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Encyclopedia > Eli (Bible)

Eli (Hebrew: עֵלִי, Standard ʻEli Tiberian ʻĒlî ; "Ascent") was, according to the Books of Samuel, the name of a priest of Shiloh, and one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... Shiloh (Hebrew: ) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as a city and as denoting a person. ...

Contents

Biblical narrative

Eli abruptly appears in the biblical narrative, when Hannah, who is childless, prays to God for a child. Eli, who is sitting at the foot of the doorpost in the sanctuary at Shiloh, hears her prayer and thinks Hannah is drunk, but after he is assured by her of her motivation and sobriety, he blesses her and her hope for a child. Subsequently Hannah lies with her husband, and she becomes pregnant; when the child is weaned, she leaves him in the care of Eli. Hannah (or Chana) (Hebrew: ×—× ×” - Grace [of God]) was a wife of Elkanah and the mother of the prophet Samuel as recorded in the Book of Samuel. ... Elkanah was, according to the Books of Samuel, the husband of Hannah, and the father of her children including her first - either Samuel or Saul depending on whether it is those who take the Bible at face value or textual scholars (respectively) that are to be trusted[1]. Elkanah is...


The sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, meanwhile, were behaving wickedly, for example by taking for themselves all the prime cuts of meat from sacrifices, and by having sex with the women who served at the sanctuary entrance. Despite Eli's castigation of their behavior, the sons continued, and so, according to the text, an unidentified man of God prophecies to Eli that Eli and his family will be punished for this, with most of the men dying by the sword in youth, and only a few surviving to work at the temple. In addition, although Eli had previously been promised by God that his family would be priests of Yahweh forever, according to the man of God, God took their blessings away because of disobedience. As a sign of the accuracy of this future, Eli is told by the man of God that his sons will die on the same day.


Eli goes on to train up Samuel, and when Samuel hears Yahweh speaking to him, he at first thinks it is Eli, but Eli, who doesn't himself hear Yahweh calling Samuel, eventually realizes the truth, and instructs Samuel on how to respond. Samuel is told that Yahweh's threat (which isn't elaborated further) will be carried out on Eli and his family, and that there is nothing that can be done to prevent it. Eli asks Samuel what he had been told, insisting that he be told the whole truth, and so Samuel does; Eli reacts by saying that Yahweh will do what he judges best. Phoenician silver drachm from ca. ...


The text then skips to some years later, when Samuel has grown up, at which point the Philistines attack at Ebenezer, eventually capturing the Ark of the Covenant from the Israelites. Eli, who is 98 and blind, is unaware of the event until he asks about all the commotion; a man from the battlefield had run to Shiloh to report on events. When Eli is told what had happened, he dies from a broken neck, having fallen over backwards, and been frail; he had judged Israel for a total of 40 years. Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Ebenezer may refer to Eben-Ezer, a place name mentioned by the Books of Samuel, in the Hebrew Bible Ebenezer, New South Wales, a town near Sydney Ebenezer, a mans name, originally in reference to the Biblical location, of which notable owners are: Ebenezer Scrooge, a fictional character created... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ...


Era

According to the Book of Judges, the Philistine incursions spanned a period of 40 years, and that Samson, who fought the Philistine incursions, judged Israel for 20 years. Therefore some scholars, like Kessler[1] and Nowack[2], have argued that there is likely to have been some overlap between the time of Samson and that of Eli[3]. However, the Book of Judges always mentions the years of oppression, in contrast to the period of a judge's dispensation; and hence since the early parts of Eli's rule do not seem to have external oppression this appears to rule out overlap with the Philistine oppression that Samson, a previous judge, lived under[4]. Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Samson and Delilah, by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) This article is about Biblical figure. ...


Identity

Though his own genealogy is not given by the text, a number of scholars who trust the bible at face value have determined a genealogy for Eli, based on that given to his sons in other passages. Abiathar is described by the Book of Chronicles as being a direct (paternal) descendant of Ithamar; the Books of Samuel state that Abiathar was a son of Ahimelek and that Ahimelek was a son of Ahitub, who is the brother of Ichabod. Consequently since the narrative states that Ichabod was the son of Phinehas, and that Phinehas was the son of Eli, a number of scholars have drawn the conclusion that Eli must be a descendant of Ithamar[5]. Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Abiathar (Heb. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Itamar (איתמר, ʼÎṯāmār, sometimes spelled Ithamar) is a masculine Hebrew first name which is mostly used in Israel. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... Categories: Hebrew Bible/Tanakh-related stubs | Hebrew Bible/Tanakh people ... Ichabod, in the Bible, is the son of Phinehas. ...


