FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her daughter Harriot.
Born November 12, 1815(1815-11-12)
Johnstown, New York
Died October 26, 1902 (aged 86)
New York, New York
Occupation Writer, suffragist and women's rights activist
Spouse Henry Brewster Stanton (1805-1887)
(married 1840-1887)
Children Daniel Cady Stanton (1842-1891)
Henry Brewster Stanton, Jr. (1844-1903)
Gerrit Smith Stanton (1845-1927)
Theodore Weld Stanton (1851-1925)
Margaret Livingston Stanton Lawrence (1852-1938?)
Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch (1856-1940)
Robert Livingston Stanton (1859-1920)
Parents Daniel Cady (1773-1859)
Margaret Livingston Cady (1785-1871)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815October 26, 1902) was an American social activist and leading figure of the early woman's movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States. [1] Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her daughter Harriot, 1856 From http://teachpol. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Johnstown is a city located in Fulton County, New York. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Feminists redirects here. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men, delegates to the first womens rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, now known to historians as the 1848 Womens Rights Convention. ... The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first womens rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often called the birthplace of feminism. ... Seneca Falls is a village located in Seneca County, New York. ...


Before Stanton narrowed her political focus almost exclusively to women's rights, she was an active abolitionist together with her husband, Henry Brewster Stanton and cousin, Gerrit Smith. Unlike many of those involved in the women's rights movement, Stanton addressed a number of issues pertaining to women beyond voting rights. Her concerns included women's parental and custody rights, property rights, employment and income rights, divorce laws, the economic health of the family, and birth control.[2] She was also an outspoken supporter of the 19th-century temperance movement. This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Gerrit Smith Gerrit Smith (March 6, 1797 – December 28, 1874) was a leading United States social reformer, abolitionist, politician, and philanthropist. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ...


After the American Civil War, Stanton's commitment to female suffrage caused a schism in the women's rights movement when she, along with Susan B. Anthony, declined to support passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. She opposed giving added legal protection and voting rights to African American men while continuing to deny women, black and white, the same rights. Her position on this issue, together with her thoughts on organized Christianity and women's issues beyond voting rights, led to the formation of two separate women's rights organizations that were finally rejoined, with Stanton as president of the joint organization, approximately twenty years later. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Susan B. Anthony (disambiguation). ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...

Contents

Childhood and family background

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the eighth of eleven children, was born in Johnstown, New York, to Daniel Cady and Margaret Livingston Cady. Five of her siblings died in early childhood or infancy. A sixth, her brother Eleazar, died at age 20 just prior to his graduation from Union College in Schenectady, New York. Only Elizabeth Cady and four sisters lived well into adulthood and old age. Later in life, Elizabeth named her two daughters after two of her sisters, Margaret and Harriot.[3] Johnstown is a city located in Fulton County, New York. ... This article is about the state. ... Daniel Cady (1773-1859) was a prominent lawyer and judge in upstate New York. ... This article is about the Union College in New York. ... Schenectady (IPA ) is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. ...


Daniel Cady, Stanton's father, was a prominent attorney who served one term in the United States Congress (Federalist; 1814-1817) and later became both a circuit court judge and, in 1847, a New York Supreme Court justice.[4] Judge Cady introduced his daughter to the law and, together with her brother-in-law, Edward Bayard, planted the early seeds that grew into her legal and social activism. Even as a young girl, she enjoyed perusing her father's law library and debating legal issues with his law clerks. It was this early exposure to law that, in part, caused Stanton to realize how disproportionately the law favored men over women, particularly over married women. Her realization that married women had virtually no property, income, employment, or even custody rights over their own children, helped set her course toward changing these inequities.[5] Congress in Joint Session. ... The term federalist refers to several sets of political beliefs around the world. ... The Bayard family has been a prominent family of lawyers and politicians throughout American history, primarily from Wilmington, Delaware. ...


Stanton's mother, Margaret Livingston Cady, a descendant of early Dutch settlers, was the daughter of Colonel James Livingston, an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Having fought at Saratoga and Quebec, he assisted in the capture of Benedict Arnold at West Point, New York.[6] Margaret Cady, an unusually tall woman for her time, had a commanding presence, and Stanton routinely described her as "queenly."[7] While Stanton's daughter, Harriot Stanton Blatch, remembers her grandmother as being fun, affectionate, and lively,[8] Stanton herself did not apparently share such memories. Emotionally devastated by the loss of so many children, Margaret Cady fell into a depression, which kept her from being fully involved in the lives of her surviving children and left a maternal void in Stanton's childhood.[9] This article is about military actions only. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... Combatants United States Britain Commanders Richard Montgomery † Benedict Arnold James Livingston (American Revolution) Guy Carleton Strength 1,200 Continentals 1,200 British Regulars and Militia Casualties 60 dead or wounded, 426 captured 6 dead, 19 wounded Canadian theater, 1775–1776 Ticonderoga – Crown Point – Longue-Pointe – Fort St. ... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch (January 20, 1856–November 20, 1940) was a notable American writer and suffragist and the daughter of pioneering womens rights activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton. ...


Since Judge Cady coped with this loss by immersing himself in his work, many of the childrearing responsibilities fell to Stanton's elder sister, Tryphena, eleven years her senior, and Tryphena's husband, Edward Bayard, a Union College classmate of Eleazar Cady's and son of James A. Bayard, Sr., a U.S. Senator from Wilmington, Delaware. At the time of his engagement and marriage to Tryphena, Edward Bayard worked as an apprentice in Daniel Cady's law office and was instrumental in nurturing Stanton's growing understanding of the explicit and implicit gender hierarchies within the legal system.[10] James Asheton Bayard (July 28, 1767 – August 6, 1815) was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ...


Like many men of his day, Judge Cady was a slave holder in Johnstown. Peter Teabout, a slave in the Cady household and later a freeman in Johnstown,[11] took care of Elizabeth and her sister Margaret. He is remembered with particular fondness by Stanton in her memoir, Eighty Years & More, where she reminisces about the pleasure she took in attending the Episcopal church with Teabout, where, as Judge Cady's daughters, she and her sister enjoyed sitting with him in the back of the church rather than alone in front with the white families of the congregation.[12] It seems it was, however, not immediately the fact that her family owned at least one slave, but her exposure to the abolition movement as a young woman visiting her cousin, Gerrit Smith, in Peterboro, New York, that led to her staunch abolitionist sentiments.[13] Peterboro is a historic village located in the Town of Smithfield, Madison County in the U.S. state of New York. ...


