Your Grace, rather than Majesty, in pre-Union Scotland, and, second, that the preferred title had been King/Queen of Scots rather than of Scotland (although the latter was by no means unknown).


At the royal opening of the Scottish Parliament in 1999, the presiding officer David Steel referred to her as, "not only the Queen of the United Kingdom but seated as you are among us in the historic and constitutionally correct manner as Queen of Scots". For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Presiding Officer (Oifigear-Riaghlaidh in Scots Gaelic) is the person elected by the Members of the Scottish Parliament to chair their meetings. ...


Future British monarchs will be numbered according to either English or Scottish predecessors, whichever number is higher. Applying this policy retroactively to monarchs since the Act of Union yields the same numbering. However, equivalent rules have not been established in the Commonwealth Realms.


Styles

The Queen has many titles within her various Realms and territories. In common practice, however, Queen Elizabeth II is referred to simply as "The Queen" or "Her Majesty". When in conversation with The Queen, one initially uses "Your Majesty", and thereafter "Ma'am".


In common practice, styled as Her Majesty The Queen (and, when the distinction is necessary, Her Britannic Majesty, Her Australian Majesty, or Her Canadian Majesty, etc.)


Honours and military positions

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Arms

The Queen's Coat of Arms in Barbados

The Queen has coats of arms in each of her Realms; these arms are also sometimes used by government agencies or ministries to symbolise the Crown. In the UK, they are known as the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Every British monarch has used these arms since the reign of Queen Victoria. A separate Royal Arms exists, for use in Scotland, which gives priority to Scottish elements and features the insignia of the Order of the Thistle. The Royal Coat of Arms of Canada has been used by each monarch of Canada since George V; it is based on the British Royal Arms but contains unique Canadian elements. The Queen also has Arms for use as sovereign of Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Each of these is different from the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Barbados coat of arms with 125px width (and . ... Barbados coat of arms with 125px width (and . ... The Coat of Arms of Barbados was adopted upon independence in 1966 by decree of Queen Elizabeth. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially known as her Arms of Dominion. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially known as her Arms of Dominion. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Coat of Arms of Canada (since 1994) The Royal Coat of Arms of Canada (formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada) was proclaimed by King George V on November 21, 1921, as the Arms or Ensigns Armorial of the Dominion of Canada. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...


The Royal Standard is the Queen's flag, and is a banner of the Royal Arms. In some of the Commonwealth Realms, the Queen has an official standard for use when acting as Queen of that Realm. Australia, Barbados, Canada, Jamaica, and New Zealand each have their own Royal Standard, each one a defaced banner of the relevant coat of arms, including the Queen's personal badge: a crowned letter E inside a circle of roses on a blue disc. This badge was also used in the Queen's personal flags in former realms, and also forms the flag used by the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth. For other Heads of States’s standards, see Gallery of head of state standards. ...


From 1936 until her succession, Princess Elizabeth's arms were the Royal Arms, differenced by a label of three points argent (white), the centre bearing a Tudor Rose and the first and third points bearing a red cross. When Henry Tudor took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he brought about the end of the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster (Red Rose) and the House of York (White Rose). ...


Ancestry

This table shows the descent of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from Egbert, traditionally regarded as first King of England, and before that from Cerdic, founder of the House of Wessex. ... This table sets out the ancestry of Queen Elizabeth II for five generations, numbered according to the Ahnentafel genealogical numbering system. ...

