FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Elevated railway
"Subway" redirects here; for the restaurant named Subway, see Subway (restaurant). For other uses of the words 'metro' and 'subway', see metro (disambiguation) and subway (disambiguation). For specific rapid-transit systems, many of which use the words 'metro' or 'subway' in their names, see list of rapid transit systems.
For bus routes that attempt to match the services provided by rail transit, see bus rapid transit.
Enlarge
The Glasgow Subway (sometimes known as the Underground) is one of the world's oldest metros.

A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated, or metro system is a railway system, usually in an urban area, that usually has high capacity and frequency, with large trains and total or near total grade separation from other traffic. External links Subway (official site) Order Subway Online Yahoo! - Doctors Associates Inc. ... Metro is: a general term, synonymous with subway or underground, for an urban underground rail public transit system (see metro and list of metro systems); any of several specific public transport systems, including the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the Washington Metro in Washington, D.C., and the Metropolitan... The word Subway has a number of uses: A pedestrian tunnel going under a road is known as a subway in the UK In American and Canadian English, subway refers to a tunnel or other underground structure built to carry mass transit vehicles. ... The Bus, established by Mayor Frank Fasi, is Honolulus only public transit system. ... Bus rapid transit (BRT) is a relatively new umbrella term for urban mass transportation services utilizing buses to perform premium services on existing roadways or dedicated rights-of-way. ... A train arrives at West Street station The Glasgow Subway is a metro system which has a circular two-track layout. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Urban is in or having to do with cities, as distinct from rural areas. ...

Contents

Definitions and Nomenclature

There is no single term in English that all speakers would use for all rapid transit or metro systems. This fact reflects variations not only in national and regional usage, but in what characteristics are considered essential. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


One definition of a "true" metro system is as follows:

  • an urban, electric mass transit railway system
  • totally independent from other traffic
  • with high service frequency.

But those who prefer the American term "subway" or the British "underground" would additionally specify that the tracks and stations must be

  • located below street level

so that pedestrians and road users see the street exactly as it would be without the subway; or at least that this must be true for the most important, central parts of the system. Conversely, those who prefer the American "rapid transit" or the newer term "metro" tend to view this as a less important characteristic and are pleased to include systems that are entirely elevated or at ground level ("at grade") as long as the other criteria are met. A rapid transit system that is generally above street level may be called an "elevated" system (often shortened to el or, in Chicago, 'L'). In some cities the word "subway" applies to the entire system, in others only to those parts that actually are underground; and analogously for "el".


For a more comprehensive listing of other names of this kind of system in cities around the world, see the list of rapid transit systems. Germanic languages generally use names meaning "underground railway", while many others use "metro".


Extent

Enlarge
Farringdon station in London is shared by Underground trains (foreground) and Thameslink suburban rail services (behind partition).

In larger metropolitan areas the metro system may extend only to the limits of the central city, or to its inner ring of suburbs, with trains making relatively frequent station stops. The outer suburbs may then be reached by a separate commuter, suburban, or regional rail network, where more widely spaced stations allow a higher speed. These trains are often more expensive and less frequent, sometimes operating only in rush hours, and sometimes for political reasons they are operated by a separate authority that tends not to cooperate with the city's transit authority. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... Other meanings: Movie starring Jackie Chan and Chris Tucker, expansion pack to SimCity 4, shuffling puzzle by ThinkFun, album. ...


Many of these regional railways were first built to operate in one direction from a city-center terminus, but some have been extended across the city center, sometimes running in tunnels. By making multiple stops in the city, they can offer suburban passengers a choice of stations, and also provide useful transportation within the city. A notable example is the Paris RER system, where (in cooperation with the city's transit authority) several pairs of existing suburban lines running in opposite directions from the city have been extended in tunnel to join up and form new through routes across the city. They are provided with frequent service and, within the city, the same fares as the Métro are charged, providing an integrated network. In German-speaking countries, such a system is called an S-Bahn. This page is about the Paris commuter rail. ... Paris Art Nouveau Metro sign The Paris Métro is the metro (underground) system in Paris, France. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... This article has been translated, and needs attention from someone approaching dual fluency. ...


In some cases, such as the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) and Washington Metrorail systems, the rapid transit system itself runs to the suburbs and effectively functions as a regional rail service as well. Where there are separate systems, the rapid transit system is typically a self-contained service with its own dedicated tracks and stations and technologically incompatible with other railway. Suburban rail services, on the other hand, often share tracks and stations with long-distance trains (historically they were usually operated by the same company, which also owned the rails and ran freight, although this has become less common) and are subject to the same standards and regulations. There are exceptions; some London Underground lines share track with suburban rail services. In some cases, metro lines have been extended by taking over existing regional rail lines, notably the Central and Northern Lines in London. The Athens Metro's Blue Line shares tracks with suburban rail services in order to connect the metro to Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, but does not stop at the suburban rail stations because the platforms for the stations are higher than the train's floor. This article is about the city in California. ... BART (in full, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District) is a rapid transit electric train service that serves parts of the San Francisco Bay Area, including the cities of San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, Fremont, and Walnut Creek. ... Bethesda Metro station. ... Slight modifications to the famous London Underground roundel indicate the name of each station on platform and outdoor signs. ... The Athens Metro is the underground public transport system of Athens, Greece, constructed by the Attiko Metro (Αττικό Μετρό) company (literally Attican metro). History Construction began in 1996 to decrease traffic congestion and clean up the enviromnent by reducing Athens smog level. ... The E. Venizelos Athens International Airport The Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, which began operation in March 2001, serves the city of Athens in Greece. ...