It is the opinion of most textual scholars that the continued misbehaviour of Eli's sons and the castigation Eli receives as a result from the man of God (1 Samuel 2:27-36) is a later redaction, more in line with the views of the religious establishment at the time of Josiah. Without the passage, the Israelites's defeat, and the deaths of Phinehas and Hophni, appear as quite ordinary events, and suggest that there is no automatic divinely given protection over Israel, while with the passage the defeat is explained away as punishment for not following correct religion closely enough [6]. Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ... Josiah or Yoshiyahu (יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ supported of the LORD, Standard Hebrew Yošiyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yôšiyyāhû) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ...


Since Eli appears in the narrative abruptly and without introduction, some biblical scholars have argued that there may have originally been further, narratively earlier, accounts of Eli and of Shiloh that were excised by the compiler of the Books of Samuel. An alternate theory is that the story is more than it appears at face value, with Eli actually a cipher for El, and Samuel as a cipher for Yahweh, and the Eli-Samuel narrative as one which refers to the change from El being seen as head of the pantheon to Yahweh being seen as chief deity. Eli is simply an alternative spelling of El, while Samuel literally means name of god - in Jewish tradition the tetragrammaton was often not used directly but only a reference to it would be mentioned. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... Ēl (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Phoenician silver drachm from ca. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ...


Eli, for example, is present when Hannah prays, responds to her prayer, and when he wishes for her to have children she becomes pregnant; when the child and weaned is born she takes him to Eli, having promised to give him to God. He is introduced as an old man, and though the text describes his eyes as becoming weak, it immediately says that the lamp of God (or lamp of El) is not quite extinguished; as time progresses Samuel gradually becomes more prominent, with the people starting to listen to him, while Eli becomes blind and eventually dies when the Ark of the Covenant is captured. Notably, it is the sons of Eli that are described as performing the actual priestly role, and Eli does nothing more than sit in the sanctuary; the term sons of Eli could simply be a priestly title, much like son of God (more literally son of El) was used [7]. Thus, in this theory, the narrative describes how the priests of El were seen as corrupt, Yahweh-worship then came to power, while that of El faded away, his chief priests were killed, the Ark was taken by the Philistines, and the priesthood of El in general became looked down upon. A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ...


Talmud

The Talmud lists him as a prophet [8] The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ...

