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Encyclopedia > Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
Queen of England and Ireland (more...)
The Rainbow Portrait by an unknown artist, 1600
Reign 17 November 155824 March 1603
Coronation 15 January 1559
Predecessor Mary I
Successor James I
Royal house House of Tudor
Father Henry VIII
Mother Anne Boleyn
Born 7 September 1533
Greenwich Palace
Died 24 March 1603 (aged 69)
Richmond Palace
Burial Westminster Abbey

Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, The Faerie Queen or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed three years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Perhaps for that reason, her brother, Edward VI, cut her out of the succession. His will, however, was set aside, as it contravened the Third Succession Act of 1543, in which Elizabeth was named as successor provided that Mary I of England, Elizabeth's half-sister, should die without issue. In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. Elisabeth I of Bohemia (born 20 January 1292, died 28 September 1330) was a queen of Bohemia, daughter of king Wenceslaus II, wife of John of Luxemburg, mother of king of Bohemia and Holy Roman emperor Charles IV. Categories: Historical stubs ... Image:Helen duke. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... The Rainbow Portrait, an image of Elizabeth I as the Queen of Love and Beauty by an unknown artist c. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Greenwich Palace. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A royal residence 1327-1649, on The Green, Richmond-upon-Thames, Surrey. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Henry VIII, became the first King of Ireland in 1541. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh Twdwr) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England from 1485 until 1603. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... The Third Succession Act of Henry VIIIs reign was passed by the Parliament of England in mid-1543, and returned both Mary and Elizabeth to the line of the succession behind Prince Edward. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel,[1] and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley. One of her first moves was to support the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement held firm throughout her reign and later evolved into today's Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry, but despite several petitions from parliament, she never did. The reasons for this choice are unknown, and they have been much debated. As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a cult grew up around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants and literature of the day. William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was Elizabeth I’s response to the religious divisions created over the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. This response, described as The Revolution of 1559,[1] was set out in two Acts of the Parliament of England. ... The Church of England logo since 1996. ...


In government, Elizabeth was more conservative than her father and siblings.[2] One of her mottos was video et taceo: "I see, and say nothing".[3] This strategy, viewed with impatience by her counsellors, often saved her from political and marital misalliances. Though Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland, the defeat of the Spanish armada in 1588 associated her name forever with what is popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in British history. Within twenty years of her death, she was being celebrated as the ruler of a golden age, an image that retains its hold on the English people. Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era, famous above all for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake and slave-trader John Hawkins. Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... Elizabethan redirects here. ... English Renaissance theatre is English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... For other persons named John Hawkins, see John Hawkins (disambiguation). ...


Historians, however, tend to be more cautious in their assessment. They often depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered,[4] sometimes indecisive ruler,[5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity to the point where many of her subjects were relieved at her death. Elizabeth is however acknowledged by historians as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor, in an age when government was ramshackle and limited. Also, at a time when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. Such was the case with Elizabeth's rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, whom she imprisoned in 1568 and eventually executed in 1587. After the short reigns of Elizabeth's brother and sister, her forty-five years on the throne provided valuable stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity.[6] For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book...

Contents

Early life

Elizabeth Tudor, c. 1546, by an unknown artist. The simplicity of this painting contrasts with the ornate icons that came later.
Elizabeth Tudor, c. 1546, by an unknown artist. The simplicity of this painting contrasts with the ornate icons that came later.[7]

Elizabeth was born in Greenwich Palace on 7 September 1533 and named after her paternal grandmother, Elizabeth of York.[8] She was the second legitimate child of Henry VIII of England to survive infancy; her mother was Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heiress presumptive to the throne of England. Her older half-sister, Mary, had lost her position as legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, in order to marry Anne.[9][10] King Henry had desperately wanted a legitimate son, to ensure the Tudor succession. After Elizabeth's birth, Queen Anne failed to provide a male heir. She suffered at least two miscarriages, one in 1534 and another at the beginning of 1536. On 2 May 1536, she was arrested and imprisoned. Hastily convicted on trumped-up charges, she was beheaded on 19 May 1536.[11][12] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (521 × 700 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (521 × 700 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Greenwich Palace. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... An heir presumptive is one who is first in line to inherit a title or property, such as a monarchy, because there is not yet an heir apparent. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Beheading. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Elizabeth, who was nearly three years old at the time, was declared illegitimate and deprived of the title of princess.[13] Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's death, Henry married Jane Seymour,[14] who died 12 days after the birth of their son, Prince Edward. Elizabeth was placed in Edward's household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening.[15] For the actress, see Jane Seymour (actress). ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul, a manuscript translation from the French, by Elizabeth, aged 11, presented to Catherine Parr in 1544. The embroidered binding with the monogram KP for "Katherin Parr" is believed to have been worked by Elizabeth.
The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul, a manuscript translation from the French, by Elizabeth, aged 11, presented to Catherine Parr in 1544. The embroidered binding with the monogram KP for "Katherin Parr" is believed to have been worked by Elizabeth.[16]

Elizabeth's first governess, Lady Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was “as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life”.[17] At the age of four, Elizabeth passed into the care of Catherine Champernowne, better known by her later, married name of Catherine “Kat” Ashley, who remained Elizabeth’s friend for life. Champernowne clearly made a good job of Elizabeth’s early education: by the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English, Latin, and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skillful tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek.[18] After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be fun.[19] By the time her formal education ended in 1550, she was the best educated woman of her generation.[20] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1160 × 1566 pixel, file size: 635 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1160 × 1566 pixel, file size: 635 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Catherine Parr or Jane Grey Catherine Parr (c. ... Margaret Bryan, née Bourchier (died 1551/52). ... Catherine Ashley née Champernowne (? - 1565) was governess to Elizabeth I and was a close friend in later life. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Thomas Seymour

Henry VIII died in 1548, when Elizabeth was 15 years old, and was succeeded by her half brother, Edward VI. Catherine Parr, Henry's last wife, soon married Thomas Seymour of Sudeley, Edward VI's uncle and the brother of the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset. The couple took Elizabeth into their household at Chelsea. There Elizabeth experienced an emotional crisis that historians believe affected her for the rest of her life.[21] Seymour, approaching forty but with a natural charm and "a powerful sex appeal",[21] engaged in romps and horseplay with the fifteen-year-old Elizabeth. These included entering her bedroom in his nightgown, tickling her and slapping her on the buttocks. This state of affairs was put to a stop by Catherine Parr, after she discovered the pair in an embrace.[22][23] In May 1548, Elizabeth was sent away.[24] Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... Catherine Parr or Jane Grey Catherine Parr (c. ... Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley Thomas Seymour redirects here. ... Edward Seymour Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. ...


That was not the last of the matter, however. Seymour was ambitious and scheming to control the royal family.[25][26] When Catherine Parr died of puerperal fever after childbirth on 5 September 1548, he renewed his attentions towards Elizabeth, intent on wedding her. [27] For his brother and the council, this was the last straw.[28] In January 1549, Seymour was arrested on suspicion of plotting to marry Elizabeth and overthrow his brother. The details of his former behaviour towards Elizabeth emerged during an interrogation of Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry, Elizabeth’s cofferer.[29] Elizabeth, living at Hatfield House, would admit nothing. Her stubbornness exasperated her interrogator, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt, who reported, "I do see it in her face that she is guilty".[30] Seymour was beheaded on 20 March 1549. Postnatal (Latin for after birth) is the period beginning immediately after the birth of a child and extending for about six weeks. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Sir Thomas Parry (c. ... In the history of the royal household of England, a cofferer was a principal officer in the court, next under the controller. ... The great hall Hatfield House is a country house set in a large park, the Great Park, on the eastern side of the town of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ...


Queen Mary

Queen Mary I, by Antonis Mor, 1554. Mary imprisoned Elizabeth in the Tower of London for suspected collaboration with the rebel Thomas Wyatt.
Queen Mary I, by Antonis Mor, 1554. Mary imprisoned Elizabeth in the Tower of London for suspected collaboration with the rebel Thomas Wyatt.

Edward VI died of tuberculosis on 6 July 1553, aged fifteen. His will swept aside the 1543 Act of Succession, excluded both Mary and Elizabeth from the succession, and instead declared as his heir Lady Jane Grey, granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary, Duchess of Suffolk.[31] Lady Jane was proclaimed queen, but her support quickly crumbled away, and she was deposed less than two weeks later. Mary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side.[32] Image File history File links Queen_Mary_I.jpg Summary Queen Mary I of England (1513-1558) imprisoned young Lady Elizabeth in the Tower of London in 1554. ... Image File history File links Queen_Mary_I.jpg Summary Queen Mary I of England (1513-1558) imprisoned young Lady Elizabeth in the Tower of London in 1554. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Selfportrait. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Thomas Wyatt the younger (1521-11 April 1554) was a rebel leader during the reign of Queen Mary I of England. ... Edward VI King of England and Ireland Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... The Third Succession Act of Henry VIIIs reign was passed by the Parliament of England in mid-1543, and returned both Mary and Elizabeth to the line of the succession behind Prince Edward. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... A sketch of Mary during her brief period as Queen of France Mary Tudor (March 18, 1496 – June 25, 1533) was the younger sister of Henry VIII of England and queen consort of France due to her marriage to Louis XII. Mary was the fifth child of Henry VII of... Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician. ...