Elevated railways were a popular way to build mass transit systems in cities around the turn of the twentieth century, but they have fallen out of favour and many elevated lines were later demolished, being replaced by subways or buses. Elevated rail saw something of a resurgence in the late twentieth century, with the construction of a number of new lines such as the Docklands Light Railway in London and the Vancouver SkyTrain; in the United States a few such lines have been built, including the AirTrain JFK and the Las Vegas Monorail, but these are typically seen as more futuristic, and are not representative of the overall trends in U.S. transit development. In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... The Bus, established by Mayor Frank Fasi, is Honolulus only public transit system. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail public transport system for the redeveloped Docklands area of eastern London. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... The platform at Metrotown Station in Burnaby is one of the busiest in the SkyTrain system. ... Airtrain at JFK. Note aluminum strip between rails. ... For the meaning in finance, see futures contract. ...


Importance, functions, and station design

Enlarge
Stations of the metro in Athens, Greece double as museums. Antiquities found in excavations of its tunnels are on display there.
Enlarge
Greenbelt station, end of the Green line on the Washington Metro is a typical example of the entrance concourse of a metro station.

The volume of passengers a metro train can carry is often quite high, and a metro system is often viewed as the backbone of a large city's public transportation system. The Athens Metro is the underground public transport system of Athens, Greece, constructed by the Attiko Metro (Αττικό Μετρό) company (literally Attican metro). History Construction began in 1996 to decrease traffic congestion and clean up the enviromnent by reducing Athens smog level. ... The Acropolis in central Athens, one of the most important landmarks in world history. ... A museum is a non-profit making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ... Bethesda Metro station. ... In general usage, the backbone is a synonym for the spine of an animal. ...


In some cities, the urban rail system is so comprehensive and efficient that the majority of city residents go without an automobile. Paris and London arguably have the best metro systems in the world, while New York City is the only American city on the same level. Chicago and Boston follow New York distantly, while the rest of the cities in the United States only have partial or poorly used systems, such as Saint Louis or Detroit. In the Western Hemisphere, Mexico City also has a large system. In Canada, only Toronto and Montréal have extensive metro networks serving their urban centres (see Toronto Subway and RT and Montréal Métro); Vancouver's SkyTrain also provides high-grade service, but at present acts primarily as a connection between Vancouver and the surrounding area. A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Alternative meanings: Boston (disambiguation) The 18th-century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. ... The name Saint Louis has several referents: Catholic Saints King Saint Louis IX of France; Saint Louis, bishop of Toulouse in France Locations Saint Louis, Missouri St. ... This article refers to the largest city of Michigan. ... The Western Hemisphere contains The Americas and nearby islands. ... Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México) is the federal capital of and largest city in Mexico. ... Motto: Diversity Our Strength Map of Ontario Counties, Toronto being red Area: 641 sq. ... A subway train pulls into St. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... The platform at Metrotown Station in Burnaby is one of the busiest in the SkyTrain system. ...


Most underground systems are for public transportation, but a few cities have built freight or postal lines. One example was the Post Office Railway, which transported mail underground between sorting offices in London from 1927 until it was abandoned in 2003. Similarly, in its early days the London Underground's Metropolitan Line (then the Metropolitan Railway) transported goods as well as running passenger trains. Another example was the Chicago Freight Subway, which had a dense grid of tunnels under downtown Chicago. Mail (disambiguation). ... The Post Office Railway, also known as Mail Rail, is a narrow gauge driverless private underground railway in London built by the Post Office to move mail between sorting offices. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February... Slight modifications to the famous London Underground roundel indicate the name of each station on platform and outdoor signs. ... Pre_1910 photograph of the Chicago Freight Subway The Chicago Freight Subway was a unique freight tunnel network under the downtown of the city of Chicago. ...


During the Cold War an important secondary function of some underground systems was to provide shelter in case of a nuclear attack. The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. ...


Urban rail systems have often been used to showcase economical, social, and technological achievements of a nation, especially in the Soviet Union and other socialist countries. With their marble walls, polished granite floors and splendid mosaics, the metro systems of Moscow and St. Petersburg are widely regarded as some of the most beautiful in the world. Modern metro stations in Russia are usually still built with the same emphasis on appearance. Similarly, the Independent Subway System in New York City was built to compete with the private IRT and BMT systems, and succeeded in running them out of business (in conjunction with other factors, such as fare limits). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР)  listen?; tr. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Plan of the Moscow Metro The Moscow Metro in Moscow, Russia is the worlds most heavily used metro system (see List of metro systems). ... The Independent Subway System (IND, formerly ISS), and even earlier the Independent City-Owned Subway System (ICOS) or Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad was one of the three systems that is now part of the New York City Subway. ... The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the operator of the original New York Subway line that opened in 1904 and additional rapid transit lines in the City of New York. ... A 1914 map showing what was at the time the proposed expansion for the BRT. The only major differences from what was built is that a new 60th Street Tunnel was used rather than the Queensboro Bridge, the Manhattan-side Brooklyn Bridge connection was never built, and several lines ended...