See also

The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... In Jersey the Lieutenant-Governor hosts a reception for the public at Government House to mark the Queens Official Birthday at which he announces recipients of Birthday Honours The Queens Birthday or Queens Official Birthday is celebrated as a public holiday in several Commonwealth countries (usually Commonwealth... Elizabeth II riding to Trooping the Colour for the last time in 1986 Trooping the Colour is a military pageant or ceremony performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and the British Army. ... HRH The Prince of Wales, the Heir Apparent. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... The Queen is an Academy Award-winning British 2006 film directed by Stephen Frears and written by Peter Morgan. ... This table shows the descent of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from Egbert, traditionally regarded as first King of England, and before that from Cerdic, founder of the House of Wessex. ... Michael Fagan was the intruder who broke into Buckingham Palace and entered Queen Elizabeth IIs bedchamber in the early hours of July 9, 1982. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b As a titled royal, HM holds no surname, but, when one is used, it is Windsor
  2. ^ a b c 80 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Queen Elizabeth. Time Europe. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  3. ^ now Sri Lanka
  4. ^ Witchell, Nicholas (2006-05-27). (with video) Queen 'Lilibet' letters unveiled. BBC. Retrieved on 30 Apr 2007.
  5. ^ Rose, Kenneth.; King George V; Weidenfeld and Nicolson; London, Great Britain; 1983, p389. ISBN 0-297-78245-2
  6. ^ The Real Crawfie. Channel 4. Retrieved on 18 January 2007.
  7. ^ 80 Facts About The Queen. British Monarchy Official Website. Retrieved on 18 January 2007.
  8. ^ Davies, Caroline (2006-04-20). Philip, the one constant through her life. Telegraph. Retrieved on 23 January 2007.
  9. ^ The London Gazette
  10. ^ Prince of Wales's press office.
  11. ^ National Gallery of Australia: By Appointment: Norman Hartnell's sample for the Coronation dress of Queen Elizabeth II
  12. ^ a b English, Rebecca (2006-04-20). 'The Queen will NEVER consider abdicating'. Daily Mail.
  13. ^ Sarah Challands. "Queen Elizabeth II celebrates her 80th birthday", CTV Television Network, 2006-04-25. Retrieved on 2007-06-13. 
  14. ^ The Real Queen. 2002-01-01.
  15. ^ a b Queen Elizabeth II. White House www.whitehouse.gov. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  16. ^ Harrell, Eben. "America frets over etiquette for royal visit", The Scotsman, 2007-04-30. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. 
  17. ^ The Guardian: France and UK considered 1950s 'merger'; January 15, 2007
  18. ^ "It's not like a normal job, it's a job for life. [The vows made on Coronation Day were] so deep and so special [to the Queen]... She wouldn't consider not continuing to fulfil those vows until she dies." The Hon Margaret Rhodes, BBC News
  19. ^ When asked by BBC royal correspondent Nicholas Witchell if she was categorically saying the Queen would neither retire nor abdicate, but would remain in the role until her death she said: "Yes, I'm perfectly sure that's what will happen." The Hon Margaret Rhodes, BBC News
  20. ^ Canadian Royal Heritage Trust: Courage of the Queen
  21. ^ a b John Campbell, Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady (Jonathan Cape, 2003)
  22. ^ Struck, Doug; The Washington Post: A royal visit by Canada's head of state; 17 May 2005
  23. ^ CTV News: Queen says it's good to be back in Canada; May 19, 2005
  24. ^ a b The Canadian Royal Heritage Trust: Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada
  25. ^ CBC: 1964 Quebec visit speech
  26. ^ Letter from the Queen's Private Secretary to the Speaker whitlamdismissal.com, accessed 20 November 2006
  27. ^ Paisley's stance is not as unusual as it might appear, since unlike the more conventionally conservative Ulster Unionists, his views are heavily influenced by the Scottish Covenanting tradition with its emphasis on conditional loyalty; for example, he marked the Queen's Silver Jubilee in 1977 by preaching a sermon recalling and justifying the execution of Charles I and deposition of James II, implying that while the Queen was then worthy of celebration she would deserve the same fate as those two monarchs if she failed to live up to her office as defender of the Protestant Constitution.'The Queen is a parrot' - Paisley
  28. ^ 'AM expelled for Mrs Windsor jibe' - Leanne Wood
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ A Birthday Fit for a Queen
  31. ^ http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/index.cfm?id=490652002
  32. ^ Queen Catches A Cold. Sky News. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
  33. ^ Leyland, Joanne. The Queen Proves She's A Real Trooper. The Royalist. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
  34. ^ "Queen cancels visit due to injury", BBC, 26 October 2006. 
  35. ^ "Plaster on Queen's hand: minor cut or IV drip?", The Daily Mail, 6 December 2006. 
  36. ^ "Corgi put the queen in plaster", The Sun, 14 December 2006. 
  37. ^ 1977: Queen celebrates Silver Jubilee BBC On This Day
  38. ^ In Depth: The Golden Jubilee BBC News Online
  39. ^ Queen's funeral plans 'stolen from car'
  40. ^ Bansal, Shaveta. Poll: Queen Elizabeth "Most Popular Royal". All Headline News. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.
  41. ^ Information supplied by the Royal Household to a parliamentary inquiry into the workings of the monarchy in the early 1970s.
  42. ^ Trudeau, Pierre E.; Memoirs; McClelland & Stewart/Tundra Books; Plattsburgh, NY; 1996. ISBN 0-7710858-8-5
  43. ^ Heinricks, Geoff; Canadian Monarchist News: Trudeau and the Monarchy; Winter/Spring, 2000-01; reprinted from the National Post
  44. ^ Alderson, Andrew; The Telegraph: Revealed: Queen's dismay at Blair legacy; May 28, 2007
  45. ^ Alderson, Andrew; The Telegraph: Tony and Her Majesty: an uneasy relationship; May 27, 2007
  46. ^ Queen Elizabeth feels snubbed by Blair. Sify (2004-06-23).
  47. ^ Newspaper Says Queen Is Upset by Thatcher NY Times Online
  48. ^ Atticus The Times Online