The show of solidarity between the sisters did not last long. Mary was determined to crush the Protestant faith in which Elizabeth had been educated, and she ordered that everyone attend Mass. This included Elizabeth, who had no choice but to outwardly conform.[33] Mary's initial popularity ebbed away when it became known that she planned to marry Prince Philip of Spain, the son of Emperor Charles V.[34] Discontent spread rapidly through the country, and many looked to Elizabeth as a focus for their opposition to Mary's religious policies. In January and February 1554, uprisings broke out (known as Wyatt's rebellion) in several parts of England and Wales, led by Thomas Wyatt.[35] For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Wyatts Rebellion (1554) is a popular rising named for Thomas Wyatt the younger (son of Sir Thomas Wyatt). ... Thomas Wyatt the younger (1521-11 April 1554) was a rebel leader during the reign of Queen Mary I of England. ...


Once the rising had collapsed, Elizabeth was brought to court and interrogated. On 18 March, she was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where Lady Jane Grey had been executed on 12 February to deter the rebels.[36] The terrified Elizabeth fervently protested her innocence.[37] Though it is unlikely that she had plotted with the rebels, some of them were known to have approached her. Mary's closest confidant, Charles V's ambassador Simon Renard, argued that her throne would never be safe while Elizabeth lived; and the Chancellor, Stephen Gardiner, worked to have Elizabeth put on trial.[38] However, Elizabeth's supporters in the government, among them Lord Paget, convinced Mary to spare her sister in the absence of hard evidence against her. On 22 May, therefore, Elizabeth was moved from the Tower to Woodstock, where she was to spend almost a year under house arrest in the charge of Sir Henry Bedingfield. Crowds cheered her all along the way.[39][40] is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Gardiner (c. ... William Paget, 1st Baron Paget of Beaudesert (1506 - June 9, 1563), English statesman, son of William Paget, one of the serjeants-at-mace of the city of London, was born in London in 1506, and was educated at St Pauls School, and at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, proceeding afterwards to... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map sources for Woodstock at grid reference SP4416 Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... Sir Henry Bedingfeld (1509x11-1583), of Oxburgh Hall, Kings Lynn, Norfolk, was the eldest son of Sir Edmund Bedingfield (1479/80-1553) and his wife, Grace (d. ...

The remaining wing of the Old Palace, Hatfield House. It was here that Elizabeth was told of her sister's death in November 1558.
The remaining wing of the Old Palace, Hatfield House. It was here that Elizabeth was told of her sister's death in November 1558.

On 17 April 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court to be closely attended during the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy. If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen. If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would recede sharply.[41] When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child.[42] Elizabeth's succession seemed assured.[43] Even Philip, who became King of Spain in 1556, acknowledged the new political reality. From this time forward, he cultivated Elizabeth, preferring her to the likely alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots, who was betrothed to the Dauphin of France.[44] When his wife fell ill in 1558, Philip sent the Count of Feria to consult with Elizabeth.[45] By October, Elizabeth was making plans for her government. On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir.[46][47] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The great hall Hatfield House is a country house set in a large park, the Great Park, on the eastern side of the town of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book... Francis II (French: François II) (January 19, 1544 – December 5, 1560) was a King of France (1559 – 1560). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Queen Elizabeth

Elizabeth became queen at the age of twenty-five. As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour. Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished".[48] The following day, 15 January 1559, Elizabeth was crowned at Westminster Abbey and anointed by the Catholic bishop of Carlisle. Then she was presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells.[49] Entry of John II of France and his Queen into Paris after their Coronation at Rheims in 1350, later manuscript illumination by Jean Fouquet. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...

Elizabeth I in her coronation robes, patterned with Tudor roses and trimmed with ermine. She wears her hair loose, as traditional for the coronation of a queen, perhaps also as a symbol of virginity. The painting dates to the first decade of the seventeenth century and is based on a lost original.
Elizabeth I in her coronation robes, patterned with Tudor roses and trimmed with ermine. She wears her hair loose, as traditional for the coronation of a queen, perhaps also as a symbol of virginity.[50] The painting dates to the first decade of the seventeenth century and is based on a lost original.[51]

On 20 November 1558, Elizabeth declared her intentions to her Council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance. The speech contains the first record of her often-used metaphor of the "two bodies": the body natural and the body politic: Download high resolution version (529x700, 80 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (529x700, 80 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... When Henry Tudor took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he brought about the end of the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster (Red Rose) and the House of York (White Rose). ... The ermine (Mustela erminea) is a dark brown weasel, with a distinctive black-tipped tail. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Body politic or body corporate and politic means a state or one of its subordinate civil authorities, such as a: province prefecture county municipality city district etc. ...

My lords, the law of nature moves me to sorrow for my sister; the burden that is fallen upon me makes me amazed, and yet, considering I am God's creature, ordained to obey His appointment, I will thereto yield, desiring from the bottom of my heart that I may have assistance of His grace to be the minister of His heavenly will in this office now committed to me. And as I am but one body naturally considered, though by His permission a body politic to govern, so shall I desire you all...to be assistant to me, that I with my ruling and you with your service may make a good account to Almighty God and leave some comfort to our posterity on earth. I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.[52]

Religion

Elizabeth was in no doubt that her most powerful lords wished her to repudiate the pope and Spanish influence. This chimed with her own conscience and the policies of Sir William Cecil, her Secretary of State, and her chief advisors. She also knew that the papacy would never recognize her as the legitimate child of Henry VIII and the rightful ruler of England.[53] She therefore determined to establish a Protestant church suited to the needs of the English people.[54] As a result, the parliament of 1559 legislated for a church based on the settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head.[55] The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords, particularly from the bishops. Elizabeth was fortunate, however, that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury.[56][57] This enabled the Protestant peers to outvote the bishops and conservative peers. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was Elizabeth I’s response to the religious divisions created over the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. This response, described as The Revolution of 1559,[1] was set out in two Acts of the Parliament of England. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


After various negotiations and changes to the wording, the new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 May 1559. Elizabeth's title was to be Supreme Governor of the Church of England, rather than the more contentious Supreme Head. All public officials would have to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch or risk being barred from office. On the other hand, the heresy laws were repealed, to prevent a repeat of the persecution of dissenters practised by Mary. A new Act of Uniformity was passed at the same time. This made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer compulsory. Though the penalties for disobedience were not, as written, extreme, the law in practice was enforced with great severity. Principally against recusant Catholics, who were subjected to enormous fines, imprisonment and execution as traitors by being hanged, drawn and quartered [58] The Act of Supremacy 1559 (1 Eliz, c. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... The Supreme Head of the Church of England was a title held by the King Henry VIII of England that signified his leadership over the Church of England. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... The Act of Uniformity 1559 set the order of prayer to be used in the English Book of Common Prayer. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Throughout English history, Recusancy was generally synonymous with nonconformism. ... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ...


Many Catholics, particularly on the continent, regarded Elizabeth as nothing more than an illegitimate heretic. In 1570, Pope Pius V excommunicated her, calling her the "pretended queen of England". This sanction, which in theory released English Catholics from allegiance to Elizabeth, served only to identify the English church more closely with the crown. It also placed English Catholics in great danger. By encouraging them to rebel, it raised doubts about their loyalty to the queen.[59] Bold textHe was born as Antonio Ghislieri at Bosco in the duchy of Milan. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


Marriage question

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, attributed to Steven van der Meulen, 1560s. Elizabeth's friendship with Dudley, her foremost favourite, lasted for over thirty years.
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, attributed to Steven van der Meulen, 1560s. Elizabeth's friendship with Dudley, her foremost favourite, lasted for over thirty years.

From the start of Elizabeth's reign, the question arose of who she would marry. In fact, she never married, and the reasons for this are not clear. Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships, or that she knew herself to be infertile.[60][61] Until bearing a child became impossible, she considered several suitors, the last being François, Duke of Anjou, in 1581. However, Elizabeth had no need of a man's help to govern; and marrying risked a loss of control or of foreign interference in her affairs, as had happened to her sister Mary. On the other hand, marriage offered the chance of an heir.[62] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (also referred to as Lord Leycester such as at the Lord Leycester Hospital. ... Look up Favorite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ...