Metro stations, more so than railway and bus stations, often have a characteristic artistic design that can identify each stop. Some have sculptures or frescos. For example, London's Baker Street station is adorned with tiles depicting Sherlock Holmes. Every metro station in Valencia, Spain has a different sculpture on the ticket-hall level. Alameda station is decorated with fragments of while tile, like the dominant style of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències. For the musical of the same name, see Baker Street Baker Street is a street in the City of Westminster, London. ... Sherlock Holmes (right) and Dr. Watson, by Sidney Paget Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th century, created by British author and physician Arthur Conan Doyle. ... Pavement of a Valencia street, with arbour. ...


Technology

Enlarge
This station of the Paris Métro has automatic platform doors to prevent passengers from falling onto the tracks.

Trains

Some urban rail lines are built to the full size of main-line railways; others use smaller tunnels, restricting the size and sometimes the shape of the trains (in the London Underground the informal term tube train is commonly used). Some lines use light rail rolling stock, perhaps surface cars simply routed into a tunnel for all or part of their route. In many cities, such as London and Boston's MBTA, lines using different types of vehicles are organised into a single unified system (though often not connected by track). Slight modifications to the famous London Underground roundel indicate the name of each station on platform and outdoor signs. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car), also known as an item of rolling stock in British parlance, is a vehicle on a railroad or railway that is not a locomotive - one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... Alternative meanings: Boston (disambiguation) The 18th-century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a quasi-governmental organization formed in 1964 that controls the subway, bus, commuter rail, and ferry systems in the Boston, Massachusetts area. ...


Although the initial lines of what became the London Underground used steam engines, most metro trains, both now and historically, are electric multiple units, with steel wheels running on two steel rails. Power is commonly supplied by means of a single live third rail (as in New York) at 600 to 750 volts, but some systems use two live rails (notably London) and thus eliminate the return current from the running rails. Overhead wires, allowing higher voltages, are more likely to be used on metro systems without much length in tunnel, as in Amsterdam; but they also occur on some that are underground, as in Madrid. Slight modifications to the famous London Underground roundel indicate the name of each station on platform and outdoor signs. ... Electric motors of various sizes. ... A multiple unit is a passenger train whose carriages have their own motors, either diesel (DMUs) or electric (EMUs), and do not need to be hauled by a locomotive. ... Steel framework Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... A wheel is a circular object that together with an axle allows low friction motion, e. ... Third rail at Bostons South Station A third rail is a method of providing electricity to power a railroad, typically a mass transit system. ... South Ferry station 125th Street station The New York City Subway is a large rapid transit system in New York City, New York, United States. ... The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential and voltage (derived from the ampere and watt). ... Slight modifications to the famous London Underground roundel indicate the name of each station on platform and outdoor signs. ... An electric multiple unit pulling into Tile Hill station; Coventry, England. ... The Madrid Metro is the large metro system serving Madrid, the capital of Spain. ...


Older systems generally use DC power rather than AC, even though this requires large rectifiers for the power supply. DC motors were formerly more efficient for railway applications, and once a DC system is in place, converting it to AC is generally considered too large a project to contemplate. Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... An alternating current (AC) is an electrical current, where the magnitude and direction of the current varies cyclically, as opposed to direct current, where the direction of the current stays constant. ... A rectifier is one or more diodes arranged for converting alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). ... Electric motors of various sizes. ...

Enlarge
The rubber-tyred Montréal Métro is known for its quiet trains and elegant stations.

An alternative technology using rubber tyres on narrow concrete or steel rollways was pioneered on the Paris Métro, and the first complete system to use it was in Montréal. Additional horizontal wheels are required for guidance, and a conventional track is often provided in case of flat tires and for switching. Advocates of this system note that it is much quieter than conventional steel-wheeled trains, and allows for greater inclines given the increased traction allowed by the rubber tyres. This article is about the construction material. ... Double switch A railroad switch (known in British and Australian English as (a set of) points or, in technical usage, a turnout) is a mechanical installation provided at a point where rail track A divides into two tracks B and C. It can be set in either of two positions...


Some cities with steep hills incorporate mountain railway technologies into their metros. The Lyon Metro includes a section of rack (cog) railway, while the Carmelit in Haifa is an underground funicular. A mountain railway is a railway which ascends and descends a mountain slope that has a steep grade. ... railway is a mountain railway with a special centre rack rail mounted in the middle of the sleepers between the regular rails. ... The Carmelit is a subway (underground metro) in Israel. ... Haifa (Hebrew חיפה; Arabic حيفا Ḥayfā) is the third-largest city in Israel, with a population close to 300,000. ... Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks A funicular, also called funicular railway or inclined railway, inclined plane, or in England a cliff railway, consists of a system of transportation in which cables attach to a tram-like vehicle on rails to move it up and down a...


For elevated lines, still another alternative is the monorail. Supported or "straddle" monorails, with a single rail below the train, include the Tokyo Monorail; the Schwebebahn in Wuppertal is a suspended monorail, where the train body hangs below the wheels and rail. Monorails have never gained wide acceptance outside Japan, though Seattle has a short one, which it hopes to replace with a new, larger system, and one has recently been built in Las Vegas. The Walt Disney World Monorail A monorail is a metro or railroad with a track consisting of a single rail (actually a beam), as opposed to the traditional track with two parallel rails. ... Tokyo Monorail (東京モノレール) is a monorail system connecting Tokyo International Airport to Hamamatsucho Station in downtown Tokyo, Japan. ... The Schwebebahn Wuppertal crossing an intersection The Schwebebahn Wuppertal is a suspension railway in Wuppertal, Germany. ... Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... This article is about the city of Las Vegas in Nevada. ...