Education and intellectual development

Unlike many women of her era, Stanton was formally educated. She attended Johnstown Academy, where she studied Latin, Greek and mathematics until the age of 16. At the Academy, she enjoyed being in co-educational classes where she could compete intellectually and academically with boys her age and older.[14] She did this very successfully, winning several academic awards and honors, including the award for Greek language.[15]


In her memoir, Stanton credits the Cadys' neighbor, Rev. Simon Hosack, with strongly encouraging her intellectual development and academic abilities at a time when she felt these were undervalued by her father. Writing of her brother, Eleazar's, death in 1826, Stanton remembers trying to comfort her father, saying that she would try to be all her brother had been. At the time, her father's response devastated Stanton: "Oh, my daughter, I wish you were a boy!"[16] Understanding from this that her father valued boys above girls, Stanton tearfully took her disappointment to Hosack, whose firm belief in her abilities counteracted her father's disparagement. Hosack went on to teach Stanton Greek, encouraged her to read widely, and ultimately bequeathed to her his own Greek lexicon along with other books. His confirmation of her intellectual abilities did much to buttress Stanton's belief in her own wide-ranging abilities and prowess.[17]


Upon graduation from Johnstown Academy, Stanton received one of her first tastes of sexual discrimination. Stanton watched with dismay as the young men graduating with her, many of whom she had surpassed academically, went on to Union College, as her older brother, Eleazar, had done previously.[18] In 1830, with Union College taking only men, Stanton enrolled in the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York, which was founded and run by Emma Willard. (The school was renamed the Emma Willard School in honor of its founder in 1895, and Stanton, despite her growing infirmities, was a keynote speaker at this event. The Troy Female Seminary was founded by Emma (Hart) Willard in 1821 in Troy, New York. ... Looking west down Broadway at downtown Troy. ... Emma C. (Hart) Willard (February 23, 1787 - April 15, 1870), was an American womens rights advocate, and the pioneer who founded the first womens school of higher education. ... The Emma Willard School, originally called Troy Female Semninary and often referred to simply as Emma, is an independent university-preparatory day and boarding school for young women, located in Troy, New York offering grades 9-12 and PG. It was founded by the womens advocate Emma Willard in...


Early during her student days in Troy, Stanton remembers being strongly influenced by Charles Grandison Finney, an evangelical preacher and central figure in the revivalist movement. His influence, combined with the Calvinistic Presbyterianism of her childhood, caused her great unease. After hearing Finney speak, Stanton became terrified at the possibility of her own damnation: "Fear of judgment seized my soul. Visions of the lost haunted my dreams. Mental anguish prostrated my health. Dethronement of my reason was apprehended by my friends."[19] Stanton credits her father and brother-in-law, Edward Bayard, with convincing her to ignore Finney's warnings and, after taking her on a rejuvenating trip to Niagara Falls, restoring her reason and sense of balance.[20] She never returned to organized Christianity and, after this experience, always maintained that logic and a humane sense of ethics were the best guides to both thought and behavior.[21] Charles G. Finney Charles Grandison Finney (August 29, 1792 – August 16, 1875), often called Americas foremost revivalist, was a major leader of the Second Great Awakening in America, which had a great impact on the social history of the United States of America. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      In contemporary usage, the word evangelicalism refers to a collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions typified by an emphasis on the Bible and on evangelism [1]. Evangelical... It has been suggested that Great Awakening be merged into this article or section. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Presbyterianism is a Christian denomination following Jesus which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Marriage and family

As a young woman, Elizabeth Cady met Henry Brewster Stanton through her early involvement in the temperance and the abolition movements. Henry Stanton was an acquaintance of Elizabeth Cady's cousin, Gerrit Smith, an abolitionist and member of the "Secret Six" that supported John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.[22] Stanton was a journalist, an antislavery orator, and, after his marriage to Elizabeth Cady, an attorney. Despite Daniel Cady's reservations, the couple were married in 1840 and had six children, carefully planned,[23] between 1842 and 1856. The Stantons' seventh and last child, Robert, was an unplanned menopausal baby born in 1859 when Elizabeth Cady Stanton was forty-four.[24] A cartoon from Australia ca. ... Gerrit Smith Gerrit Smith (March 6, 1797 – December 28, 1874) was a leading United States social reformer, abolitionist, politician, and philanthropist. ... This article is about the historical Secret Six. ... John Brown, ca. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Menopause (also known as the Change of life or climacteric) is a stage of the human female reproductive cycle that occurs as the ovaries stop producing estrogen, causing the reproductive system to gradually shut down. ...


Soon after returning to the United States from their European honeymoon, the Stantons moved into the Cady household in Johnstown, New York. Henry Stanton studied law under his father-in-law until 1843, when the Stantons moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where Henry joined a law firm. While living in Boston, Elizabeth thoroughly enjoyed the social, political, and intellectual stimulation that came with a constant round of abolitionist gatherings and meetings. Here she enjoyed the company of and was influenced by such people as Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Louisa May Alcott, and Ralph Waldo Emerson, among others.[25] Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805–May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. ... Louisa May Alcott (November 29, 1832 – March 6, 1888) was an American novelist. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ...


Throughout her marriage and eventual widowhood, Stanton took her husband's surname as part of her own, signing herself Elizabeth Cady Stanton or E. Cady Stanton, but she refused to be addressed as Mrs. Henry B. Stanton. Asserting that women were individual persons, she stated that, "[t]he custom of calling women Mrs. John This and Mrs. Tom That and colored men Sambo and Zip Coon, is founded on the principle that white men are lords of all." [26] She further refused to include the promise "to obey" her husband as part of her wedding vows, agreeing instead to treat him as an equal.[27] // Sambo is a racial term for a person with mixed indigenous and African heritage in the Caribbean, also for an African American, Black, or South Asian person in the United States and the United Kingdom. ... A slur can be anything from an insinuation or critical remark to an insult. ...


The Stanton marriage was not entirely without tension and disagreement. Henry Stanton, like Daniel Cady, disagreed with the notion of female suffrage.[28] Because of employment, travel, and financial considerations, husband and wife lived more often apart than together. Friends of the couple found them very similar in temperament and ambition, but quite dissimilar in their views on certain issues including women's rights. In 1842, abolitionist reformer Sarah Grimke counseled Elizabeth in a letter: "Henry greatly needs a humble, holy companion and thou needest the same."[29] However, both Stantons considered their marriage an overall success, and the marriage lasted for forty-seven years, ending with Henry's death in 1887.[30]. Sarah Moore Grimké (November 26, 1792 - December 23, 1873) was born in South Carolina, the daughter of a plantation owner who was a firm believer in both slavery and the subordinate status of women. ...