Elizabeth often received offers of marriage, but she only seriously considered three or four suitors for any length of time. Of these, her childhood friend Robert Dudley probably came closest. During 1559, Elizabeth's friendship with the married Dudley seems to have turned to love. Rumour spread through the court that she was sleeping with him;[63] and William Cecil, Elizabeth's most trusted advisor, made clear his disapproval. When Dudley's wife, Amy Robsart, was found dead in 1560, uncertainly of natural causes, and under suspicious circumstances, a great scandal arose.[64] For a time, Elizabeth seriously considered marrying Dudley; but after several months, she put duty ahead of her feelings and decided against the marriage. Dudley, whom she made Earl of Leicester and appointed to the Privy Council, retained a special place in her heart, though her infatuation mellowed in time to a special and lasting friendship. After Elizabeth died, a note from Dudley, who had died in 1588, was found among her possessions, marked "his last letter".[65] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ...


After the Dudley affair, Elizabeth kept the marriage question open but often only as a diplomatic ploy.[66] She appears to have considered marriage out of duty rather than personal preference. Parliament repeatedly petitioned her to marry, but she always answered evasively.[67] In 1563, she told an imperial envoy: "If I follow the inclination of my nature, it is this: beggar-woman and single, far rather than queen and married".[66] In the same year, following Elizabeth's illness with smallpox, the succession question became a heated issue. Parliament urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death. She refused to do either. In April, she prorogued the Parliament, which did not reconvene until she needed its support to raise taxes in 1566. The House of Commons threatened to withhold funds until she agreed to provide for the succession. In 1566, Sir Robert Bell boldly pursued the issue despite Elizabeth's command to desist and became the target of her anger "in her own words: 'Mr. Bell with his complices must needs prefer their speeches to the upper house to have you my lords, consent with them, whereby you were seduced, and of simplicity did assent unto it'."[68] Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Sir Robert Bell (d. ...


In 1566, she confided to the Spanish ambassador that if she could find a way to settle the succession without marrying, she would do so. By 1570, senior figures in the government privately accepted that Elizabeth would never marry or name a successor. William Cecil was already seeking solutions to the succession problem.[66] For this stance, as for her failure to marry, she was often accused of irresponsibility.[69] However, Elizabeth's silence strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup.[70]


Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity. In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman.[71] At first, only Elizabeth made a virtue of her virginity: in 1559, she told the Commons, "And, in the end, this shall be for me sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin".[71] Later on, particularly after 1578, poets and writers took up the theme and turned it into an iconography that exalted Elizabeth. In an age of metaphors and conceits, she was portrayed as married to her kingdom and subjects, under divine protection. In 1599, Elizabeth spoke of "all my husbands, my good people".[72] Virgin redirects here. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ... Look up conceit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Foreign policy

François, Duke of Anjou, by Nicholas Hilliard. Elizabeth called the duke her "frog", finding him "not so deformed" as she had been led to expect.
François, Duke of Anjou, by Nicholas Hilliard. Elizabeth called the duke her "frog", finding him "not so deformed" as she had been led to expect.[73]

Apart from the Dudley affair, Elizabeth treated the marriage issue as an aspect of foreign policy.[74] Though she turned down Philip II's own offer in 1559, she negotiated for several years to marry his cousin Archduke Charles of Austria. However, relations with the Habsburgs deteriorated by 1568. Elizabeth then considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henri, Duke of Anjou, and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother François, Duke of Anjou.[75] This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands.[76] Elizabeth seems to have taken the courtship seriously for a time. She even wore a frog-shaped earring that Anjou had sent her.[77] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (776x1006, 63 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Duc dAlençon, Oval Technique: de: Wasserfarbe auf Pergament auf Pappe Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Victoria and Albert Museum... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (776x1006, 63 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Duc dAlençon, Oval Technique: de: Wasserfarbe auf Pergament auf Pappe Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Victoria and Albert Museum... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Self-portrait, 1577. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the... Charles II of Austria, (Vienna June 3, 1540 – Graz July 10, 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola and Carinthia) from the House of Habsburg from 1564. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ...


Elizabeth's foreign policy was largely defensive. The exception was the disastrous occupation of Le Havre from October 1562 to June 1563, when Elizabeth's Huguenot allies joined with the Catholics to retake the port. Elizabeth had intended to exchange Le Havre for Calais, retaken by France in January 1558.[78] She sent troops into Scotland in 1560 to prevent the French using it as a base.[79] In 1585, she signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Dutch to block the Spanish threat to England.[80] Only through the activities of her fleets did Elizabeth pursue an aggressive policy. This paid off in the war against Spain, 80% of which was fought at sea.[81] She knighted Francis Drake after his circumnavigation of the globe from 1577 to 1580, and he won fame for his raids on Spanish ports and fleets. Her reign also saw the first colonisation or "planting" of new land in America; and the colony of Virginia was named for her. In truth, however, an element of piracy and self-enrichment drove Elizabethan seafarers, over which the queen had little control.[82][83] Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... The Treaty of Nonsuch was signed by Elizabeth I of England and the Netherlands on August 20, 1585 at Nonsuch Palace in Surrey. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... “Round the world” redirects here. ... Plantation was an early method of colonization in which settlers were planted abroad in order to establish a permanent or semi-permanent colonial base. ... A map of the Colony of Virginia. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ...


Mary, Queen of Scots

Elizabeth's first policy toward Scotland was to oppose the French presence there.[84] She feared that the French planned to invade England and put Mary, Queen of Scots, who was in effect the heir to the English crown,[85] on the throne.[86] Elizabeth was persuaded to send a force into Scotland to aid the Protestant rebels, and though the campaign was inept, the resulting Treaty of Edinburgh of July 1560 removed the French threat in the north.[87] When Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 to take up the reins of power, the country had an established Protestant church and was run by a council of Protestant nobles supported by Elizabeth.[88] Mary refused to ratify the treaty.[89] Image File history File links Mary_Stuart_Queen. ... Image File history File links Mary_Stuart_Queen. ... Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book... » Diane de Poitiers by François Clouet (1571) at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC Elisabeth of Austria by François Clouet (1571) (Louvre) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: François Clouet François Clouet (died 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... The Treaty of Edinburgh was drawn up in 1560 by the Scottish Parliament in an attempt to formally end the Auld Alliance. ...


Elizabeth offended Mary by proposing her own former suitor, Robert Dudley, as a husband.[90] Instead, in 1565 Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who carried his own claim to the English throne. The marriage, however, was the first of a series of errors of judgement by Mary that handed the victory to the Scottish Protestants and to Elizabeth. Darnley quickly became unpopular in Scotland and then infamous for presiding over the murder of Mary's Italian secretary David Rizzio. In February 1567, Darnley was murdered by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell. Shortly afterwards, on 15 May 1567, Mary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband. Elizabeth wrote to her: Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... David Rizzio, private secretary of Mary I of Scotland David Rizzio or David Riccio (approx. ... The Duke of Orkney James Hepburn, Duke of Orkney, 4th Earl of Bothwell (known at the time as, simply, Bothwell) (c. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ...

How could a worse choice be made for your honour than in such haste to marry such a subject, who besides other and notorious lacks, public fame has charged with the murder of your late husband, besides the touching of yourself also in some part, though we trust in that behalf falsely.[91]

These events led rapidly to Mary's defeat and imprisonment in Loch Leven Castle. The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James, who had been born in June 1566. James was taken to Stirling Castle to be raised as a Protestant. Mary escaped from Loch Leven in 1568 but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth. Elizabeth's first instinct was to restore her fellow monarch; but she and her council instead chose to play safe. Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England. She was imprisoned there for the next nineteen years.[92] Loch Leven Castle is a castle on an island at in Loch Leven in the Perth and Kinross region of Scotland. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Stirling Castle southwest aspect from the Kings Knot Parterre below the castle crags. ...