Drivers and automation

Enlarge
Singapore's North-East Line trains, manufactured by Alstom of France, are fully automated and are not manned by any driver.

Early underground trains often carried an attendant on each car to operate the doors or gates, as well as a driver. The introduction of powered doors around 1920 permitted crew sizes to be reduced, and trains in many cities are now operated by a single person. Where the operator would not be able to see the whole side of the train to tell whether the doors can be safely closed, mirrors or closed-circuit TV monitors are often provided for that purpose. National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Capital Singapore Largest city Singapore Government President Prime minister Westminster (de jure) Dominant-party (de facto) Sellapan Rama Nathan Lee Hsien Loong Area  - Total  - Water (%) 697. ... Interior of the NEL Train. ... Categories: Corporation stubs | Companies of France ... A mirror is a reflective surface that is smooth enough to form an image. ... television cameras for surveillance. ...


An alternative to human drivers became available in the 1960s, as automated systems were developed that could start a train, accelerate to the correct speed, and stop automatically at the next station, also taking into account the information that a human driver would obtain from lineside or cab signals. The first complete line to use this technology was London's Victoria Line, in 1968. In normal operation the one crew member sits in the driver's position at the front, but just closes the doors at each station; the train then starts automatically. This style of system has become widespread. A variant is seen on London's Docklands Light Railway, opened in 1987, where the "passenger service agent" (formerly "train captain") rides with the passengers rather than sitting at the front as a driver would. Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... A Signal is a mechanical or electrical device that indicates to train drivers information about the state of the line ahead, and therefore whether they must stop or may start, or instructions on what speed they may drive their train. ... The Victoria Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured light blue on the Tube map. ... The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail public transport system for the redeveloped Docklands area of eastern London. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The same technology would have allowed trains to operate completely automatically with no crew, just as most elevators do; and as the cost of automation has decreased, this has become financially attractive. But a countervailing argument is that of possible emergency situations. A crew member on board the train may be able to prevent the emergency in the first place, drive a partially failed train to the next station, assist with an evacuation if needed, or call for the correct emergency services (police, fire, or ambulance) and help direct them. In some cities the same reasons are considered to justify a crew of two rather than one; one person drives from the front of the train, while the other operates the doors from a position farther back, and is more conveniently able to assist passengers in the rear cars. The crew members may exchange roles on the reverse trip (as in Toronto) or not (as in New York). This article is about the transportation device. ... An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate threat to human life or serious damage to property. ...


Completely unmanned trains are more accepted on newer systems where there are no existing crews to be removed, and especially on light rail lines. Thus the first such system was the VAL (véhicule automatique léger or "automated light vehicle") of Lille, France, inaugurated in 1983. Additional VAL lines have been built in other cities. In Canada, the Vancouver SkyTrain carries no crew members, while Toronto's Scarborough RT, opening the same year (1985) with otherwise identical trains, uses human operators. This article is about light rail systems in general. ... This article is about VAL, the metro system. ... The following article is about the city in France. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... The platform at Metrotown Station in Burnaby is one of the busiest in the SkyTrain system. ... Motto: Diversity Our Strength Map of Ontario Counties, Toronto being red Area: 641 sq. ... The Scarborough RT or SRT is an ICTS (Intermediate Capacity Transit System) light rail public transit system in Toronto, Ontario, Canada that uses linear induction technology. ...


As to larger trains, the Paris Metro has human drivers on most lines, but runs crewless trains on its newest line, Line 14, which opened in 1998. Singapore's North East MRT Line (2003) claims to be the world's first fully automated underground urban heavy rail line. Paris Art Nouveau Metro sign The Paris Métro is the metro (underground) system in Paris, France. ... Line 14 of the Paris Metro crosses the center of Paris and currently runs between Saint Lazare and Bibliotheque François Mitterrand. ... National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Capital Singapore Largest city Singapore Government President Prime minister Westminster (de jure) Dominant-party (de facto) Sellapan Rama Nathan Lee Hsien Loong Area  - Total  - Water (%) 697. ... Interior of the NEL Train. ...

See also People mover.

A people mover is a fully-automated light rail or tram system. ...

Tunnel construction

The construction of an underground metro is an expensive project, often carried out over a number of years. There are several different methods of building underground lines. A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. ...