In 1847, concerned about the effect of New England winters on Henry Stanton's fragile health, the Stantons moved from Boston to Seneca Falls, New York, situated at the northern end of Cayuga Lake, one of the Finger Lakes found in upstate New York. Their house, purchased for them by Daniel Cady, was located some distance from town.[31] The couple's last four children, two sons and two daughters, were born there, with Stanton asserting that her children were conceived under a program she called "voluntary motherhood," asserting her firm belief that women should have command over their sexuality and childbearing.[32] As a mother who advocated homeopathy, freedom of expression, lots of outdoor activity, and a solid, highly academic education for all of her children, Stanton nurtured a breadth of interests, activities, and learning in both her sons and daughters.[33] She was remembered by her daughter Margaret as being "cheerful, sunny and indulgent".[34] This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Seneca Falls refers to a town and a village in Seneca County, New York: Seneca Falls (town) Seneca Falls (village) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cayuga Lake (pronounced either kA-yü-g& or kI-yü-g&) is the longest of western New Yorks glacial Finger Lakes, and is the second largest in surface area (marginally smaller than Seneca Lake) and volume. ... The Finger Lakes, a major tourist destination in the west-central section of Upstate New York, are actually eleven in number, but only seven of the largest are commonly identified as such. ... Elizabeth Cady Stanton House was the home of suffragette Elizabeth Cady Stanton in Seneca Falls, New York. ... Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ...


Although she enjoyed motherhood and assumed primary responsibility for rearing the children, Stanton found herself increasingly unsatisfied by the lack of intellectual companionship and stimulation in Seneca Falls.[35] As an antidote to the boredom and loneliness, Stanton became increasingly involved in the community and, by 1848, had established ties to similarly-minded women in the area. By this time, she was firmly committed to the nascent women's rights movement and was ready to engage in organized activism.[36] The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...


Early activism in the Women's Rights Movement

Stanton (seated) with Susan B. Anthony
Stanton (seated) with Susan B. Anthony

Prior to living in Seneca Falls, Stanton had become a great admirer and friend of Lucretia Mott, the Quaker minister, feminist, and abolitionist whom she had met at the International Anti-Slavery Convention in London, England in the spring of 1840 while on her honeymoon. The two women became allies when the male delegates attending the convention voted that women should be denied participation in the proceedings, even if they, like Mott, had been nominated to serve as official delegates of their respective abolitionist societies. After considerable debate, the women were required to sit in a roped-off section hidden from the view of the men in attendance. They were soon joined by the prominent abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison, who arrived after the vote had been taken and, in protest of the outcome, refused his seat, electing instead to sit with the women.[37] Image File history File links Elizabeth_Cady_Stanton_and_Susan_B._Anthony. ... Image File history File links Elizabeth_Cady_Stanton_and_Susan_B._Anthony. ... Lucretia Coffin Mott (January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was an American Quaker minister, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of womens rights. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805–May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. ...


Mott's example and the decision to prohibit women from participating in the convention strengthened Stanton's commitment to women's rights. By 1848, her early life experiences, together with the experience in London and her initially debilitating experience as a housewife in Seneca Falls, galvanized Stanton. She later wrote: Seneca Falls refers to a town and a village in Seneca County, New York: Seneca Falls (town) Seneca Falls (village) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

"The general discontent I felt with woman's portion as wife, housekeeper, physician, and spiritual guide, the chaotic conditions into which everything fell without her constant supervision, and the wearied, anxious look of the majority of women, impressed me with a strong feeling that some active measures should be taken to remedy the wrongs of society in general, and of women in particular. My experience at the World Anti-slavery Convention, all I had read of the legal status of women, and the oppression I saw everywhere, together swept across my soul, intensified now by many personal experiences. It seemed as if all the elements had conspired to impel me to some onward step. I could not see what to do or where to begin -- my only thought was a public meeting for protest and discussion."[38]

In 1848, acting on these feelings and perceptions, Stanton joined Mott and a handful of other women in Seneca Falls. Together they organized the first women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls on July 19 and 20. Stanton drafted a Declaration of Sentiments, which she read at the convention. Modeled on the United States Declaration of Independence, Stanton's declaration proclaimed that men and women are created equal. She proposed, among other things, a then-controversial resolution demanding voting rights for women. The final resolutions, including female suffrage, were passed, in no small measure, because of the support of Frederick Douglass, who attended and informally spoke at the convention.[39] The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first womens rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often called the birthplace of feminism. ... The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men, delegates to the first womens rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, now known to historians as the 1848 Womens Rights Convention. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is a document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ...


Soon after the convention, Stanton was invited to speak at a second women's rights convention in Rochester, New York, solidifying her role as an activist and reformer. In 1851, Stanton was introduced to Susan B. Anthony on a street in Seneca Falls by Amelia Bloomer, a feminist and mutual acquaintance who had not signed the Declaration of Sentiments and subsequent resolutions despite her attendance at the Seneca Falls convention.[40] This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. ... For other uses, see Susan B. Anthony (disambiguation). ... Amelia Jenks Bloomer (May 27, 1818—December 30, 1894) was an American womens rights and temperance advocate. ...


Although best known for their joint work on behalf of women's suffrage, Stanton and Anthony first joined the temperance movement. Together, they were instrumental in founding the short-lived Woman's State Temperance Society (1852-53). During her presidency of the organization, Stanton scandalized many supporters by suggesting that drunkenness be made sufficient cause for divorce.[41] Stanton and Anthony's focus, however, soon shifted to female suffrage and women's rights.


Single and having no children, Anthony had the time and energy to do the speaking and traveling that Stanton was unable to do. Their skills complemented each other; Stanton, the better orator and writer, scripted many of Anthony's speeches, while Anthony was the movement's organizer and tactician. Writing a tribute that appeared in the New York Times when Stanton died, Anthony described Stanton as having "forged the thunderbolts" that she (Anthony) "fired."[1] Unlike Anthony's relatively narrow focus on suffrage, Stanton wanted to push for a broader platform of women's rights in general. While their opposing viewpoints led to some discussion and conflict, no disagreement threatened their friendship or working relationship; the two women remained close friends and colleagues until Stanton's death some fifty years after their initial meeting. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


While always recognized as movement leaders whose support was sought, Stanton and Anthony's voices were soon joined by others who began assuming leadership positions within the movement. These women included, among others, Lucy Stone and Matilda Joslyn Gage.[42] Lucy Stone (August 13, 1818 – October 19, 1893) was a prominent American suffragist. ... Matilda Electa Joslyn Gage (1826-1898) was a suffragist, a Native American activist, an abolitionist, a freethinker, and a prolific author, who was born with a hatred of oppression. Though born in Cicero, New York, Gage maintained residence in Fayetteville, New York for the majority of her life. ...


