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Encyclopedia > Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad

Elijah Muhammad (October 7, 1897 - February 25, 1975) is notable for his leadership of the Black Muslims and the Nation of Islam from 1934 until his death in 1975. He also was an early important teacher and mentor to Malcolm X. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Source: http://www. ... Source: http://www. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of the black men and women of America and the rest of the... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ...

Contents

Early life

Muhammad was born Elijah Poole in Sandersville, Georgia, as one of 13 children of Willie Poole, Sr. (1868–1942) and Mariah Hall (1873–1958). Both were tenant farmers (share croppers). At the age of 16 he left home and traveled about America. In 1917 he married Clara Evans, later to be known as Mother Clara Muhammad. In 1923 he finally settled in Detroit, Michigan where he worked at an automobile factory. The young Elijah Poole apparently witnessed three murders (lynchings) of blacks by whites before the age of twenty.[1] Sandersville is a city located in Washington County, Georgia. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Clara Muhammad whos maiden name is Clara Evans, born November 2nd, 1899 in Macon, Georgia, is the late wife of former Nation of Islam leader and founder Elijah Muhammad. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Detroit” redirects here. ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ...


In the early 1930s, Muhammad also became acquainted with a W.D. Fard also known as Wallace Fard Muhammad. W. Fard Muhammad, then working as a peddler, had already established his Temple of Islam in Detroit. The beliefs taught by Fard, though similar to orthodox Islam in some ways, also differed from it in several essentials. Scholars have identified a wide range of possible influences on Fard's theology including Sufi Islam, the teachings of the contemporary Noble Drew Ali of the Moorish Science Temple, Egyptology, Numerology, Eastern mysticism, Black Nationalism, the earlier ideas of economic independence as espoused by Marcus Garvey, and more. Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wallace Fard Muhammad (1877-1893? – ?) was a preacher and founder of the Black-nationalist movement the Nation of Islam (NOI), establishing its first mosque in Detroit, Michigan. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Moorish Science Temple of America is a religion founded in the early 20th century claiming to be a sect of Islam, but having equal influences in Buddhism, Christianity, Freemasonry, Gnosticism and Taoism. ... The Moorish Science Temple of America is a religion founded in the early 20th century claiming to be a sect of Islam, but having equal influences in Buddhism, Christianity, Freemasonry, Gnosticism and Taoism. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... Numerology is any of many systems, traditions or beliefs in a mystical or esoteric relationship between numbers and physical objects or living things. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ...


On May 26, 1931 W.D. Fard was ordered out of Detroit. He departed in 1934. Elijah Poole, renamed Elijah Muhammad by W.D. Fard, became the successor to the Nation of Islam and Supreme Minister. In 1942, Muhammad was arrested in Washington D.C. on charges of sedition and violation of the Selective Service Act. He was cleared of the sedition charges, but was convicted of the others, specifically for instructing his followers to avoid the draft. Elijah Muhammad was sent to Federal prison for four years.[2] The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of the black men and women of America and the rest of the... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Sedition is a term of law which refers to covert conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Teachings

Elijah Muhammad taught what was viewed by most as black supremacist doctrine. He taught that blacks were the first people on the Earth but had been tricked out of their power and oppressed by whites, who were created by a scientist called Yakub. According to the Nation of Islam (NOI), Yakub (also spelled Yacub or Yakob), was an evil scientist responsible for creating the white race — a race of devils, in their view. ...


The Nation of Islam preaches complete separation from white society. The NOI teaches that black people must develop independence in economics, religion, and nationhood. The teachings of the NOI denounce drinking, gambling, physical abuse of black women, and the inability to protect one's family from attacks by violent white America. The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of the black men and women of America and the rest of the...


Elijah Muhammad used the newly won independence of many African nations as an example for his followers in America.[citation needed] Unlike many other black leaders in mid-twentieth century America, Elijah Muhammad believed that it made more sense to seek aid from independent African nations rather than going overseas to Africa while their communities at home in America were non-independent.[3]


Simultaneously, Elijah Muhammad showed pride in his ability to stand equal with whites, and was willing to work with them when this would further the aims of the NOI. He apparently would claim that he lived in a mostly white neighborhood, and he allowed George Lincoln Rockwell of the American Nazi Party to address the NOI, at a time when both organizations were opposed to racial integration. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


One of those Elijah Muhammad would influence was an ex-convict whom the world would come to know as Malcolm X. Though he would later leave the NOI, the influence of Elijah Muhammad on Malcolm's life was undeniable. The young Malcolm developed his speaking and political outlook within the NOI and under Elijah Muhammad's tutelage. Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ...