In one common method, known as cut-and-cover, the city streets are excavated and a tunnel structure strong enough to support the road above is built at the trench, which is then filled in and the roadway rebuilt. This method (used for most of the underground parts of the São Paulo metro, for example) often involves extensive relocation of the utilities commonly buried not far below city streets – particularly power and telephone wiring, water and gas mains, and sewers. The structures are typically made of concrete, perhaps with structural columns of steel; in the oldest systems, brick and cast iron were used. Cut-and-cover construction can take so long that it is often necessary to build a temporary roadbed while construction is going on underneath in order to avoid closing main streets for long periods of time; in Toronto, a temporary surface on Yonge Street supported cars and streetcar tracks for several years while the Yonge subway was built. An underground pedestrian tunnel between buildings at MIT. Note the utility pipes running along the ceiling. ... “Street” may also refer to Street, Somerset, a town in England. ... Sao Paulo and São Paulo (city) redirect here. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power, often known as power or electricity, involves the production and delivery of electrical energy in sufficient quantities to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, industrial machinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and commercial lighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. ... A telephone handset A touch-tone telephone dial Telephone The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device that transmits speech by means of electric signals. ... Water resources are sources of water that are useful to human beings for drinking, recreation, irrigation, livestock production, industry, etc. ... Natural gas rig Natural gas is a gas produced by the anaerobic decay of organic material. ... Sewers transport wastewater from buildings to treatment facilities. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Steel framework Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... See also Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Bricks Masonry Brickwork Ceramics Fire brick In role-playing games, a brick is a character whose main useful skill is being able to take a great deal of damage (usually physical damage) and act as a shield for weaker allies. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron_based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Motto: Diversity Our Strength Map of Ontario Counties, Toronto being red Area: 641 sq. ... Yonge Street in Toronto before a marathon Yonge Street (pronounced young), located in Ontario, Canada, is a major arterial street in Toronto and a provincial highway. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... The Yonge-University-Spadina Line is the oldest subway line in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, operated by the Toronto Transit Commission. ...


Some American cities, like Cincinnati and Rochester, were initially built around canals. When the railways replaced canals, they were able to bury a subway in the disused canal's trench, without rerouting other utilities, or acquiring a right of way piecemeal. Cincinnati Ohio had the beginnings of an underground subway system, which was closed in 1925. ... The city of Rochester New York once had an underground rapid transit system, called the Rochester Subway. ... Categories: Water-transport stubs | Canals | Water transport ...


Another usual way is to start with a vertical shaft and then dig the tunnels horizontally from there, often with a tunnelling shield, thus avoiding almost any disturbance to existing streets, buildings, and utilities. But problems with ground water are more likely, and tunnelling through native bedrock may require blasting. (The first city to extensively use deep tunneling was London, where a thick sedimentary layer of clay largely avoids both problems.) The confined space in the tunnel also limits the machinery that can be used, but specialised tunnel-boring machines are now available to overcome this challenge. One disadvantage with this, however, is that the cost of tunnelling is much higher than building systems cut-and-cover, at-grade or elevated. Early tunnelling machines could not make tunnels large enough for conventional railway equipment, necessitating special low, round trains, such as are still used by most of the London Underground, which cannot install air conditioning on most of its lines because the amount of empty space between the trains and tunnel walls is so small. A tunnelling shield is a protective structure used in the excavation of tunnels through soil that is too soft or fluid to remain stable during the time it takes to line the tunnel with a support structure of concrete or steel. ... Groundwater is any water found below the land surface. ... This article is about the type of rock. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... For the town in the United States, see Clay, New York. ... A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain. ... Slight modifications to the famous London Underground roundel indicate the name of each station on platform and outdoor signs. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ...

Enlarge
The Sportivnaya station of the Saint Petersburg, Russia metro depicts Ancient Greece; the word "sportivnaya" means "sporty" or "athletic".

The deepest metro system in the world was built in St. Petersburg, Russia. In this city, built in the marshland, stable soil starts more than 50 metres deep. Above that level the soil mostly consists of water-bearing finely dispersed sand. Because of this, only three stations out of nearly 60 are built near the ground level and three more above the ground. Some stations and tunnels lie as deep as 100-120 meters below the surface. However, the location of the world's deepest station is not as clear. Usually, the vertical distance between the ground level and the rail is used to represent the depth. Among the possible candidates are: Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ...

  • Deepest stations in St. Petersburg, Russia:
    • Admiraltejskaya (The Admiralty, 102 meters, still in construction, probably the best candidate)
    • Komendantskij Prospekt (The Commandant Avenue, 78 meters, launched 2005)
    • Chernishevskaya (Chernyshevsky, 74 meters, launched 1958)
    • Ploshad Lenina (Lenin Square, 72 meters, launched 1958)
  • Arsenalnaya station in Kiev, Ukraine (built under a hill)
  • Park Pobedy station in Moscow Metro (built under a hill)
  • Puhung station in Pyongyang, North Korea (the Pyongyang metro doubles as a nuclear shelter)
  • Washington Park station on Metropolitan Area Express in Portland, Oregon (built under a hill), 260 feet (80 m)

One advantage of deep tunnels is that they can dip in a basin-like profile between stations, without incurring significant extra costs due to having to dig deeper. This technique, also referred to as putting stations "on humps", allows gravity to assist the trains as they accelerate from one station and brake at the next. It was used as early as 1890 on parts of the City and South London Railway, and has been used many times since. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Plan of the Moscow Metro The Moscow Metro in Moscow, Russia is the worlds most heavily used metro system (see List of metro systems). ... Pyŏngyang (Pyeongyang) is the capital city of North Korea, located in the northwest of the country, near the Taedong River. ... Type 2 MAX car at Sunset Transit Center Metropolitan Area Express (MAX) is a light rail system in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. ... Mayor Tom Potter County Multnomah County Population (2003) 538,544 Time zone Pacific (UTC−8) Portland is the largest city in Oregon, and county seat of Multnomah County. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Northern Line is a deep-level tube line of the London Underground, coloured black on the Tube map. ...