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation gangster from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Phinehas or Pinhas (Hebrew: פִּינְחָס, Standard Tiberian ) was the grandson of Aaron, and son of Eleazar the high priest (Exodus 6:25), who distinguished himself as a youth at Shittim by his zeal against the Heresy of Peor: the immorality with which the Moabites and Midianites had successfully tempted the people... Elkanah was, according to the Books of Samuel, the husband of Hannah, and the father of her children including her first - either Samuel or Saul depending on whether it is those who take the Bible at face value or textual scholars (respectively) that are to be trusted[1]. Elkanah is... Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... Gad was a seer or more commonly understood, a prophet in the Bible. ... The Nathan the Prophet was a seer who lived in the time of King David and his wife Bathsheba. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Artists depiction of Solomons court (Ingobertus, c. ... Iddo (עדו also יעדו) was a minor biblical prophet, who appears to have lived during the reigns of King Solomon and his heirs, Rehoboam and Abijah in the Kingdom of Judah. ... Micah or Micha (מִיכָה, Standard Hebrew Miḫa, Tiberian Hebrew Mîḵāh) is the name of several people in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Obadiah (עֹבַדְיָה Servant of the LORD, Standard Hebrew Ê¿Ovadya, Tiberian Hebrew ʿŌḇaḏyāh, Vulgate Abdias) is the name of many people mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament. ... Ahijah HaShiloni, also known as Ahijah the Shilonite, was a prophet of Shiloh (1 Kings 11:29; 14:2). ... Jehu son of Omri kneeling at the feet of Shalmaneser III on the Black Obelisk. ... Azariah, meaning God[s] help[ed] in Hebrew, is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible, including the following: Azariah in the Books of Kings 2 Kings 15:1-12 he is the king of Judah [1], (also known as Uzziah of Judah in rabbinical scholarship). ... Chaziel the Levite, or spelled Jahaziel is a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Eliezer (אֱלִיעֶזֶר / אֱלִיעָזֶר Help/Court of my God, Standard Hebrew Eliʿézer / Eliʿázer, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîʿézer / ʾĔlîʿāzer) was Moses and Zipporahs second son. ... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... Amos (עָמוֹס Burden, Standard Hebrew Ê¿Amos, Tiberian Hebrew Ê¿Ä€môs) is one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and putative author of the speeches reported in the Book of Amos. ... Micah the titular prophet of the Book of Micah, also called The Morasthite He is not the same as another prophet , Micaiah son of Imlah. ... Categories: Hebrew Bible/Tanakh-related stubs | Hebrew Bible/Tanakh people ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו, ) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ... Elisha (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; My God is salvation) is a Biblical prophet. ... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (יוֹנָה Dove, Tiberian Hebrew , Standard Hebrew Yona, Arabic يونس Yunus, or يونان Yunaan, Latin Ionas) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Muslim Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Book of Joel. ... Nahum (נחום) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. ... Habakkuk or Havakuk (חֲבַקּוּק, Standard Hebrew Ḥavaqquq, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥăḇaqqûq) was a prophet in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Zephaniah or Tzfanya (צְפַנְיָה Concealed of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Ẓəfanya, Tiberian Hebrew ṢəpÌ„anyāh) is the name of several people in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Uriah or Urijah (אוּרִיָּה (My) light/flame of/is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Uriyya, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÛriyyāh; Uriah is pronounced yoo ri uh, Urijah is pronounced yoo ri juh in English. ... Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem by Rembrandt van Rijn. ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... Ezekiel the Prophet of the Hebrew Scriptures is depicted on a 1510 Sistine Chapel fresco by Michelangelo. ... Shemaiah was a prophet in the reign of Rehoboam (I Kings 12:22-24). ... Mehseiah is a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Haggai (×—Ö·×’Ö¼Ö·×™, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew Ḥaggay) was one of the twelve minor prophets and the author of the Book of Haggai. ... Zechariah as depicted on Michelangelos ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Nahum (נחום) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. ... In the Bible, there were two prophets called Oded. ... Hanani was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Miriam (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; meaning either wished for child, bitter or rebellious, but it might be derived originally from an Egyptian name, myr beloved or mr love[1]) was the sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Jochebed. ... For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: ‎ Bee, Standard Hebrew DÉ™vora, Tiberian Hebrew Dəḇôrāh) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Hannah (or Chana) (Hebrew: ×—× ×” - Grace [of God]) was a wife of Elkanah and the mother of the prophet Samuel as recorded in the Book of Samuel. ... Abigail (אֲבִיגַיִל / אֲבִיגָיִל her Fathers joy or, fountain of joy ;leader of/is dance/, Standard Hebrew Avigáyil, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂḇîḡáyil / ʾĂḇîḡāyil), once Abigal (Samuel 2 3:3), is a female character in the Bible. ... Huldah was a prophetess mentioned briefly in the Second Book of Kings, Chapter 22. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Mordecai or Mordechai (מָרְדֳּכַי, Standard Hebrew Mordoḫay, Tiberian Hebrew Mordŏḵay - the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin, is one of the main personalities in the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. ... Baruch ben Neriah was a Jewish aristocrat and scribe of the sixth century BCE. He was the disciple, secretary, and devoted friend of the Biblical prophet Jeremiah. ... Neriah is the father of Baruch, metioned in the Book of Jeremiah of the Hebrew Bible. ... Seriah ben Neriah was a Jewish aristocrat of the sixth century BCE. He was the son of Neriah and the brother of Baruch ben Neriah, the disciple of the biblical prophet Jeremiah. ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ...

References and Notes

  1. ^ Kessler, The Chronology of Judaism and The First of the Kings
  2. ^ Nowack, Richter-Ruth
  3. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  4. ^ ibid
  5. ^ This article incorporates text from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, a publication now in the public domain.
  6. ^ ibid, Books of Samuel
  7. ^ for example, 2 Samuel 7:14 describes David as being a son of God
  8. ^ http://www.askmoses.com/article.html?h=183&o=89728

The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ...

See also

Preceded by
Samson
Judge of Israel Succeeded by
Samuel

 
 

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