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Encyclopedia > Elias James Corey

Elias James Corey (born July 12, 1928) is a renowned American organic chemist. In 1990 he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis", specifically retrosynthetic analysis.[1][2] Regarded by many as one of the greatest living chemists, he has developed numerous synthetic reagents, methodologies, and has advanced the science of organic synthesis considerably. He was awarded the Japan Prize in 1989. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Retrosynthetic analysis is a technique for solving problems in the planning of organic syntheses. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... The Japan Prize is awarded to people from all parts of the world whose original and outstanding achievements in science and technology are recognized as having advanced the frontiers of knowledge and served the cause of peace and prosperity for mankind. ...


He was born "William" to Christian Lebanese immigrants in Methuen, Massachusetts, 30 miles north of Boston. His mother changed his name to "Elias" to honor his father who died eighteen months after the birth of his son. His widowed mother, brother, two sisters and an aunt and uncle all lived together in a spacious house- struggling through the depression. He attended Catholic elementary school and Lawrence public High School.[1]


At MIT, he earned both a bachelor's degree in 1948 and a Ph.D. in 1951. Both degrees were in chemistry. Immediately, he joined the faculty of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In 1959, he moved to Harvard University, where he is currently an emeritus professor of organic chemistry. He was awarded the American Chemical Society's greatest honor, the Priestley Medal, in 2004. Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... The Priestley Medal is awarded by the American Chemical Society (ACS) for distinguished service in the field of chemistry. ...

Contents

Major contributions

Reagents

He has developed several new synthetic reagents:

Pyridinium chlorochromate, a reddish orange solid reagent, is used to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An aldehyde. ... A Protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group in order to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction. ...

Methodology

Several reactions developed in the E.J. Corey labs have become commonplace in modern synthetic organic chemistry. Several reactions have been named after him:

  • Corey-Bakshi-Shibata reduction (CBS reduction): Asymmetric ketone reduction.
  • Corey-Fuchs reaction
  • Corey-Kim oxidation
  • Corey-Winter olefin synthesis
  • Corey-House-Posner-Whitesides reaction
  • Johnson-Corey-Chaykovsky reaction

The CBS reduction, also called Corey-Bakshi-Shibata reduction, is an organic reaction which transfers ketones enantioselective into alcohols. ... The Corey-Fuchs reaction is a series of chemical reactions designed to transform an aldehyde into an alkyne. ... Corey-Kim Oxidation is a method used to synthesise aldehydes and ketones from primary and secondary alcohols. ... The Corey-Winter olefin synthesis is a method for converting 1,2-diols into olefins. ... The Corey-Posner-Whitesides-House reaction was developed by the co-operation of four organic chemists: E.J. Corey of Harvard University, G.H. Posner of the Johns Hopkins University, G.M. Whitesides of MIT and H.O. House of the Georgia Institute of Technology. ... The Johnson-Corey-Chaykovsky reaction is a chemical reaction in which a carbonyl is converted to an epoxide by the action of a sulfonium ylide. ...

Total syntheses

E. J. Corey and his research group have completed many total syntheses. His 1969 total syntheses of several prostaglandins are considered classics.[5][6] A total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of complex organic molecules from simple, commercially available (petrochemical) precursors. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ...

Other notable syntheses include: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1606x516, 7 KB) Description: Chemical scheme of EJ Coreys w:prostaglandin synthesis. ...

Longifolene is the common (or trivial) chemical name of a naturally-occurring, oily liquid hydrocarbon found primarily in the high-boiling fraction of certain pine resins. ... Chemical structure of lactacystin. ... Trabectedin (also known as ecteinascidin 743 or by the brand name Yondelis) is a experimental anti-tumor drug. ... Oseltamivir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. ...

Praise

Ryoji Noyori, the 2001 Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate has commented that "without Corey, modern organic synthesis could not exist." Ryoji Noyori (野依良治) (born September 3, 1938) won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2001. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


A press releasedescribing Corey's accomplishments following his receiving the 1990 Nobel Prize stated:

"To perform the total syntheses successfully, Corey was also obliged to develop some fifty entirely new or considerably improved synthesis reactions or reagents. It is probable that no other chemist has developed such a comprehensive and varied assortment of methods which, often showing the simplicity of genius, have become commonplace in the synthesising laboratory. His systematic use of different types of organometallic reagent has revolutionised recent techniques of synthesis in many respects."

Graduate student suicides

Between 1980 and 1998 there have been eight graduate-student suicides, half of them happened in the chemistry department, and three of those were suicides of students supervised by Prof. Corey.[16] [17]


The three suicidal students were:

  • Felix Chau (died 1987), third-year student supervised by Corey.
  • Fung Lam (died 1997), in his sixth month at Harward. Changed supervisors to Corey ten days before his suicide.
  • Jason Altom (died 1998), Ph.D. student supervised by Corey.