Signature of Elizabeth I of England
Signature of Elizabeth I of England

Mary was soon the focus for rebellion. In 1569, plotters in the Rising of the North talked of freeing her, and a scheme arose to marry her to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. Elizabeth reacted by sending Howard to the block. Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of 1571 to the Babington Plot of 1586, Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.[93] At first, Elizabeth resisted calls for Mary's death. By late 1586, however, she had been persuaded to sanction her trial and execution on the evidence of letters written during the Babington Plot.[94] Elizabeth's proclamation of the sentence announced that "...the said Mary, pretending title to the same Crown, had compassed and imagined within the same realm divers things tending to the hurt, death and destruction of our royal person...".[95] On 8 February 1587, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire.[96] Image:Autograph of Elizabeth I of England (from Nordisk familjebok). ... Image:Autograph of Elizabeth I of England (from Nordisk familjebok). ... The Rising of the North or Revolt of the Northern Earls was an unsuccessful uprising against Elizabeth I of England in 1569 by Catholics of Northern England. ... Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (March 10, 1536 — 1572) and 1st Earl of Southampton, was entrusted by Queen Elizabeth I of England with public office despite his family history and his prior support for the Catholic cause, although he claimed to be a... The Ridolfi plot was meant to put Mary Stewart on the throne of England. ... Walsinghams Decypherer forged this cipher postscript to Marys letter to Babington. ... Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail) Sir Francis Walsingham (c. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fotheringhay Church Fotheringhay is a village in Northamptonshire, England. ...


Spain

Main article: Spanish Armada
Main article: Anglo–Spanish War (1585)

After the disastrous occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585. In that year, she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II. This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Philip's governor of the Spanish Netherlands. In December 1584, an alliance between Philip II and the French Catholic League at Joinville undermined the ability of Anjou's brother, Henry III of France, to counter Spanish domination of the Netherlands. It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong and exposed England to invasion.[97] The English and the Dutch reacted in August 1585 with the Treaty of Nonsuch, whereby Elizabeth, pressured by her advisors, promised military support to the Dutch. The treaty marked the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish War, which lasted until the Treaty of London in 1604. Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... Combatants Spain England Dutch Republic Commanders Philip II, Philip III, Marquis of Santa Cruz, Duke of Medina Sidonia, Duke of Parma Elizabeth I, Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Earl of Leicester The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England, which was never... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years War or The Revolt of the Netherlands (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... William I (William the Silent). ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Alexander Farnese Portrait by Otto Vaenius (ca 1585). ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... The Treaty of Joinville was signed in secret in December 1584 by the French Catholic League, led by Frances first family of Catholic nobles, the Guise, and Hapsburg Spain. ... Henry III of France (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), also Henry of Poland (also called Henry of Valois, Henryk Walezy), born Alexandre-Édouard of France, was a member of the House of Valois. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... The Treaty of Nonsuch was signed by Elizabeth I of England and the Netherlands on August 20, 1585 at Nonsuch Palace in Surrey. ... Combatants Spain England Dutch Republic Commanders Philip II, Philip III, Marquis of Santa Cruz, Duke of Medina Sidonia, Duke of Parma Elizabeth I, Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Earl of Leicester The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England, which was never... The Somerset House Conference. ...


Elizabeth distrusted this course of action from the start. The expedition, led by her old flame, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, achieved nothing.[98] Elizabeth's strategy, to use the English army as a defensive bargaining tool, was soon at odds with that of Dudley, who wanted to fight an active campaign but lacked the resources to do so. He enraged Elizabeth by accepting the post of Governor-General from the Dutch States-General. Elizabeth saw this as a Dutch ploy to embroil her further in their defense.[99] She wrote to him: The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ...

We could never have imagined (had we not seen it fall out in experience) that a man raised up by ourself and extraordinarily favoured by us, above any other subject of this land, would have in so contemptible a sort broken our commandment in a cause that so greatly touches us in honour....And therefore our express pleasure and commandment is that, all delays and excuses laid apart, you do presently upon the duty of your allegiance obey and fulfill whatsoever the bearer hereof shall direct you to do in our name. Whereof fail you not, as you will answer the contrary at your utmost peril.[100]

Elizabeth and her parliament's failure to send Dudley sufficient money and troops, combined with his own incompetence as a military leader, doomed the campaign to impotence. Dudley finally resigned his command in December 1587, his reputation in tatters. By that time, Philip II had decided to take the war to England.[101]

Portrait of Elizabeth to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background. Elizabeth's hand rests on the globe, symbolising her international power.
Portrait of Elizabeth to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background. Elizabeth's hand rests on the globe, symbolising her international power.

On 12 July 1588, the Spanish Armada, a great fleet of ships, set sail for the channel, planning to ferry a Spanish invasion force under the Duke of Parma to the coast of southeast England from the Netherlands. The armada, however, was defeated by a combination of miscalculation,[102] misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 1 August off Gravelines which dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast. The armada straggled home to Spain in shattered remnants, after disastrous losses on the coast of Ireland.[103] Unaware of the armada's fate, English forces mustered to defend the country. Elizabeth inspected her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 August. Wearing a silver breastplate over a white velvet dress, she addressed them in one of her most famous speeches:[104] Image File history File links Elizabeth_I_(Armada_Portrait). ... Image File history File links Elizabeth_I_(Armada_Portrait). ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... This article is not about the fireboats that fight fire Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts Drakes fire ship attack on the Spanish Armada. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canal of Gravelines, Georges Seurat, 1890. ... Tilbury is located on the north bank of the River Thames, in the borough of Thurrock in England, at the point where the river suddenly narrows to about 800 yards/740 metres in width. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Speech to the Troops at Tilbury was delivered by Queen Elizabeth I of England to the land forces assembled at Tilbury in Essex in preparation to repel a possible invasion by the Spanish Armada. ...

My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people....I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm.[105]

When no invasion came, the nation rejoiced. Elizabeth's procession to a thanksgiving service at St Paul's Cathedral rivalled that of her coronation as a spectacle.[106] The defeat of the armada was a potent propaganda victory, both for Elizabeth and for Protestant England. The English took their delivery as a symbol of God's favour and of the nation's inviolability under a virgin queen.[107] However, the victory was not a turning point in the war, which continued and often favoured Spain.[108] The Spanish still controlled the Netherlands, and the threat of invasion remained.[109] Sir Walter Raleigh claimed after her death that Elizabeth's caution had impeded the war against Spain: This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ...

If the late queen would have believed her men of war as she did her scribes, we had in her time beaten that great empire in pieces and made their kings of figs and oranges as in old times. But her Majesty did all by halves, and by petty invasions taught the Spaniard how to defend himself, and to see his own weakness.[110]

Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[111] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair. Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".[112]


France

When the Protestant Henry IV inherited the French throne in 1589, Elizabeth sent him military support. It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in 1563. Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports. The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective.[113] Lord Willoughby, largely ignoring Elizabeth's orders, roamed northern France to little effect, with an army of 4,000 men. He withdrew in disarray in December 1589, having lost half his troops. In 1591, the campaign of John Norreys, who led 3,000 men to Brittany, was even more of a disaster.[114] As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders. Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support. In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north-west France, in May 1591. In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to help Henry IV in besieging Rouen. The result was just as dismal. Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January 1592.[115] As usual, Elizabeth lacked control over her commanders once they were abroad. "Where he is, or what he doth, or what he is to do," she wrote of Essex, "we are ignorant".[116] Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... Peregrine Bertie, 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (1555-1601) was the son of Richard Bertie and Katherina Willoughby, 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby. ... Sir John Norreys frequently referred to as John Norris (1547?–July 3, 1597) was a skillful and courageous English soldier of a Berkshire family of court gentry, son of Henry Norris, 1st Baron Norreys a life-long friend of Queen Elizabeth. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (10 November 1566 – 25 February 1601), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is the best-known of the many holders of the title Earl of Essex. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ...


Ireland

Although Ireland was one of her two kingdoms, Elizabeth faced a hostile—and in places virtually autonomous[117]—Catholic population that was willing to plot with her enemies. Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England.[118] In response to a series of uprisings, the English forces pursued scorched-earth tactics, burning the land and slaughtering man, woman and child. During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, Earl of Desmond, in 1582, an estimated 30,000 Irish people starved to death. The poet Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims "were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same".[119] Elizabeth advised her commanders that the Irish, "that rude and barbarous nation", be well treated; but she showed no remorse when force and bloodshed were deemed necessary.[120] For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... Gerald Fitzgerald, 15th Earl of Desmond (c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Between 1594 and 1603, Elizabeth faced her most severe test in Ireland, with the revolt known as Tyrone's Rebellion, or the Nine Years War. Its leader, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, was backed by Spain.[121] In spring 1599, Elizabeth sent Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, to put the revolt down. To her frustration,[122] he made little progress and returned to England without permission. He was replaced by Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, who took three years to defeat the rebels. O'Neill finally surrendered in 1603, a few days after Elizabeth's death.[123] Combatants Alliance of Irish Chiefs under Hugh ONeill, centred in Ulster England Allied Irish lords Commanders Hugh ONeill Hugh Roe ODonnell Earl of Essex Lord Mountjoy Strength 8,000 men in Ulster at the start of the war. ... For other persons named Hugh ONeill, see Hugh ONeill (disambiguation). ... Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (10 November 1566 – 25 February 1601), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is the best-known of the many holders of the title Earl of Essex. ... Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devon and 8th Baron Mountjoy (1563 - April 3, 1606) served as Lord Deputy and as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland during the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. ...