Ideological divergence with the women's rights movement

"The prejudice against color, of which we hear so much, is no stronger than that against sex. It is produced by the same cause, and manifested very much in the same way."
Elizabeth Cady Stanton

After the American Civil War, both Stanton and Anthony broke with their abolitionist backgrounds and lobbied strongly against ratification of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the US Constitution granting African American men the right to vote.[43] Believing that African American men, by virtue of the Thirteenth Amendment, already had the legal protections, except for suffrage, offered to white male citizens and that so largely expanding the male franchise in the country would only increase the number of voters prepared to deny women the right to vote,[44] both Stanton and Anthony were angry that the abolitionists, their former partners in working for both African American and women's rights, refused to demand that the language of the amendments be changed to include women.[45] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Fourteenth Amendment may refer to the: Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution - contains the due process and equal protection clauses. ... The Fifteenth Amendment may refer to the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution - guarantees the right to vote regardless of race. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ...


Eventually, Stanton's oppositional rhetoric took on racial overtones.[46] Arguing on behalf of female suffrage, Stanton posited that women voters of "wealth, education, and refinement" were needed to offset the effect of former slaves and immigrants whose "pauperism, ignorance, and degradation" might negatively affect the American political system.[47] She declared it to be "a serious question whether we had better stand aside and see 'Sambo' walk into the kingdom [of civil rights] first."[48] While her frustration was palpable and perhaps understandable after her long fight for female suffrage, some scholars have argued that Stanton's emphasis on property ownership and education, opposition to black male suffrage, and desire to holdout for universal suffrage fragmented the civil rights movement by pitting African-American men against women and, together with Stanton's emphasis on "educated suffrage,"[49] in part established a basis for the literacy requirements that followed in the wake of the passage of the fifteenth amendment.[50] Sambo is now seen as a derogatory term for an African American. ...


Stanton's position caused a significant rift between herself and many civil rights leaders, particularly Frederick Douglass, who believed that white women, already empowered by their connection to fathers, husbands, and brothers, at least vicariously had the vote. According to Douglass, their horrifying treatment as slaves entitled the now liberated African-American men, who lacked women's indirect empowerment, to voting rights before women were granted the franchise. African-American women, he believed, would have the same degree of empowerment as white women once African-American men had the vote; hence, general female suffrage was, according to Douglass, of less concern than black male suffrage.[51] Frederick Douglass, ca. ...


Disagreeing with Douglass, and despite the racist language she sometimes resorted to, Stanton firmly believed in a universal franchise that empowered blacks and whites, men and women. Speaking on behalf of black women, she stated that not allowing them to vote condemned African American freedwomen "to a triple bondage that man never knows," that of slavery, gender, and race.[52] She was joined in this belief by Anthony, Olympia Brown, and most especially Frances Gage, who was the first suffragist to champion voting rights for freedwomen.[53] Olympia Brown (January 5, 1835 – October 23, 1926) was a famous Womens suffragist. ... Frances Dana Barker Gage, (b. ...


Thaddeus Stevens, a Republican congressman from Pennsylvania and ardent supporter of abolition and, after the Civil War, Reconstruction, agreed that voting rights should be universal. In 1866, Stanton, Anthony, and several other suffragists drafted a universal suffrage petition demanding that the right to vote be given without consideration of sex or race. The petition was introduced in the United States Congress by Stevens.[54] Despite these efforts, the Fourteenth Amendment was passed, without adjustment, in 1868. Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868), was one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


By the time the Fifteenth Amendment was making its way through Congress, Stanton's position led to a major schism in the women's rights movement itself. Many leaders in the women's rights movement, including Lucy Stone, Elizabeth Blackwell, and Julia Ward Howe, strongly argued against Stanton's "all or nothing" position. By 1869, disagreement over ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment had given birth to two separate women's suffrage organizations. The National Woman's Suffrage Association (NWSA) was founded in May 1869 by Anthony and Stanton, who served as its president for 21 years.[55] The NWSA opposed passage of the Fifteenth Amendment without changes to include female suffrage and, under Stanton's influence in particular, championed a number of women's issues that were deemed too radical by more conservative members of the suffrage movement. The American Woman's Suffrage Association (AWSA), founded the following November and led by Stone,[56] Blackwell, and Howe,[57] supported the Fifteenth Amendment as written and preferred to focus only on female suffrage rather than advocate for broader women's rights such as gender-neutral divorce laws,[58] a woman's right to sexually refuse her husband, increased economic opportunities for women, and the right of women to serve on juries, issues which were espoused by Stanton.[59] Blackwell was commemorated on a U.S. postage stamp. ... Julia Ward Howe Julia Ward Howe (May 27, 1819 – October 17, 1910) was a prominent American abolitionist, social activist, and poet. ... The National Womens Suffrage Association was a 19th-century womens suffrage organization. ... The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was created in 1890, when two competing American womens suffrage advocacy groups united. ...


Believing that men should not be given the right to vote without women also being granted the franchise, Sojourner Truth, a former slave and feminist, affiliated herself with Stanton and Anthony's organization.[60] Stanton, Anthony, and Truth were joined by Matilda Joslyn Gage, who later worked on The Women's Bible with Stanton. Despite Stanton's position and the efforts of herself and others to expand the Fifteenth Amendment to include voting rights for all women, this amendment also passed, as originally written, in 1870. Sojourner Truth (c. ...


Later years

In the decade following ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, both Stanton and Anthony increasingly took the position, first advocated by Victoria Woodhull, that the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments actually did give women the right to vote.[61] They argued that the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizens as "all persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof," included women and that the Fifteenth Amendment provided all citizens with the right to vote.[62] Using this logic, they asserted that women now had the constitutional right to vote and that it was simply a matter of claiming that right. This constitutionally-based argument, which came to be called "the new departure" in women's rights circles because of its divergence from earlier attempts to change voting laws on a state-by-state basis,[63] led to first Anthony (in 1872), and later Stanton (in 1880), going to the polls and demanding to vote.[64] Despite this, and similar attempts made by hundreds of other women, it would be nearly fifty years before women obtained the right to vote throughout the United States. Victoria Woodhull Victoria Claflin Woodhull (September 23, 1838 – June 9, 1927) was an American suffragist who was one of the early leaders of the American womans suffragette movement in the 19th century. ...