Corey was about 70 years old at the time of the last two suicides. Altom's suicide caused controversy because he explicitly blamed the advisor (Corey) for his problems. Altom died by taking potassium cyanide in 1998, citing in his farewell note "abusive research supervisors" as one reason for taking his life. Altom's suicide note had been described as a "policy paper," because it contained explicit instructions on how to reform the relationship between students and their supervisors. [18] Elias James Corey (born July 12, 1928) is an American organic chemist. ... Potassium cyanide is the inorganic compound with the formula KCN. This colorless crystalline compound, similar in appearance to sugar, is highly soluble in water. ...


Woodward-Hoffmann rules

Recently when awarded the Priestley Medal, E. J. Corey has controversially claimed to have inspired Robert Burns Woodward prior to the development of the Woodward-Hoffmann rules. This was rebutted by Roald Hoffmann in the journal Angewandte Chemie.[19] The Priestley Medal is awarded by the American Chemical Society (ACS) for distinguished service in the field of chemistry. ... Robert Burns Woodward (April 10, 1917–July 8, 1979) was an American organic chemist. ... Roald Hoffmann (born July 18, 1937 as Roald Safran --- Hoffmann is the surname of his stepfather) is an American theoretical chemist of Polish-Jewish origin. ... Angewandte Chemie or Angewandte Chemie International Edition is the chemistry journal of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists). ...


References

  1. ^ E. J. Corey, X-M. Cheng, The Logic of Chemical Synthesis, Wiley, New York, 1995, ISBN 0-471-11594-0.
  2. ^ "The Logic of Chemical Synthesis: Multistep Synthesis of Complex Carbogenic Molecules (Nobel Lecture)" E.J. Corey, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1991, 30, 455.
  3. ^ Corey, E.J., and Suggs, W. 'Pyridinium Chlorochromate. An Efficient Reagent for Oxidation of Primary and Secondary Alcohols to Carbonyl Compounds', Tetrahedron Lett. 1975, 31, 2647-2650.
  4. ^ Corey, E. J.; Venkateswarlu, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94, 6190-6191. (doi:10.1021/ja00772a043)
  5. ^ E. J. Corey, N. M. Weinshenker, T. K. Schaaf, W. Huber, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1969, 91, 5675-5677. (doi:10.1021/ja01048a062)
  6. ^ K. C. Nicolaou, E. J. Sorensen, Classics in Total Synthesis, VCH, New York, 1996, ISBN 3-527-29231-4.
  7. ^ Corey, E. J.; Ohno, M.; Vatakencherry, P. A.; Mitra, R. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1961, 83, 1251-1253. (doi:10.1021/ja01466a056)
  8. ^ "Total Synthesis of Longifolene" Corey, E. J.; Ohno, M.; Mitra, R. B.; Vatakencherry, P. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1964, 86, 478-485. (doi:10.1021/ja01057a039)
  9. ^ Corey, E. J.; Ghosh, A. K. Tetrahedron Lett. 1988, 29, 3205-3206.
  10. ^ Corey, E. J.; Kang, M.; Desai, M. C.; Ghosh, A. K.; Houpis, I. N. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988, 110, 649-651.
  11. ^ Corey, E. J. Chem. Soc. Rev. 1988, 17, 111-133.
  12. ^ "Total Synthesis of Lactacystin" Corey, E. J.; Reichard, G. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 10677.
  13. ^ "Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Miroestrol" Corey, E. J.; Wu, L. I. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 9327.
  14. ^ Corey, E. J.; Gin, D. Y.; Kania, R. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 9202-9203.
  15. ^ "A Short Enantioselective Pathway for the Synthesis of the Anti-Influenza Neuramidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir from 1,3-Butadiene and Acrylic Acid" Yeung, Y.-Y.; Hong, S.; Corey, E. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 6310-6311. (doi:10.1021/ja0616433)
  16. ^ Schneider, Alison. "Harvard Faces the Aftermath of a Graduate Student's Suicide", The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1998. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. 
  17. ^ For comparison: The MIT had 12 suicides between 1990 and 2002. That's one per year, while Harvard's rate mentioned above was lower than one per two years.
    Sontag, Deborah. "Who Was Responsible For Elizabeth Shin?", The New York Times, 2002-04-28. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. 
  18. ^ Hall, Stephen S.. "Lethal Chemistry at Harvard", The New York Times, 1998-11-29. 
  19. ^ R. Hoffmann Angew. Chem. 2004, 43, 6586-6590.

Angewandte Chemie or Angewandte Chemie International Edition is the chemistry journal of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists). ... Tetrahedron Letters is a weekly international journal for rapid publication of full origonal research papers in the field of organic chemistry. ... The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Tetrahedron Letters is a weekly international journal for rapid publication of full origonal research papers in the field of organic chemistry. ... The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... Chemical Society Reviews is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing review articles on topics of current interest in the chemical sciences. ... The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Roald Hoffmann (born July 18, 1937 as Roald Safran --- Hoffmann is the surname of his stepfather) is an American theoretical chemist of Polish-Jewish origin. ... Angewandte Chemie or Angewandte Chemie International Edition is the chemistry journal of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists). ...

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