Later years and death

As Elizabeth aged and marriage became unlikely, her image gradually changed. She was portrayed as Belphoebe or Astraea, and after the Armada, as Gloriana, the eternally youthful Faerie Queene of Edmund Spenser's poem. Her painted portraits became less realistic and more a set of enigmatic icons that made her look much younger than she was. In fact, her skin had been scarred by smallpox in 1562, leaving her half bald and dependent on wigs and cosmetics.[124][125] Sir Walter Raleigh called her "a lady whom time had surprised".[126] However, the more Elizabeth's beauty faded, the more her courtiers praised it.[127] Belphoebe (i. ... In Greek mythology, Astraea (star-maiden) was a daughter of Zeus and Themis or of Eos and Astraeus. ... Gloriana is an opera in three acts by Benjamin Britten to an English libretto by William Plomer, based on historical incidents. ... Una and the Lion by Briton Rivière The Faerie Queene is a poem by Edmund Spenser, first published in 1590 (the first half) with the more or less complete version being published in 1596. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, by William Segar, 1590
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, by William Segar, 1590

Elizabeth was happy to play the part,[128] but it is possible that in the last decade of her life she began to believe her own performance.[129] She became fond and indulgent of the charming but petulant young Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who took liberties with her for which she forgave him.[129] She repeatedly appointed him to military posts despite his growing record of irresponsibility. After Essex's desertion of his command in Ireland in 1599, however, Elizabeth had him placed under house arrest and the following year deprived him of his monopolies.[130] In February 1601, the earl tried to raise a rebellion in London. He intended to seize the queen but few rallied to his support, and he was beheaded on 25 February. Elizabeth knew that her own misjudgements were partly to blame for this turn of events. An observer reported in 1602 that "Her delight is to sit in the dark, and sometimes with shedding tears to bewail Essex".[131] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (10 November 1566 – 25 February 1601), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is the best-known of the many holders of the title Earl of Essex. ... This article is about economic monopoly. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The monopolies Elizabeth reclaimed from Essex were her typical reward to a courtier during the last years of her reign. She had come to rely on this cost-free system of patronage rather than ask Parliament for more subsidies in a time of war.[132] The practice soon led to price-fixing, the enrichment of courtiers at the public's expense, and widespread resentment.[133] This culminated in agitation in the House of Commons during the parliament of 1601.[134] In her famous "Golden Speech" of 30 November 1601, Elizabeth professed ignorance of the abuses and won the members over with promises and her usual appeal to the emotions.[135]: is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births...

Who keeps their sovereign from the lapse of error, in which, by ignorance and not by intent they might have fallen, what thank they deserve, we know, though you may guess. And as nothing is more dear to us than the loving conservation of our subjects' hearts, what an undeserved doubt might we have incurred if the abusers of our liberality, the thrallers of our people, the wringers of the poor, had not been told us![136]

The period after the defeat of the Armada in 1588 brought new difficulties for Elizabeth that lasted until the end of her reign.[137] The conflicts with Spain and in Ireland dragged on, the tax burden grew heavier, and the economy was hit by poor harvests and the cost of war. Prices rose and the standard of living fell.[138][139] During this time, repression of Catholics intensified, and Elizabeth authorised commissions in 1591 to interrogate and monitor Catholic householders.[140] To maintain the illusion of peace and prosperity, she increasingly relied on internal spies and propaganda.[141] In her last years, mounting criticism reflected a decline in the public's affection for her.[142]


This same period of economic and political uncertainty, however, produced an unsurpassed literary flowering in England.[143] The first signs of a new literary movement had appeared at the end of the second decade of Elizabeth's reign, with John Lyly's Euphues and Edmund Spenser's The Shepheardes Calender in 1578. During the 1590s, some of the great names of English literature entered their maturity, including William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe. During this period and into the Jacobean era that followed, the English theatre reached its highest peaks.[144] The notion of a great Elizabethan age depends largely on the builders, dramatists, poets, and musicians who were active during Elizabeth's reign. They owed little directly to the queen, who was never a major patron of the arts.[145] John Lyly (Lilly or Lylie) (c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shepheardes Calendar was Edmund Spensers first attempt at poetry. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... Not to be confused with Jacobinism or Jacobitism. ... English Renaissance theatre is English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. ... Elizabethan redirects here. ...

Portrait of King James by John de Critz, circa 1606
Portrait of King James by John de Critz, circa 1606

Elizabeth's most trusted advisor, Burghley, died on 4 August 1598. His political mantle passed to his son, Robert Cecil, who soon became the leader of the government.[146] One task he addressed was to prepare the way for a smooth succession. Since Elizabeth would never name her successor, Cecil was obliged to proceed in secret.[147] He therefore entered into a coded negotiation with James VI of Scotland, the rightful but unrecognised heir. Cecil coached the impatient James to humour Elizabeth and "secure the heart of the highest, to whose sex and quality nothing is so improper as either needless expostulations or over much curiosity in her own actions".[148] The advice worked. James's tone delighted Elizabeth, who responded: "So trust I that you will not doubt but that your last letters are so acceptably taken as my thanks cannot be lacking for the same, but yield them to you in grateful sort".[149] In historian J. E. Neale's view, Elizabeth may not have declared her wishes openly to James, but she made them known with "unmistakable if veiled phrases".[150] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 378 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (442 × 700 pixel, file size: 647 KB, MIME type: image/png) Portrait of James VI and 1, c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 378 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (442 × 700 pixel, file size: 647 KB, MIME type: image/png) Portrait of James VI and 1, c. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle. ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... ] The Right Honourable Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC (1 June 1563–24 May 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. Lord Salisbury is the... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...


The Queen's health remained fair until the autumn of 1602, when a series of deaths among her friends plunged her into a severe depression. In February 1603, the death of her cousin and close friend, Catherine Carey, Countess of Nottingham, came as a particular blow. In March, Elizabeth fell sick and remained in a "settled and unremovable melancholy".[151] She died on 24 March 1603 at Richmond Palace, between two and three in the morning. A few hours later, Cecil and the council set their plans in motion and proclaimed James Stuart of Scotland as James I of England.[152] Katherine Carey (c. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A royal residence 1327-1649, on The Green, Richmond-upon-Thames, Surrey. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...

Elizabeth's funeral cortège, 1603, sometimes attributed to William Camden
Elizabeth's funeral cortège, 1603, sometimes attributed to William Camden

Elizabeth's coffin was carried downriver at night to Whitehall, on a barge lit with torches. At her funeral on 28 April, the coffin was taken to Westminster Abbey on a hearse drawn by four horses hung with black velvet. In the words of the chronicler John Stow: William Camden William Camden (May 2, 1551 - November 9, 1623) was an English antiquarian and historian. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Funeral carriage, Museum of Funeral Customs For the extreme metal band, see Hearse (band) A hearse is a funeral vehicle, a conveyance for the coffin from e. ... John Stow (c. ...

Westminster was surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of people in their streets, houses, windows, leads and gutters, that came out to see the obsequy, and when they beheld her statue lying upon the coffin, there was such a general sighing, groaning and weeping as the like hath not been seen or known in the memory of man.[153]

Legacy

Elizabeth was lamented, but the people were relieved at her death.[154] A new age was born, and at first the signs were good, with the ending of the war against Spain in 1604 and lower taxes. Until the death of Robert Cecil in 1612, the government ran along much the same lines as before.[155] James I's rule, however, became unpopular when he turned state affairs over to court favourites, and in the 1620s there was a nostalgic revival of the cult of Elizabeth.[156] Elizabeth was praised as a heroine of the Protestant cause and the ruler of a golden age. James was depicted as a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court.[157] The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties,[158] was taken at face value and her reputation inflated. Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, recalled: "When we had experience of a Scottish government, the Queen did seem to revive. Then was her memory much magnified."[159] Elizabeth's reign became idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in constitutional balance.[160] Godfrey Goodman (28 February, 1582-3 Ruthin, Denbighshire - 19 January 1656, Westminster) was the Anglican Bishop of Gloucester, and a member of the Protestant Church. ...