During this time, Stanton maintained a broad focus on women's rights in general rather than narrowing her focus only to female suffrage in particular. After passage of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870 and its support by the Equal Rights Association and prominent suffragists such as Stone, Blackwell, and Howe, the gap between Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other leaders of the women's movement widened as Stanton took issue with the fundamental religious leanings of several movement leaders. Unlike many of her colleagues, Stanton believed organized Christianity relegated women to an unacceptable position in society. She explored this view in The Woman's Bible, which elucidated a feminist understanding of biblical scripture and sought to correct the fundamental sexism Stanton saw as being inherent to organized Christianity.[65] Likewise, Stanton supported divorce rights, employment rights, and property rights for women, issues in which the American Women's Suffrage Association (AWSA) preferred not to become involved.[66] The American Equal Rights Association (also known as the Equal Rights Association) was an organization formed by womens rights and black rights activists in 1866 in the United States. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ...


Her more radical positions included acceptance of interracial marriage. Despite her opposition to giving African-American men the right to vote without enfranchising all women and the derogatory language she had resorted to in expressing this opposition, Stanton had no objection to interracial marriage and wrote a congratulatory letter to Frederick Douglass upon his marriage to Helen Pitts, a white woman, in 1884.[67] Anthony, fearing public condemnation of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and wanting to keep the demand for female suffrage foremost, pleaded with Stanton not to make her letter to Douglass or support for his marriage publicly known.[68] Othello and Desdemona from William Shakespeares Othello, a play often depicted as concerning a biracial couple. ... Helen Pitts Helen Pitts (1838 - 1903), was an American suffragette and the second wife of Frederick Douglass. ...


Stanton went on to write many of the more important books, documents, and speeches of the women's rights movement. In 1881, Harper & Brothers Publishers issued the first volume of The History of Woman Suffrage, a seminal, six-volume work containing the full history, documents, and letters of the woman's suffrage movement.[69] While Stanton, along with Anthony and Gage, wrote the first three volumes, the work was eventually completed in 1922 by Ida Harper.[70] Stanton's other major writings included The Women's Bible, first published in 1895; Eighty Years & More: Reminiscences 1815-1897, her autobiography, published in 1898; and The Solitude of Self, or "Self-Sovereignty," which she first delivered as a speech at the 1892 convention of the National American Women's Suffrage Association in Washington, D. C..[71] Ida Husted Harper (born Ida Husted in Indiana on February 18th 1851 and died March 14th 1931 in Washington, D.C.) was a prominant figure in the American womens suffrage movement. ... ...


In 1868 Stanton—together with Susan B. Anthony and Parker Pillsbury, a leading male feminist of his day—began publishing a weekly periodical, Revolution, with editorials by Stanton that focussed on a wide array of women's issues.[72] In a view different from many modern feminists, Stanton, who supported birth control and likely used it herself,[73] believed that abortion was infanticide, a position she discussed in Revolution.[74] At this time, Stanton also joined the New York Lyceum Bureau, embarking on a twelve-year career on the Lyceum Circuit. Traveling and lecturing for eight months every year provided her both with the funds to put her two youngest sons through college and, given her popularity as a lecturer, with a way to spread her ideas among the general population, gain broad public recognition, and further establish her reputation as a pre-eminent leader in the women's rights movement. Among her most popular speeches were "Our Girls", "Our Boys", "Co-education", "Marriage and Divorce", "Prison Life", and "The Bible and Woman's Rights".[75] Her lecture travels so occupied her that Stanton, although president, only presided at four of fifteen conventions of the National Women's Suffrage Association during this period.[76] Parker Pillsbury (September 22, 1809 - 1898) was an American advocate for abolition and womens rights. ... The lyceum movement in the United States was a early form of organized adult education based on Aristotles Lyceum in Ancient Greece. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...


In addition to her writing and speaking, Stanton was also instrumental in promoting women's suffrage in various states, particularly New York, Missouri, Kansas, where it was included on the ballot in 1867, and Michigan, where it was put to the vote in 1874. She made an unsuccessful bid for a U.S. Congressional seat from New York in 1868, and she was the primary force behind passage of the "Woman's Property Bill" that was eventually passed by the New York State Legislature.[1] She worked toward female suffrage in Wyoming, Utah, and California, and in 1878, she convinced California Senator Aaron A. Sargent to introduce a female suffrage amendment using wording similar to that of the Fifteenth Amendment passed some eight years previously.[77] Aaron Augustus Sargent (September 28, 1827–August 14, 1887) was an American journalist, lawyer and politician. ...

Elizabeth Cady Stanton in her later years
Elizabeth Cady Stanton in her later years

As she aged, Stanton was also active internationally, spending a great deal of time in Europe, where her daughter and fellow feminist, Harriot Stanton Blatch, and son lived. In 1888, she helped prepare for the founding of the International Council of Women.[78] In 1890, Stanton opposed the merger of the National Woman's Suffrage Association with the more conservative and religiously based American Woman Suffrage Association.[79] Over her objections, the organizations merged, creating the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Despite her opposition to the merger, Stanton became its first president, largely because of Susan B. Anthony's intervention. In good measure because of the Women's Bible and her position on issues such as divorce, she was, however, never popular among the more religiously conservative members of the "National American".[80] Download high resolution version (1041x1491, 216 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Elizabeth Cady Stanton Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (1041x1491, 216 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Elizabeth Cady Stanton Categories: U.S. history images ... Harriot Stanton Blatch Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch (January 20, 1856–November 20, 1940) was a notable American writer and suffragist and the daughter of pioneering womens rights activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton. ... The International Council of Women (ICW) was established in 1888 in Seneca Falls in New York State. ... The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), an American womens rights organization, was formed as an amalgamation of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) in May of 1890. ...