History

Enlarge
The Helsinki metro, the northernmost metro system in the world, began operating in 1982.

The earliest claimant to the title of "world's oldest subway tunnel" is on the Long Island Rail Road, which in 1850 bricked over an open cut to form the Atlantic Avenue Tunnel, carrying its line for about 2750 feet (850 m) under the streets of Brooklyn (now part of New York City). This tunnel was not a true subway, as it had no stations and was used for long-distance as well as suburban trains. Today the line would be categorized as regional rail. Helsinki Metro The Helsinki Metro, or Helsingin metro, is the metro system in Helsinki, Finland. ... The Long Island Rail Road or LIRR is a railroad that serves the length of Long Island, New York. ... Events January 4 - The first American ice-skating club is formed (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). ... The Atlantic Avenue Tunnel (or Cobble Hill Tunnel of the Long Island Rail Road) is an abandoned railroad tunnel beneath Atlantic Avenue in downtown Brooklyn, New York. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ...


The first real underground line in the sense discussed here was the Metropolitan Railway in London, which opened in 1863, using the era's most advanced propulsive technology: steam locomotives, specially designed to condense their exhaust steam when in the tunnels. It was an immediate success and many extensions followed; the Metropolitan eventually became an important part of the eventual London Underground system. Steam working underground lasted until 1905. The Metropolitan Line is a line of the London Underground. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Great Western Railway No. ... Slight modifications to the famous London Underground roundel indicate the name of each station on platform and outdoor signs. ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The first elevated railway in the world was the Ninth Avenue Elevated in New York City, opened in 1868 as a cable car and later converted for steam and then electric operation. Elevated railways were seen as a cheaper alternative to subways, but were often seen as dirty, ugly, and dangerous. 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... (for cable car systems where the vehicles are suspended and not on rails, see aerial lift) A San Francisco cable car A cable car or cable railway is a mass transit system using rail track mounted cars that are propelled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed. ...


In 1870 short single-track lines opened in both New York and London using alternative technologies, neither of which was a success. In New York, Alfred Beach built a 95 m tunnel (with a single station and a dead end at the other end) to demonstrate pneumatic train operation; this operated until 1873, after which the tunnel became a rifle range and was then abandoned. The Beach subway was demolished in 1912 to build the BMT City Hall station. In London, the Tower Subway provided a crossing under the River Thames using a tiny cable car for the 410 m journey; the line closed in a matter of months and the tunnel was given over to pedestrians, later becoming a utility conduit. 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Alfred Ely Beach (September 1, 1826_January 1, 1896) was an inventor, publisher and patent lawyer. ... Pneumatic tubes are systems of air-driven containers in a network of tubes used for transporting physical objects. ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Tower Subway is a tunnel beneath the River Thames in central London, close - as the name suggests - to the Tower of London. ... Length 346 km Elevation of the source 110 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 12935 km² Origin Kemble Mouth North Sea Basin countries England This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... (for cable car systems where the vehicles are suspended and not on rails, see aerial lift) A San Francisco cable car A cable car or cable railway is a mass transit system using rail track mounted cars that are propelled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed. ...


The first deep-level underground line (other than the Tower Subway) was the City and South London Railway, which opened in 1890. Steam operation being considered ridiculous in view of the limited ventilation so far underground, cable traction was chosen; but during construction the management decided to try electric locomotives instead, and so the C&SLR became the first underground electric railway. It too is now part of the London Underground. The Northern Line is a deep-level tube line of the London Underground, coloured black on the Tube map. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Slight modifications to the famous London Underground roundel indicate the name of each station on platform and outdoor signs. ...


The first line of the Chicago 'L' opened in 1892; most of Chicago's system is still elevated, but a few subways have been built, the first opening in 1943. A westbound Chicago L train crosses the South Branch of the Chicago River The Chicago L (short for Chicago Elevated) is an urban rapid transit metro serving Chicago and eight of its adjacent suburbs. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The first underground railway in continental Europe was completed in Budapest in 1896, after only two years of construction, from Vörösmarty tér (the city centre) to Városliget and the local zoo. This line, now part of the Budapest Metro, stretched 3.7 km (2.3 mi). The 10.4 km (6.5 mi) Glasgow Subway in Scotland opened the same year and used cable haulage, until it was electrified in 1935. See Budapest (band) for the British melancholic post-grunge band. ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Városliget (City Park) is a middle-large park (302 acres or 1. ... The Budapest Metro is the fastest means of public transport in Budapest. ... A train arrives at West Street station The Glasgow Subway is a metro system which has a circular two-track layout. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... (for cable car systems where the vehicles are suspended and not on rails, see aerial lift) A San Francisco cable car A cable car or cable railway is a mass transit system using rail track mounted cars that are propelled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed. ...


The first line of the Paris Metro opened in 1900. Its full name was the Chemin de Fer Métropolitain, a direct translation into French of London's Metropolitan Railway. The name was shortened to métro, and many other languages have since borrowed this word. Paris Art Nouveau Metro sign The Paris Métro is the metro (underground) system in Paris, France. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Boston has the oldest subway tunnel in the United States, part of the Green Line downtown, dating from 1897. The original construction was a short four-track tunnel downtown, with only two stations, built to take light rail cars from outlying areas off the streets. Later subways in Boston carried full-size trains; the Green Line still operates with light rail equipment. In 1901, heavy rail trains began to use the tunnel as part of the original configuration of the Main Line Elevated, the first elevated railway in Boston. Alternative meanings: Boston (disambiguation) The 18th-century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. ... The Green Line is one of the four MBTA subway lines in the Boston, Massachusetts metro area. ... Events January 1 - Brooklyn, New York merges with New York City. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... 1901 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Orange Line is one of the four subway lines of the MBTA. It extends from Forest Hills in Jamaica Plain, Boston in the south to Oak Grove in Malden, Massachusetts in the north. ...