Elizabeth I, painted by an unknown artist after 1620, during the first revival of interest in her reign. Time sleeps on her right and Death looks over her left shoulder; two putti hold the crown above her head.
Elizabeth I, painted by an unknown artist after 1620, during the first revival of interest in her reign. Time sleeps on her right and Death looks over her left shoulder; two putti hold the crown above her head.[161]

The picture of Elizabeth painted by her Protestant admirers of the early 17th century has proved lasting and influential.[162] Her memory was also revived during the Napoleonic Wars, when the nation again found itself on the brink of invasion.[163] In the Victorian era, the Elizabethan legend was adapted to the imperial ideology of the day.[164][165] In the mid-20th century, Elizabeth was a romantic symbol of the national resistance to foreign threat.[166][167] Historians of that period, such as J. E. Neale (1934) and A. L. Rowse (1950), interpreted Elizabeth's reign as a golden age of progress.[168] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... sculpted putto The putto is a figure of a pudgy baby, almost always male, often naked and having wings, found especially in Italian Renaissance art. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Alfred Leslie Rowse, CH FBA (December 4, 1903 – October 3, 1997), known professionally as A. L. Rowse and to his friends and family as Leslie, was a prolific British historian. ...


Recent historians, however, have taken a more complicated view of Elizabeth.[169] Her reign is famous for the defeat of the Armada, and for successful raids against the Spanish, such as those on Cádiz in 1587 and 1596, but some historians point to military failures on land and at sea, such as the "Islands voyage" of 1597.[170] Elizabeth's problems in Ireland also stain her record.[171] Rather than as a brave defender of the Protestant nations against Spain and the Habsburgs, she is more often regarded as cautious in her foreign policies. She offered minimum aid to foreign Protestants and failed to provide her commanders with the funds to make a difference abroad.[172]


Elizabeth established an English church that helped shape a national identity and remains in place today.[173][174][175] Those who praised her later as a Protestant heroine overlooked her refusal to drop all Catholic practices.[176][177] Historians note that in her day, strict Protestants regarded the Acts of Settlement and Uniformity of 1559 as a compromise.[178][179][180] In fact, Elizabeth believed that faith was personal and did not wish, as Francis Bacon put it, to "make windows into men's hearts and secret thoughts".[181][182] The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was Elizabeth I’s response to the religious divisions created over the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. This response, described as The Revolution of 1559,[1] was set out in two Acts of the Parliament of England. ... For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ...


Despite Elizabeth's largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised England's status abroad. "She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island," marvelled Pope Sixtus V, "and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all".[183] Under Elizabeth, the nation gained a new self-confidence and sense of sovereignty, as Christendom fragmented.[184][185][186] Elizabeth was the first Tudor to recognise that a monarch ruled by popular consent.[187] She therefore always worked with parliament and advisers she could trust to tell her the truth—a style of government that her Stuart successors failed to follow. Some historians have called her lucky;[183] she believed that God was protecting her.[188]Priding herself on being "mere English",[189] Elizabeth trusted in God, honest advice, and the love of her subjects for the success of her rule.[190] In a prayer, she offered thanks to God that: Sixtus V, né Felice Peretti (December 13, 1521 - August 27, 1590) was pope from 1585 to 1590. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...

[At a time] when wars and seditions with grievous persecutions have vexed almost all kings and countries round about me, my reign hath been peacable, and my realm a receptacle to thy afflicted Church. The love of my people hath appeared firm, and the devices of my enemies frustrate.[183]

Ancestors

Genealogy of Elizabeth I in three generations[191]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Edmund Tudor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Henry VII of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Margaret Beaufort
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Henry VIII of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Edward IV of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Elizabeth of York
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Elizabeth Woodville
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Elizabeth I of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. William Boleyn
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Thomas Boleyn
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Margaret Butler
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Anne Boleyn
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Elizabeth Howard
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Elizabeth Tilney
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (~1430-November 1, 1456) was the father of King Henry VII of England. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Margaret Beaufort, Mother of Henry VII, at prayer, by an anonymous artist, about 1500 Margaret Beaufort (May 31, 1443 – June 29, 1509) was the daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, granddaughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt and his mistress... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ... Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and 1st Earl of Ormonde (about 1477 - 12 March 1538/9), was a Tudor diplomat and politician and the father of Anne Boleyn, the second Queen of King Henry VIII. was born and buried at the family home, Hever Castle. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (c. ... Elizabeth Howard (c. ...

See also

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For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Look up doctrine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... The provinces of the Anglican Communion commemorate many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorate various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ...