On January 18, 1892, approximately ten years before she died, Stanton—together with Anthony, Stone, and Isabella Beecher Hooker—addressed the issue of suffrage before the United States House Committee on the Judiciary.[81] After nearly five decades of fighting for female suffrage and women's rights, it was Elizabeth Cady Stanton's final appearance before members of the United States Congress.[82] Using the text of what became The Solitude of Self, she spoke of the central value of the individual, noting that value was not based on gender. As with the Declaration of Sentiments she had penned some 45 years earlier, Stanton's statement eloquently expressed not only the need for women's voting rights in particular, but the need for a revamped understanding of women's position in society and even of women in general: is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Isabella Beecher Hooker (February 22, 1822 in Litchfield, Connecticut - January 25, 1907) was active in the womens suffrage movement and an author. ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men, delegates to the first womens rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, now known to historians as the 1848 Womens Rights Convention. ...

"The isolation of every human soul and the necessity of self-dependence must give each individual the right to choose his own surroundings. The strongest reason for giving woman all the opportunities for higher education, for the full development of her faculties, her forces of mind and body; for giving her the most enlarged freedom of thought and action; a complete emancipation from all forms of bondage, of custom, dependence, superstition; from all the crippling influences of fear--is the solitude and personal responsibility of her own individual life. The strongest reason why we ask for woman a voice in the government under which she lives; in the religion she is asked to believe; equality in social life, where she is the chief factor; a place in the trades and professions, where she may earn her bread, is because of her birthright to self-sovereignty; because, as an individual, she must rely on herself [...]."[83]

Death, burial, and remembrance

U.S. postage stamp commemorating the Seneca Falls Convention titled 100 Years of Progress of Women: 1848-1948 (Elizabeth Cady Stanton on left)
U.S. postage stamp commemorating the Seneca Falls Convention titled 100 Years of Progress of Women: 1848-1948 (Elizabeth Cady Stanton on left)

Stanton died at her home in New York City on October 26, 1902 nearly twenty years before women were granted the right to vote in the United States. Survived by six of her seven children and by seven grandchildren, she was interred in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx, New York. Although Elizabeth Cady Stanton had been unable to attend a formal college or university, her daughters did. Margaret Livingston Stanton Lawrence attended Vassar College (1876) and Columbia University (1891), and Harriot Stanton Blatch received both her undergraduate and graduate degrees from Vassar College in 1878 and 1891 respectively.[84] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 150 × 94 pixelsFull resolution (150 × 94 pixel, file size: 9 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) All US postage stamps and other postage items that were released before 1978 are in the public domain Other versions detail File links The following pages... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 150 × 94 pixelsFull resolution (150 × 94 pixel, file size: 9 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) All US postage stamps and other postage items that were released before 1978 are in the public domain Other versions detail File links The following pages... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Located in The Bronx, Woodlawn Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries in New York City. ... For other uses, see Bronx (disambiguation). ... Vassar College is a private, coeducational, liberal arts college situated in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York, USA. Founded as a womens college in 1861, it was the first member of the Seven Sisters to become coeducational. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...


After Stanton's death, her radical ideas about religion and emphasis on female employment and other women's issues led many suffragists to focus on Anthony, rather than Stanton, as the founder of the women's suffrage movement. Because of her ongoing involvement in the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), Anthony was more familiar to many of the younger members of the movement.[85] By 1923, in celebrating the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention, only Harriot Stanton Blatch paid tribute to the role her mother had played in instigating the women's rights movement.[86] Even as late as 1977, attention was paid to Susan B. Anthony as the founder of the movement, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton was not mentioned.[87] The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first womens rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often called the birthplace of feminism. ...


Over time, formal recognition of Stanton grew. Despite the focus on Anthony, Stanton was commemorated along with Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony in a sculpture by Adelaide Johnson at the US Capitol, unveiled in 1921. Originally kept on display in the crypt of the US Capitol, the sculpture was moved to its current location and more prominently displayed in the rotunda in 1997.[88] The Elizabeth Cady Stanton House in Seneca Falls was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965, and by the 1990s, interest in Stanton was substantially rekindled when Ken Burns, among others, presented the life and contributions of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Once again, attention was drawn to her central, founding role in shaping not only the woman's suffrage movement, but a broad women's rights movement in the United States that included women's suffrage, women's legal reform, and women's roles in society as a whole.[89] United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... Elizabeth Cady Stanton House was the home of suffragette Elizabeth Cady Stanton in Seneca Falls, New York. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Kenneth Lauren Burns (born July 29, 1953) is an American director and producer of documentary films known for his style of making use of original prints and photographs. ...


List of works

Books

  • History of Woman Suffrage ; Volumes 1-3 (written with Susan B. Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage; vol 4-6 completed by other authors, including Anthony, Gage, and Ida Harper) (1881-1922)
  • Solitude of Self (originally delivered as a speech in 1892; later published as a book)
  • Woman's Bible (1895)
  • Eighty Years & More: Reminiscenses 1815-1897 (1898)

Selected periodicals and journals

  • Revolution (Stanton, co-editor) (1868-1870)
  • Lily (published by Amelia Bloomer; Stanton as contributor)
  • Una (published by Paulina Wright Davis; Stanton as contributor)
  • New York Tribune (published by Horace Greeley; Stanton as contributor)

Selected papers, essays, and speeches

  • Declaration of Rights & Sentiments (1848)
  • A Petition for Universal Suffrage (1866)
  • Self-government the Best Means of Self-development (1884)
  • Solitude of Self (1892)
  • The Degradation of Disenfranchisement (1892)
  • Lyceum speeches: "Our Girls," "Our Boys," "Co-education," "Marriage and Divorce," "Prison Life," and "The Bible and Woman's Rights," among others

Stanton's papers are archived at Rutgers University: The Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Papers Project, Rutgers University (See particularly entries for Ann D. Gordon, Editor, in the reference section below.) “Rutgers” redirects here. ...