The House of Windsor, previously called the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is the Royal House of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other Commonwealth Realms. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... The Scotsmans offices in Edinburgh The Scotsman is a Scottish newspaper published in Edinburgh. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... The Honourable Margaret Rhodes LVO (b. ... The Honourable Margaret Rhodes LVO (b. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Bond, J. (2002). Elizabeth. Reader's Digest Association. ISBN 0-7621-0369-8
  • Erickson, C. (2003). Lilibet : An Intimate Portrait of Elizabeth II. St. Martins Press. ISBN 0-312-28734-8

External links

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Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
House of Windsor
Born: 21 April 1926
Regnal titles
Preceded by
George VI
Queen of the United Kingdom
6 February 1952 -
Incumbent
Heir Apparent:
The Prince of Wales
Preceded by
George VI
as King of the British
Dominions beyond the Seas
Queen of Canada
6 February 1952 -
Queen of Australia
6 February 1952 -
Queen of New Zealand
6 February 1952 -
Preceded by
Herself
as Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen of Jamaica
6 August 1962 -
Queen of Barbados
30 November 1966 -
Queen of the Bahamas
10 July 1973 -
Queen of Grenada
7 February 1974 -
Queen of the Solomon Islands
7 July 1978 -
Queen of Tuvalu
1 October 1978 -
Queen of Saint Lucia
22 February 1979 -
Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
27 October 1979 -
Queen of Belize
21 September 1981 -
Queen of Antigua and Barbuda
1 November 1981 -
Queen of Saint Christopher and Nevis
19 September 1983 -
Preceded by
Herself
as Queen of Australia
Queen of Papua New Guinea
16 September 1975 -
Preceded by
George VI
as King of the British
Dominions beyond the Seas
Queen of Ceylon
6 February 1952 - 22 May 1972
End of Title
Queen of Pakistan
6 February 1952 - 23 March 1956
Queen of South Africa
6 February 1952 - 31 May 1961
Preceded by
Herself
as Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen of Ghana
6 March 1957 - 1 July 1960
Queen of Nigeria
1 October 1960 - 1 October 1963
Queen of Sierra Leone
27 April 1961 - 19 April 1971
Queen of Tanganyika
9 December 1961 - 9 December 1962
Queen of Trinidad and Tobago
31 August 1962 - 1 August 1976
Queen of Uganda
9 October 1962 - 9 October 1963
Queen of Kenya
12 December 1963 - 12 December 1964
Queen of Malawi
6 July 1964 - 6 July 1966
Queen of Malta
21 September 1964 - 31 December 1974
Queen of The Gambia
18 February 1965 - 24 April 1970
Queen of Guyana
26 May 1966 - 23 February 1970
Queen of Mauritius
12 March 1968 - 1 March 1992
Queen of Fiji
10 October 1970 - 15 October 1987
British royalty
Preceded by
Prince Albert, Duke of York
Heir to the Throne
as heiress presumptive
1936–1952
Succeeded by
Charles, Prince of Wales
Order of precedence
Preceded by
First
Order of precedence in the United Kingdom
Ladies

Succeeded by
The Duchess of Cornwall
Canadian order of precedence Succeeded by
Michaëlle Jean
Direct Ancestry
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom George VI
King of the United Kingdom
George V
House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha/Windsor
Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Claude of Strathmore
Bowes-Lyon
Cecilia
Cavendish-Bentinck
References
1. Van de Pas, Leo, Genealogics.org (2007).
Persondata
NAME Elizabeth II
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Windsor, Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
SHORT DESCRIPTION Queen regnant
DATE OF BIRTH 21 April 1926
PLACE OF BIRTH London, United Kingdom
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Elizabeth II - MSN Encarta (976 words)
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary was born in London, the first child of the duke and duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.
During World War II (1939-1945) Elizabeth and her younger sister were sent for safety from Buckingham Palace in London to live first at Balmoral, Scotland, and later at the royal lodge at Windsor, England.
Throughout this period Elizabeth’s primary role was as a symbol of unity and continuity within the Commonwealth of Nations; Elizabeth and her husband frequently visited the Commonwealth nations.
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