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Photograph by Keith Edkins File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cate Blanchett portrays Elizabeth I of England in Elizabeth: The Golden Age Elizabeth I of England has inspired artistic and cultural works for over four centuries. ... The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Tudor re-conquest of Ireland took place under the English Tudor dynasty during the 16th century. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the two centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel." Elizabeth's first speech as queen, Hatfield House, 20 November 1558. Loades, 35.
  2. ^ Starkey, 5.
  3. ^ Neale, 386.
  4. ^ In 1593, the French ambassador confessed: "When I see her enraged against any person whatever, I wish myself in Calcutta, fearing her anger like death itself". Somerset, 731–32.
  5. ^ Somerset, 729.
  6. ^ Starkey, 5.
  7. ^ "The painter...is unknown, but in a competently Flemish style he depicts the daughter of Anne Boleyn as quiet and studious-looking, ornament in her attire as secondary to the plainness of line that emphasizes her youth. Great is the contrast with the awesome fantasy of the later portraits: the pallid, mask-like features, the extravagance of headdress and ruff, the padded ornateness that seemed to exclude all humanity." Gaunt, 37.
  8. ^ Somerset, 4.
  9. ^ Loades, 3–5
  10. ^ Somerset, 4–5.
  11. ^ Loades, 6–7.
  12. ^ Haigh, 1–3.
  13. ^ In the act of July 1536, it was stated that Elizabeth was "illegitimate... and utterly foreclosed, excluded and banned to claim, challenge, or demand any inheritance as lawful heir...to [the King] by lineal descent". Somerset, 10.
  14. ^ "It had taken Henry VIII a month to dispose of his wife on a charge of treason, sweep some of her friends to the block with her, bastardise her child, and acquire a new queen. Here was the power of the Tudor monarchy in action, with the King bending his Council, the Church, and the law to do his will." Haigh, 1.
  15. ^ Loades, 7–8.
  16. ^ Davenport, 32.
  17. ^ Somerset, 11.
  18. ^ Our knowledge of Elizabeth’s schooling and precocity comes largely from the memoirs of Roger Ascham, also the tutor of Prince Edward. Loades, 8–10.
  19. ^ Somerset, 25.
  20. ^ Loades, 21.
  21. ^ a b Loades, 11.
  22. ^ Loades, 14.
  23. ^ "Kat Ashley told another of Elizabeth’s servants, Thomas Parry, that the Queen lost patience with both her husband and Elizabeth after she ‘suddenly came upon them where they were all alone, he having her in his arms’.” Somerset, 23.
  24. ^ She moved into the household of Catherine Ashley’s sister Joan and her husband, Sir Anthony Denny, at Cheshunt. Loades, 16.
  25. ^ Haigh, 8.
  26. ^ Not only Elizabeth but Princess Mary and Lady Jane Grey had lived in Seymour's household at various times. Seymour had also "wormed his way" into King Edward’s confidence by slipping him pocket money and calling the Lord Protector stingy; and he had tried to have himself appointed the governor of the King’s person. Neale, 32.
  27. ^ Williams, 24.
  28. ^ Neale, 33.
  29. ^ Loades, 14, 16.
  30. ^ Neale, 33.
  31. ^ Loades, 24–25.
  32. ^ Elizabeth had assembled 2,000 horsemen, "a remarkable tribute to the size of her affinity". Loades 25.
  33. ^ Loades, 26.
  34. ^ Loades, 27.
  35. ^ Neale, 45.
  36. ^ Somerset, 49.
  37. ^ Loades, 28.
  38. ^ Somerset, 51.
  39. ^ Loades, 29.
  40. ^ "The wives of Wycombe passed cake and wafers to her until her litter became so burdened that she had to beg them to stop." Neale, 49.
  41. ^ Loades, 29.
  42. ^ Loades, 32.
  43. ^ Somerset, 66.
  44. ^ Neale, 53.
  45. ^ Loades, 33.
  46. ^ Neale, 59.
  47. ^ Somerset, 71.
  48. ^ Somerset, 89–90. The "Festival Book" account, from the British Library
  49. ^ Neale, 70.
  50. ^ Loades, 34.
  51. ^ Another copy of the lost original has been attributed both to Nicholas Hilliard and to Levina Teerlinc. See Strong, 163, and Doran, 43.
  52. ^ Full document reproduced by Loades, 36–37.
  53. ^ Somerset, 92.
  54. ^ Loades, 46.
  55. ^ Loades, 46.
  56. ^ "It was fortunate that ten out of twenty-six bishoprics were vacant, for of late there had been a high rate of mortality among the episcopate, and a fever had conveniently carried off Mary's Archbishop of Canterbury, Reginald Pole, less than twenty-four hours after her own death". Somerset, 98.
  57. ^ "There were no less than ten sees unrepresented through death or illness and the carelessness of 'the accursed cardinal' [Pole]". Black, 10.
  58. ^ Somerset, 101–103.
  59. ^ Hogge, 46–47.
  60. ^ Loades, 38.
  61. ^ Haigh, 19.
  62. ^ Loades, 39.
  63. ^ Loades, 42.
  64. ^ In April 1559, Amy had been reported as suffering from a "malady in one of her breasts", and it is now presumed that she had cancer. At the time, it was widely believed that Dudley had done away with her in order to marry the queen. Somerset, 166–167.
  65. ^ Loades, 42–45.
  66. ^ a b c Haigh, 17.
  67. ^ Loades, 40.
  68. ^ Hasler, 421–424.
  69. ^ Haigh, 20–21.
  70. ^ When in 1566 a parliamentary commission urged Elizabeth to name an heir, she referred to the way "a second person, as I have been" had been used as the focus of plots against her sister, Queen Mary. Haigh, 22–23.
  71. ^ a b Haigh, 23.
  72. ^ Haigh, 24.
  73. ^ Frieda, 397.
  74. ^ Loades, 51.
  75. ^ Loades, 53–54.
  76. ^ Loades, 54.
  77. ^ Somerset, 408.
  78. ^ Frieda, 191.
  79. ^ Loades, 55.
  80. ^ Haigh, 135.
  81. ^ Loades, 61.
  82. ^ Flynn and Spence, 126–128.
  83. ^ Somerset, 607–611.
  84. ^ Haigh, 131.
  85. ^ Mary's position as heir derived from her great grandfather Henry VII, through Henry VIII's sister Margaret Tudor. In her own words, "I am the nearest kinswoman she hath, being both of us of one house and stock, the Queen my good sister coming of the brother, and I of the sister". Guy, 115.
  86. ^ On Elizabeth's accession, Mary's Guise relatives had pronounced her Queen of England and had the English arms emblazoned with those of Scotland and France on her plate and furniture. Guy, 96–97.
  87. ^ By the terms of the treaty, both British and French troops withdrew from Scotland. Haigh, 132.
  88. ^ Loades, 67.
  89. ^ Loades, 68.
  90. ^ Loades, 68.
  91. ^ Letter to Mary, Queen of Scots, 23 June 1567. Quoted by Loades, 69–70.
  92. ^ Loades, 72–73.
  93. ^ Loades, 73.
  94. ^ Guy, 483–484.
  95. ^ Loades, 78–79.
  96. ^ Guy, 1–11.
  97. ^ Haigh, 135.
  98. ^ Haigh, 134.
  99. ^ Haigh, 137.
  100. ^ Letter to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 10 February 1586, delivered by Sir Thomas Heneage. Loades, 94.
  101. ^ Haigh, 138.
  102. ^ When the Spanish naval commander, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, reached the coast near Calais, he found the Duke of Parma's troops unready and was forced to wait, giving the English the opportunity to launch their attack. Loades, 64.
  103. ^ Neale, 300.
  104. ^ Though most historians accept that Elizabeth gave such a speech, its authenticity has been questioned (Frye, The Myth of Elizabeth at Tilbury, 1992), since it was not published until 1654. Doran, 235–236.
  105. ^ Somerset, 591.
    • Neale, 297–98.
  106. ^ Neale, 300.
  107. ^ Loades, 61.
  108. ^ Black, 353.
  109. ^ Haigh, 138.
  110. ^ Haigh, 145.
  111. ^ For example, C. H. Wilson (Berkeley, 1970) castigates Elizabeth for half-heartedness in the war against Spain. Haigh, 183.
  112. ^ "In some respects she had a firmer grasp of strategy than the men to whom she had to entrust the conduct of the war, and certainly much more damage was caused by her commanders' failure to adhere to carefully formulated instructions than by Elizabeth's vacillation or attempts to economise." Somerset, 655.
  113. ^ Haigh, 142.
  114. ^ Haigh, 143.
  115. ^ Henry abandoned the siege in April. Haigh, 143.
  116. ^ Haigh, 143–144.
  117. ^ One observer wrote that Ulster, for example, was "as unknown to the English here as the most inland part of Virginia". Somerset, 667.
  118. ^ Loades, 55.
  119. ^ Somerset, 668.
  120. ^ Somerset, 668–669.
  121. ^ Loades, 98.
  122. ^ In a letter of 19 July 1599 to Essex, Elizabeth wrote: "For what can be more true (if things be rightly examined) than that your two month's journey has brought in never a capital rebel against whom it had been worthy to have adventured one thousand men". Loades, 98.
  123. ^ Loades, 98–99.
  124. ^ Loades, 92.
  125. ^ Gaunt, 37.
  126. ^ Haigh, 171.
  127. ^ Loades, 92.
  128. ^ "The metaphor of drama is an appropriate one for Elizabeth's reign, for her power was an illusion—and an illusion was her power. Like Henry IV of France, she projected an image of herself which brought stability and prestige to her country. By constant attention to the details of her total performance, she kept the rest of the cast on their toes and kept her own part as queen." Haigh, 179.
  129. ^ a b Loades, 93.
  130. ^ Loades, 97.
  131. ^ Black, 410.
  132. ^ A Patent of Monopoly gave the holder control over an aspect of trade or manufacture. See Neale, 382.
  133. ^ Williams, 208.
  134. ^ Black, 192–194.
  135. ^ She gave the speech at Whitehall Palace to a deputation of 140 members, who afterwards all kissed her hand. Neale, 383–384.
  136. ^ Loades, 86.
  137. ^ Black, 353.
  138. ^ Haigh, 155.
  139. ^ Black, 355–356.
  140. ^ Black, 355.
  141. ^ Haigh, 155.
  142. ^ This criticism of Elizabeth was noted by Elizabeth's early biographers William Camden and John Clapham. For a detailed account of such criticisms and of Elizabeth's "government by illusion", see chapter 8, "The Queen and the People", Haigh, 149–169.
  143. ^ Black, 239.
  144. ^ Black, 239–245.
  145. ^ Haigh, 176.
  146. ^ After Essex's downfall, James VI of Scotland referred to Cecil as "king there in effect". Croft, 48.
  147. ^ Cecil wrote to James, "The subject itself is so perilous to touch amongst us as it setteth a mark upon his head forever that hatcheth such a bird". Willson, 154.
  148. ^ Willson, 154.
  149. ^ Willson, 155.
  150. ^ Neale, 385.
  151. ^ Black, 411.
  152. ^ Black, 410–411.
  153. ^ Weir, 486.
  154. ^ Loades, 100.
  155. ^ Willson, 333.
  156. ^ Somerset, 726.
  157. ^ Strong, 164.
  158. ^ Haigh, 170.
  159. ^ Weir, 488.
  160. ^ Dobson and Watson, 257.
  161. ^ Strong, 163–164.
  162. ^ Haigh, 175, 182.
  163. ^ Dobson and Watson, 258.
  164. ^ Loades, 100.
  165. ^ The age of Elizabeth was redrawn as one of chivalry, epitomised by courtly encounters between the queen and sea-dog "heroes" such as Drake and Raleigh. Some Victorian narratives, such as Raleigh laying his cloak before the queen or presenting her with a potato, remain part of the myth. Dobson and Watson, 258.
  166. ^ Haigh, 175.
  167. ^ In his preface to the 1952 reprint of Queen Elizabeth I, J. E. Neale observed: "The book was written before such words as "ideological", "fifth column", and "cold war" became current; and it is perhaps as well that they are not there. But the ideas are present, as is the idea of romantic leadership of a nation in peril, because they were present in Elizabethan times".
  168. ^ Haigh, 182.
  169. ^ Haigh, 183.
  170. ^ Haigh, 142.
  171. ^ Black, 408–409.
  172. ^ Haigh, 142–147, 174–177.
  173. ^ Loades, 46–50.
  174. ^ Weir, 487.
  175. ^ Hogge, 9–10.
  176. ^ The new state religion was condemned at the time in such terms as "a cloaked papistry, or mingle mangle". Somerset, 102.
  177. ^ "The problem with the 'Protestant heroine' image was that Elizabeth did not always live up to it. London Protestants were horrified in 1561 when they heard of the plan to get Spanish support for a Dudley marriage by offering concessions on religion, and it took Elizabeth almost a decade to re-establish her Protestant credentials." Haigh, 165.
  178. ^ Haigh, 45–46, 177.
  179. ^ Black, 14–15.
  180. ^ Collinson, 28–29.
  181. ^ Williams, 50.
  182. ^ Haigh, 42.
  183. ^ a b c Somerset, 727.
  184. ^ Somerset, 726.
  185. ^ Hogge, 9n.
  186. ^ Loades, 1.
  187. ^ As Elizabeth's Lord Keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, put it on her behalf to parliament in 1559, the queen "is not, nor ever meaneth to be, so wedded to her own will and fantasy that for the satisfaction thereof she will do anything...to bring any bondage or servitude to her people, or give any just occasion to them of any inward grudge whereby any tumults or stirs might arise as hath done of late days". Starkey, 7.
  188. ^ Somerset, 75–76.
  189. ^ Edwards, 205.
  190. ^ Starkey, 6–7.
  191. ^ Black, Genealogical Table 1: Queen Elizabeth and her relations (back of book).