The New York City Subway, which has become the world's largest (by some measures), did not open its first section until 1904, but this was a fully separate four-track line, stretching 9 miles (14.5 km)[1] (http://nycsubway.org/perl/caption.pl?/maps/historical/railways1906-54.gif) from City Hall to 145th Street. Extensions were soon built, reaching the Bronx and Brooklyn; this is now part of the IRT system. Subway trains now run on right-of-way first used in 1863, and converted R44 cars run on the 1860 Staten Island Railway. South Ferry station 125th Street station The New York City Subway is a large rapid transit system in New York City, New York, United States. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the operator of the original New York Subway line that opened in 1904 and additional rapid transit lines in the City of New York. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Staten Island Railway (SIR) or Staten Island Rapid Transit (SIRT) is a rapid transit line operating in the Borough of Staten Island, New York City, USA. Officially the Staten Island Rapid Transit Operating Authority (SIRTOA), the SIR is a direct subsidiary of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (New York) (MTA). ...


In 1907, the first line in Philadelphia, now part of the Market-Frankford Line, began running on both elevated and underground structures. This article refers to the largest city of Pennsylvania. ...


The oldest subway in the Southern Hemisphere opened in 1913 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which is also the oldest one in Latin America and the whole Spanish-speaking world. [2] (http://www.urbanrail.net/am/buen/buenos-aires.htm) The system is now known as el subte. The Southern Hemisphere is the part of Earths surface that is south of the equator. ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Buenos Aires (Good Winds in Spanish, but more akin to Fair Winds, as in navigation) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as one of the largest cities in South America. ... Argentina is a country in southern South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Buenos Aires Metro (locally known as el subte, from subterr neo) is a mass-transit network that serves the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. ...

Enlarge
A subway train departs Asakusa Station, bound for Shibuya Station, on the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line

On 1923 the Mancomunitat de Catalunya opened the Barcelona Metro. Asia's oldest subway line is Tokyo's Ginza Line, opened in 1927. Now there are 12 subway lines running on about 150 miles of track. Other major Japanese cities also have subway systems, including Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Kobe, Kyoto, Fukuoka, and Sendai. The Barcelona Metro, part of the mass transit public transport system of Barcelona, Spain, is an extensive network of electrified railways that run underground in central Barcelona and above ground into the citys suburbs. ... Tokyo (東京; Tōkyō, lit. ... Ginza Line (Click on image to enlarge. ... Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... Osaka Castle, Ōsaka-jō Umeda district of Osaka Location in Japan Osaka City  listen? (大阪市; Ōsaka-shi) is the third-largest city in Japan, with a population of 2. ... Nagoya Castle in June of 2004. ... Sapporo scene Sapporo White Illumination Sapporo (札幌市; -shi) is the fifth-largest city in Japan and it is the capital of Hokkaido Prefecture. ... Port Tower at night Kōbe (Japanese: 神戸市; -shi) is a city in Japan, located on the island of Honshu. ... Location of Kyoto, on the main island of Japan Kyoto (Japanese: 京都市; Kyōto-shi) is a city in Japan that has a population of 1. ... Masanobu Fukuoka, author of The One Straw Revolution, is the pioneer of No Till grain growing (see also permaculture) Fukuoka is also the name of two towns in Japan, Fukuoka, Toyama (in Toyama Prefecture) and Fukuoka, Gifu (in Gifu Prefecture) Central Fukuoka View of Momochi, Fukuoka. ... See Sendai (disambiguation) for other places whose name is Sendai Sendai (仙台市; -shi) is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan and the largest city in the Tohoku region. ...


The Toronto Subway (1954) used the first aluminum subway car (which was at the time also the longest car in the world), which reduced weight and therefore operating costs. A subway train pulls into St. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In Brazil, the first underground opened in 1974 in São Paulo, and now carries some four million passengers on an average weekday as part of the São Paulo Metro. Part of it consists of converted older railways; some of its stations actually date from the 1880s. Underground lines have been built also in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Recife, Porto Alegre and Brasília. The Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil in Portuguese) is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world. ... Sao Paulo and São Paulo (city) redirect here. ... Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Ipanema beach A NASA satellite image of Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (meaning River of January in Portuguese) is the name of both a state and a city in southeastern Brazil. ... Belo Horizonte (a Portuguese name meaning beautiful horizon) is among the most important cities in Brazil. ... Recife (population 1. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. ... Brasília from space, November 1990 Niemeyers Cathedral Brasília is the capital city of Brazil and is located in the center of the country in a federal district created out of the state of Goiás. ...


The Washington Metro in Washington, DC opened in 1976, as part of changing attitudes towards transportation in the United States, leading to subway systems in many systems that had done without. Bethesda Metro station. ...