See also

  • USS Elizabeth C. Stanton (AP-69)
  • History of feminism

USS (AP-69) was launched 22 December 1939 as Sea Star by Moore Dry Dock Company, Oakland, California, under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. ... The History of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Elizabeth Cady Stanton Dies at Her Home.", New York Times, October 27, 1902. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. "Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton died at 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon at her home in the Stuart Apartment House, 250 West Ninety-fourth Street. Had she lived until the 12th of next month she would have completed her eighty-seventh year. Mrs. Stanton had been ailing for several months, but had not been seriously ill. Of recent years she became very stout, and this, combined with her naturally large frame, made the use of a cane necessary. Saturday she was confined to her bed. Though physically incapacitated, her mental powers were as much in evidence as ever, and only in the first part of the week she had written two articles for publication. Early on Saturday Mrs. Stanton dictated to her secretary a letter." 
  2. ^ Baker, p.109
  3. ^ Griffith, pp227-228; Stanton, Eighty Years & More
  4. ^ Griffith, p.5
  5. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, pp 31-32, 48
  6. ^ Griffith, pp 4-5
  7. ^ Griffith, pp.10-11
  8. ^ Blatch, pp. 18-20
  9. ^ Griffith, pp.10-11
  10. ^ Griffith, p.7
  11. ^ Kern, p. 22
  12. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p.5-6
  13. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p.54
  14. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p.33, 48
  15. ^ Griffith, p.8-9
  16. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p.23
  17. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, pp21-24
  18. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p.333
  19. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p.43
  20. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p.43
  21. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p.43-44; Griffith, pp 21-22
  22. ^ Renehan, p.12
  23. ^ Baker, p. 107-108
  24. ^ Baker, p.108
  25. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p 127
  26. ^ Griffith, p.xx (directly quoting Stanton)
  27. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p 72
  28. ^ Baker, p.115
  29. ^ Gordon, Vol I, p.39 (Letter from Sarah Grimke to ECS dtd Dec. 31, 1842)
  30. ^ Baker, pp. 99-113
  31. ^ Baker, p.110-111
  32. ^ Baker, p. 107-108
  33. ^ Baker, pp 109-113
  34. ^ Baker, p.113
  35. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, pp146-148
  36. ^ Griffith, p48
  37. ^ Women's Rights National Historical Park, The First Women's Rights Convention (html). Retrieved on 2006-10-20. (See footnote at end of page regarding Garrison.)
  38. ^ Stanton, Eighty Years & More, p.148
  39. ^ Foner, p.14
  40. ^ Griffith, p.72-73; Women's Rights National Historical Park, Declaration of Rights & Sentiments: List of Signatories (html). Retrieved on 2007-04-24. (See note regarding Amelia Bloomer at end of page.)
  41. ^ Griffith, p.76
  42. ^ James, Vol. II, p.4; James, Vol. III, p.388
  43. ^ Griffith, p. 122; Kern p. 111
  44. ^ Gordon, Vol II, p.567
  45. ^ Dubois, The Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Susan B. Anthony Reader, pp 91-92; Griffith, pp 122-125; Langley, p.130
  46. ^ Foner, p. 86 (directly quoting Frederick Douglass); Griffith, p. 124; Kern, p. 111-112
  47. ^ Griffith, p. 124 (directly quoting Stanton)
  48. ^ Kern, p. 111 (directly quoting Stanton)
  49. ^ Baker, pp 122-123
  50. ^ Kern, pp 111-112
  51. ^ Foner, p.600
  52. ^ Dubois, Feminism & Suffrage, p.69
  53. ^ Dubois, Feminism & Suffrage pp 68-69
  54. ^ The Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Papers Project, Rutgers University; A Petition for Universal Suffrage (html). Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  55. ^ Dubois, The Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Susan B. Anthony Reader, p.93; James, Vol III, p.344
  56. ^ James, Vol III, pp 345,389
  57. ^ James, Vol II, p.227
  58. ^ Baker, pp 126-127
  59. ^ Dubois, The Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Susan B. Anthony Reader, p.97; Langley, pp 131-132; James, Vol III, p.389
  60. ^ James, pp 345-47 & 389; Palmer, pp xxvii; Sklar pp 72-75
  61. ^ Dubois, The Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Susan B. Anthony Reader, p.101-103
  62. ^ Mason pp 925-926 (content of actual amendments)
  63. ^ Griffith, p.148
  64. ^ Dubois, The Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Susan B. Anthony Reader, p. 103; Griffith, pp 154,171
  65. ^ Stanton, The Woman's Bible, p.7
  66. ^ Gordon, Vol. II, p.376; James, p.345,389
  67. ^ Douglass, p.1073
  68. ^ Griffith, p.184
  69. ^ Griffith, p.178
  70. ^ Griffith, pp 170, 177-184, James, Vol II, p.5, 140
  71. ^ Griffith, p.203
  72. ^ James, Vol III, p.345
  73. ^ Baker, pp 106-107, 109
  74. ^ The Revolution, I, No. 5; February 5, 1868
  75. ^ Griffith, p.160-162, 164-165; James, Vol III, p.345
  76. ^ Griffith, p.165
  77. ^ James, Vol III, p.345
  78. ^ James, Vol III, p.346
  79. ^ Burns & Ward, p.179
  80. ^ Burns & Ward, pp179-183
  81. ^ Griffith, p.203
  82. ^ Griffith, p.204
  83. ^ Stanton, History of Woman Suffrage & The Solitude of Self
  84. ^ Griffith, pp 228-229
  85. ^ Griffith, p.165
  86. ^ Griffith, p.xv
  87. ^ Griffith, p.xv
  88. ^ http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/rotunda/suffrage.cfm Architect of the Capitol; Portrait Monument of Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony
  89. ^ Burns, Not for Ourselves Alone (video & book)