The great hall Hatfield House is a country house set in a large park, the Great Park, on the eastern side of the town of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sir Anthony Denny (16 January 1501 – 10 September 1559) was a confidant of Henry VIII of England. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Self-portrait, 1577. ... Levina Teerlinc (born Bruges, ?1510–20; d London, 23 June 1576) was a Flemish miniaturist who served as a painter to the English court of Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. Teerlinc was the oldest daughter of the Simon Bening (sometimes written as Benninc or Benninck), the renowned illuminated... Reginald Pole, cardinal Reginald Pole (1500 - 1558) Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, was the son of Margaret Pole who was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... Count of Guise and Duke of Guise were titles in the French nobility. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Don Alonso Pérez de Guzmán el Bueno, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia (es: Don Alonso Pérez de Guzmán el Bueno, séptimo duque de Medina Sidonia) (September 10, 1550 - 1615) was the commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armada. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire. ... William Camden William Camden (May 2, 1551 - November 9, 1623) was an English antiquarian and historian. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... The Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, and later of Great Britain, was formerly an officer of the English Crown charged with physical custody of the Great Seal of England. ... Sir Nicholas Bacon (Unknown artist, 1579) Sir Nicholas Bacon (1509–February 20, 1579) was an English politician during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England, notable as Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, and as the father of philosopher/statesman Sir Francis Bacon. ...

Bibliography

  • Black, J. B. The Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603. Oxford: Clarendon, (1936) 1945. OCLC 5077207
  • Brimacombe, Peter. All the Queen's Men: The World of Elizabeth I. New York: St Martin's Press, 2000. ISBN 0312232519.
  • Camden, William. History of the Most Renowned and Victorious Princess Elizabeth. Wallace T. MacCaffrey (ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, selected chapters, 1970 edition. OCLC 59210072.
  • Clapham, John. Elizabeth of England. E. P. Read and Conyers Read (eds). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951. OCLC 1350639.
  • Collinson, Patrick. "The Mongrel Religion of Elizabethan England." Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
  • Croft, Pauline. King James. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 0333613953.
  • Davenport, Cyril. English Embroidered Bookbindings. Alfred Pollard (ed.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., 1899. OCLC 705685.
  • Dobson, Michael; and Nicola Watson. "Elizabeth's Legacy". Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
  • Doran, Susan. "The Queen's Suitors and the Problem of the Succession." Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
  • Edwards, Philip. The Making of the Modern English State: 1460–1660. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN 031223614X.
  • Elizabeth I: The Collected Works Leah S. Marcus, Mary Beth Rose & Janel Mueller (eds.). Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2002. ISBN 0226504654.
  • Elton, G.R. England under the Tudors. London: Routledge, 1991. ISBN 041506533X.
  • Flynn, Sian; and David Spence. "Elizabeth's Adventurers". Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
  • Frieda, Leonie. Catherine de Medici. London: Phoenix, 2005. ISBN 0173820390.
  • Gaunt, William. Court Painting in England from Tudor to Victorian Times. London: Constable, 1980. ISBN 0094618704.
  • Graves, Michael A. R. Elizabethan Parliaments: 1559–1601. London and New York: Longman, 1987. ISBN 0582355168.
  • Guy, John. My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots. London and New York: Fourth Estate, 2004. ISBN 184115752X.
  • Haigh, Christopher. Elizabeth I. Harlow (UK): Longman Pearson, (1988) 1998 edition. ISBN 0582437547.
  • Hasler. P. W (ed). History of Parliament. House of Commons 1558–1603 (3 vols). London: Published for the History of Parliament Trust by H.M.S.O., 1981. ISBN 0118875019.
  • Hogge, Alice. God's Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth's Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot. London: HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0007156375.
  • Loades, David. Elizabeth I: The Golden Reign of Gloriana. London: The National Archives, 2003. ISBN 1903365430.
  • Neale, J.E. Queen Elizabeth I: A Biography. London: Jonathan Cape, (1934) 1954 reprint. OCLC 220518.
  • Ridley, Jasper. Elizabeth I: The Shrewdness of Virtue. New York : Fromm International, 1989. ISBN 088064110X.
  • Rowse, A. L. The England of Elizabeth. London: Macmillan, 1950. OCLC 181656553.
  • Russell, Conrad. The Crisis of Parliaments: English History, 1509–1660. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971. ISBN 0199130345.
  • Somerset, Anne. Elizabeth I. London: Phoenix, (1991) 1997 edition. ISBN 0385721579.
  • Starkey, David. "Elizabeth: Woman, Monarch, Mission." Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
  • Strong, Roy. Gloriana: The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I. London: Pimlico, (1987) 2003. ISBN 071260944X.
  • Waller, Maureen, "Sovereign Ladies: Sex, Sacrifice, and Power. The Six Reigning Queens of England." St. Martin's Press, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-312-33801-5
  • Weir, Alison. Elizabeth the Queen. London: Pimlico, (1998) 1999 edition. ISBN 0712673121.
  • Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Elizabeth I. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972. ISBN 0297831682.
  • Willson, David Harris. King James VI & I. London: Jonathan Cape, (1956) 1963. ISBN 0224605720.
  • Wilson, Charles H. Queen Elizabeth and the Revolt of the Netherlands. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970. ISBN 0520017447.caca mama

William Camden William Camden (May 2, 1551 - November 9, 1623) was an English antiquarian and historian. ... Sir Geoffrey Rudolph Elton (August 17, 1921 – December 3, 1994) was a pre-eminent British historian of the Tudor period. ... Leonie Frieda Leonie Frieda (born 1956) is a Swedish-born former model, translator, and writer, working and living in the United Kingdom. ... John Guy (born 1949 in Warragul, Australia) is a leading British historian and biographer. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... The National Archives building at Kew. ... Jasper Godwin Ridley (1920 – 2004) was a British writer, known for historical biographies. ... Alfred Leslie Rowse, CH FBA (December 4, 1903 – October 3, 1997), known professionally as A. L. Rowse and to his friends and family as Leslie, was a prolific British historian. ... Lord Russell Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell, 5th Earl Russell (15 April 1937–14 October 2004) was a British historian and politician. ... David Robert Starkey (born January 3, 1945) is one of Englands best-known historians, and a specialist in the Tudor period. ... Sir Roy Strong is an English arts curator, writer, broadcaster and garden designer. ... Alison Weir (born 1951) is a British writer of history books for the general public, mostly in the form of biographies about British kings and queens. ...

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Elizabeth I of England
  • William Camden. Annales Rerum Gestarum Angliae et Hiberniae Regnante Elizabetha. (1615 and 1625.) Hypertext edition, with English translation. Dana F. Sutton (ed.), 2000. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
  • Tudor and Elizabeth Portraits. Tudor and Elizabethan portraits and other works of art, provided for research and education. Retrieved 15 December 2007.
Elizabeth I of England
Born: 7 September 1533 Died: 24 March 1603
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mary I
Queen of England
Queen of Ireland

17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603
Succeeded by
James I
English royalty
Preceded by
Lady Mary Tudor
Heir to the English Throne
as heiress presumptive
March 1534 – 1536
Succeeded by
Edward, Prince of Wales
Preceded by
Lady Catherine Grey
Heir to the English and Irish Thrones
as heiress presumptive
19 July 1553 – 17 November 1558
Vacant
Never designated an heir¹
Title next held by
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Notes and references
1. Her potential heirs at the time of succession were Lady Frances Brandon by the Third Succession Act and Mary I of Scotland by cognatic primogeniture
Persondata
NAME Elizabeth I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Elizabeth I of England; The Virgin Queen; Gloriana; Good Queen Bess
SHORT DESCRIPTION Queen of England; Queen of Ireland
DATE OF BIRTH 7 September 1533(1533-09-07)
PLACE OF BIRTH Greenwich, England
DATE OF DEATH 24 March 1603
PLACE OF DEATH Richmond, Surrey

The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... Henry VIII, became the first King of Ireland in 1541. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... This article is about Greenwich in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Richmond is a suburb and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south west London, England. ... This article is about the English county. ...


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