Assassination of Malcolm X

The rift between Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X was largely due to Malcolm’s discovery regarding rumors that Elijah Muhammad was having sex with various young NOI women working for him, and that he had fathered their children.[4][5] Elijah Muhammad's son, the women, and eventually Elijah Muhammad himself confirmed to Malcolm that the rumors were true.[4][5] Malcolm felt compelled to make this known to the congregation, and to the public. A year later, he was forced out of NOI for the release of this damaging information, famously stating that “I am most probably dead already.” His action was not forgotten by the NOI. There is controversy as to whether Elijah Muhammad ordered Malcolm X’s assassination, or whether he stood by while promoting it; Elijah Muhammad’s followers did not like the accusations made, and refused to believe it.[citation needed]


Legacy

With the death of Muhammad in 1975, the NOI went through a brief period of upheaval. Under the guidance of his son, Warith Deen Muhammad, the NOI was moved into the mainstream of Sunni Islam and even began to accept white members. Such shifts away from the original black-nationalist teachings of Muhammad soon caused a split within the organization, as some members preferred to espouse Muhammad's original teachings. The best known splinter group is probably the Five Percenters whose beliefs ventured even further from mainstream Islam than that of the NOI. The original organization under Warith Deen changed its name to the Muslim American Society. The name and ideology of the Nation of Islam was appropriated by a splinter group led by Elijah Muhammad's second National Representative, Louis Farrakhan, who re-established it in 1978. Later, Louis Farrakhan was accused by the wife of Malcolm X of taking part in his assassination. Warith Deen Muhammad The Honorable and Eminent, al-Imam Warith Deen Mohammad (born Wallace D. Muhammad on October 30, 1933) is an influential American Muslim leader. ... The Five Percenter Universal Flag (Seven, Sun, Moon, and Star). ... The Muslim American Society (MAS) is a nonprofit organization. ... Louis Farrakhan (born Louis Eugene Walcott, May 11, 1933), is the head of the Nation of Islam. ...


Figures that found inspiration from Muhammad's teachings included Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan, boxer Muhammad Ali, Clarence 13X and artists like the Poor Righteous Teachers[citation needed] and Wu-Tang Clan[citation needed]. Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Louis Farrakhan (born Louis Eugene Walcott, May 11, 1933), is the head of the Nation of Islam. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... Clarence 13X, deified as Allah by the Nation of Gods and Earths. ... The Poor Righteous Teachers are a trio of African American hip hop musicians from Trenton, New Jersey, founded in 1989 (see 1989 in music). ... “Wu-Tang” redirects here. ...


One of Muhammad's grandsons, Ozier Muhammad,[6] is a photographer for The New York Times who has won a Pulitzer Prize. Ozier Muhammad is a photojournalist who is currently on the staff of The New York Times. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad
  2. ^ New York Times, February 26, 1975, p.1
  3. ^ Muhammad, Elijah. Message to the Blackman in America. (p. 35) Atlanta, GA. Messenger Elijah Muhammad Propagation Society. 1997
  4. ^ a b Malcolm X: Make It Plain 1994 PBS documentary
  5. ^ a b Segment of Make It Plain documentary with illegitimacy information
  6. ^ The New York Times: How Race is Lived in America: Photographer's Journals

Message To The Blackman In America is a book published by Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad in 1965, and reprinted several times since. ...

External links

  • Seventh Family of the Nation of Islam
  • Elijah Muhammad Bio Sketch from Nation of Islam Official Site
  • Elijah Muhammad History
  • The Immortal Birth Book, The Nation of Islam
  • Who is the Messiah?
  • Malcolm X Reloaded: Who Really Assassinated Malcolm X?
  • Muhammad's Temple of Islam #7
Preceded by
Wallace Fard Muhammad
Nation of Islam
1934-1975
Succeeded by
Warith Deen Muhammad or Louis Farrakhan (split)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Elijah Muhammad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1242 words)
Elijah Muhammad (October 1897–February 25, 1975) led the Nation of Islam, a largely African-American spiritual and political organization, from 1934 until his death.
Muhammad was born Elijah Poole in Sandersville, Georgia as one of 13 children of tenant farmers (share croppers) who were former slaves.
Elijah Muhammad managed to hold onto recognition, as his teachings were spread through his still well-read books: Message to the Blackman in America, How To Eat To Live, and his newspaper, Muhammad Speaks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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