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Baker, Jean H. Sisters: The Lives of America's Suffragists. Hill and Wang, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-8090-9528-9.
  • Banner, Lois W. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A Radical for Women's Rights. Addison-Wesley Publishers, 1997. ISBN 0-673-39319-4.
  • Blatch, Harriot Stanton and Alma Lutz; Challenging Years: the Memoirs of Harriot Stanton Blatch; G.P. Putnam's Sons; New York, NY, 1940.
  • Burns, Ken, director. Not for Ourselves Alone - The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony. DVD & VHS tape, PBS Home Video, (1999).
  • Burns, Ken and Geoffrey C. Ward; Not for Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony; Alfred A. Knoph; New York, NY, 1999. ISBN 0-375-40560-7.
  • Douglass, Frederick; Autobiographies: Narrative of the Life, My Bondage and Freedom, Life and Times. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Penguin Putnam, Inc.; New York, NY, 1994. ISBN 0-94045-079-8.
  • Dubois, Ellen Carol, editor. The Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Susan B. Anthony Reader: Correspondence, Writings, Speeches. Northeastern University Press, September 1994. ISBN 1-55553-149-0.
  • Dubois, Ellen Carol. Feminism & Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women's Movement in America, 1848-1869. Cornell University Press; Ithaca, NY, 1999. ISBN 0-80148-641-6.
  • Foner, Philip S., editor. Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings. Lawrence Hill Books (The Library of Black America); Chicago, IL, 1999. ISBN 1-55652-352-1.
  • Gaylor, Annie Laurie. Women Without Superstition : No Gods - No Masters. Publisher: FFRF; 1st edition, January 1, 1997. ISBN 1-877733-09-1.
  • Gordon, Ann D., editor. The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Volume I: In the School of Anti-Slavery 1840-1866. Rutgers University Press; New Brunswick, NJ, 2001. ISBN 0-8135-2317-6.
  • Gordon, Ann D., editor. The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Volume II: Against an Aristocracy of Sex 1866-1873. Rutgers University Press; New Brunswick, NJ, 2000. ISBN 0-8135-2318-4.
  • Gordon, Ann D., editor. The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Volume III: National Protection for National Citizens 1873-1880. Rutgers University Press; New Brunswick, NJ, 2003. ISBN 0-8135-2319-2.
  • Gordon, Ann D., editor. The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Volume IV: When Clowns Make Laws for Queens 1880-1887. Rutgers University Press; New Brunswick, NJ, 2006. ISBN 0-8135-2320-6.
  • Griffith, Elisabeth. In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Oxford University Press; New York, NY, 1985. ISBN 0-19-503729-4. Also by Galaxy Books, ISBN 0-19-503440-6.
  • James, Edward T., editor. Notable American Women a Biographical Dictionary (1607-1950); Volume II (G-O). "GAGE, Matilda Joslyn" (pp4-6) and "HOWE, Julia Ward" (pp225-229). The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; Cambridge, MA, 1971. ISBN 0-674-62734-2.
  • James, Edward T., editor. Notable American Women a Biographical Dictionary (1607-1950); Volume III (P-Z). "STANTON, Elizabeth Cady" (pp342-347) and "STONE, Lucy" (pp387-390). The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; Cambridge, MA, 1971. ISBN 0-674-62734-2.
  • Kern, Kathi. Mrs. Stanton's Bible. Cornell University Press; Ithaca, NY, 2001. ISBN 0-8014-8288-7.
  • Langley, Winston E. & Vivian C. Fox, editors. Women's Rights in the United States: A Documentary History. Praeger Publishers; Westport, CT, 1994. ISBN 0-27-596527-9.
  • Mason, Alpheus Thomas; Free Government in the Making: Readings in American Political Thought, 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press; New York, 1975.
  • New York Times October 27, 1902; "Elizabeth Cady Stanton Dies at Her Home" (obituary); accessed November 12, 2006.
  • Palmer, Beverly Wilson, editor. Selected Letters of Lucretia Coffin Mott. University of Illinois Press; 2002. ISBN 0-252-02674-8.
  • Renehan, Edward J., The Secret Six: The True Tale of the Men Who Conspired with John Brown. New York. Crown Publishers, Inc.; 1995. ISBN 0-517-59028-X.
  • Sigerman, Harriet. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: The Right Is Ours. Oxford University Press, November 2001. ISBN 0-19-511969-X.
  • Sklar, Kathryn Kish. Women's Rights Emerges within the Antislavery Movement 1830-1870: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford/St. Martins (The Bedford Series in History and Culture), 2000. ISBN 0-312-10144-9.
  • Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. Eighty Years & More: Reminiscences 1815-1897. Northeastern University Press; Boston, 1993. ISBN 1-55553-137-7.
  • Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. Solitude of Self. Paris Press; Ashfield, MA, 2001. ISBN 1-930464-01-0.
  • Stanton, Elizabeth Cady (foreword by Maureen Fitzgerald). The Woman's Bible. Northeastern University Press; Boston, 1993. ISBN 1-55553-162-8
  • Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. The Woman's Bible. Prometheus Books; Great Minds Series; Amherst, NY, 1999. ISBN-10 1-57392-696-6.
  • Stanton, Elizabeth et al., eds., History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 4, 1902
  • Stanton, Theodore & Harriot Stanton Blatch, eds., Elizabeth Cady Stanton As Revealed in Her Letters Diary and Reminiscences, Volume One. Arno & The New York Times; New York, 1969. (Originally published by Harper & Brothers Publishers).
  • Stanton, Theodore & Harriot Stanton Blatch, eds., Elizabeth Cady Stanton As Revealed in Her Letters Diary and Reminiscences, Volume Two. Arno & The New York Times; New York, 1969. (Originally published by Harper & Brothers Publishers).
  • Ward, Geoffrey C. and Ken Burns. Not for Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Knopf Publishing Group, December 2001. ISBN 0-375-70969-X.

Lois Wendland Banner, more commonly known as Lois W. Banner, is a successful feminist author. ... Kenneth Lauren Burns (born July 29, 1953) is an American director and producer of documentary films known for his style of making use of original prints and photographs. ... The Freedom From Religion Foundation is an American Freethought organization based in Madison, Wisconsin. ... Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in Piscataway, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University. ... Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in Piscataway, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University. ... Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in Piscataway, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University. ... Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in Piscataway, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University. ...

External links

Collected works

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... “Rutgers” redirects here. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

Individual works

Womens Rights National Historical Park was established in 1980, and covers a total of 6. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ...

Other

Persondata
NAME Stanton, Elizabeth Cady
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Suffragist and Women's Rights activist
DATE OF BIRTH November 12, 1815
PLACE OF BIRTH Johnstown, New York
DATE OF DEATH 26 October 1902
PLACE OF DEATH New York, New York
The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Kenneth Lauren Burns (born July 29, 1953) is an American director and producer of documentary films known for his style of making use of original prints and photographs. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Feminists redirects here. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Johnstown is a city located in Fulton County, New York. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
National Women's Hall of Fame - Women of the Hall (400 words)
When she married Henry Stanton, an activist in the anti-slavery cause, the word "obey" was omitted from the ceremony at her insistence.
After the women delegates were not seated, Stanton was convinced that women should hold a convention for their own rights, This decision was delayed until her move to Seneca Falls, where she was isolated and increasingly exhausted by a growing family.
Stanton drafted the Seneca Falls Convention's Declaration of Sentiments and argued forcefully for the ballot, a radical demand opposed by her husband and even Mrs.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton - MSN Encarta (657 words)
Elizabeth Cady was born on November 12, 1815, in Johnstown, New York, the fourth of six children.
For this convention, Cady Stanton drafted a Declaration of Sentiments modeled after the U.S. Declaration of Independence, in which she declared, “men and women are created equal.” Among the resolutions in her declaration, Cady Stanton included voting rights for women, despite the disapproval of Mott.
Cady Stanton's efforts were largely responsible for the introduction in 1878 of a constitutional amendment for woman suffrage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m