In 1979, Hong Kong's subway line, now called MTR, began operations. It currently has six lines, including four that run underneath Victoria Harbor. 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Hong Kong (香港; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2; Yale: heūng góng; pinyin: Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang) is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For MTR as a metro system, see MTR. This article is about the operator of the system. ... Victoria Harbour is the harbour between Kowloon and Hong Kong Island. ...


Recent developments include new, elevated lines such as AirTrain JFK in New York City and Hudson-Bergen Light Rail across the Hudson River in New Jersey. These are often seen as futuristic, and are compared favorably to old-style elevated railways. Airtrain at JFK. Note aluminum strip between rails. ... Vehicle at 2nd Street station Map of the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail system (click to enlarge) The Hudson-Bergen Light Rail is a light rail system, owned by New Jersey Transit, that connects the communities of Bayonne, Jersey City, Hoboken, and Weehawken, New Jersey. ... Image of the Hudson River taken by NASA. View of the Hudson River in 1880s showing Jersey City View of the Hudson River from Battery Park, New York The Goldman Sachs Tower looms above the skyline of downtown Jersey City, New Jersey, overlooking the Hudson River. ... State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378 km² (14. ... For the meaning in finance, see futures contract. ...


Finance

Many early urban railways were originally constructed by private enterprise, either independently as in London, or under a government franchise as in Paris. Later, direct government control and ownership became the norm as corporations found it difficult to maintain profitability, although in recent years, this trend has been reversed to some extent with moves towards public-private partnership. The private sector of a nations economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i. ... Slight modifications to the famous London Underground roundel indicate the name of each station on platform and outdoor signs. ... Meanings of franchise: Full rights of citizenship given by a country or a town, especially suffrage (political franchise) In a wider sense: any right or privilege granted by constitution or statute. ... Paris Art Nouveau Metro sign The Paris Métro is the metro (underground) system in Paris, France. ... The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the government, whether national, regional or local/municipal. ... Public-private partnership (PPP) is a variation of privatization in which elements of a service previously run solely by the public sector are provided through a partnership between the government and one or more private sector companies. ...


Whatever its original financing, any metro system requires ongoing expenditure to maintain and replace its trains, tracks, tunnels, and other infrastructure. An under-financed system will become unreliable and unpleasant to use, and eventually unsafe, and thus will lose public support.


In the United States, the lack of metro, subway, or other rapid transit systems except in a few of the larger cities has been attributed to the influence of the automotive industry and oil refining companies, which essentially used automobiles, buses, and advocacy of public road-funding to compete effectively against existing streetcar and trolley systems. These went into decline early in the twentieth century as the public chose personal over public transportation. (The decline of rapid transit outside of major metropolitan centers gave rise to the General Motors Streetcar Conspiracy, a conspiracy theory that auto and oil interests directly engineered the dismantling of rapid transit.) The General Motors streetcar conspiracy refers to a contention that General Motors (GM), acting in conjunction with several other companies and through the National City Lines (NCL) holding company, illegally acquired many streetcar systems in various cities around the United States and replaced them with buses for the express purpose... This proposed logo for a US government agency was dropped due to fears that its masonic symbolism would provoke conspiracy theories A conspiracy theory is a theory that claims an event or series of events is the result of secret manipulations by two or more individuals or an organization, rather...


Similarities to light rail

Enlarge
A Boston Green Line car at Boston University

There has always been some crossover between rapid transit and "lighter" streetcar/tram systems. For example, some lines of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company in New York City were elevated in built-up areas and ran at street level, often along streets, in less crowded areas. The Green Line is one of the four MBTA subway lines in the Boston, Massachusetts metro area. ... Boston University is a non-sectarian private university located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) was a transportation holding company formed in 1896 to acquire and consolidate transit facilities in Kings County, now Brooklyn, New York. ...


In the other direction, interurban streetcars provided rapid transit-style transit from cities to suburbs and other cities, running mainly on separate rights-of-way (sometimes sharing tracks with intercity rail) but using streetcar equipment. Most interurbans have been abandoned, but some (like the Norristown High Speed Line near Philadelphia) have been reconstructed to rapid transit specifications. An interurban is a streetcar line or system that runs long distances between urban areas. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... Right-of-way is a legal term which may have any of several meanings: priority at a crossing, or in traffic. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... The Norristown High Speed Line (NHSL), operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority as Route 100 of the Suburban Transit Division, is a hybrid between light rail and heavy rail operating between Norristown Transportation Center and 69th Street Terminal, running entirely on its own right of way, inherited from the... This article refers to the largest city of Pennsylvania. ...


Additionally, many streetcar/tram systems include underground and (less commonly) elevated sections, in which everything about the system except the right-of-way is built to streetcar standards. Notably, the first subway in the United States, Boston's Green Line, opened in 1897 to take streetcars off downtown streets, though it did carry elevated trains from 1901 until the Washington Street Subway opened. a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... Alternative meanings: Boston (disambiguation) The 18th-century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. ... The Green Line is one of the four MBTA subway lines in the Boston, Massachusetts metro area. ... Events January 1 - Brooklyn, New York merges with New York City. ... 1901 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Orange Line is one of the four subway lines of the MBTA. It extends from Forest Hills in Jamaica Plain, Boston in the south to Oak Grove in Malden, Massachusetts in the north. ...


The coming of modern light rail in the 1970s brought new crossovers. New systems were built and old streetcar/tram systems were upgraded with higher capacity and speeds, but retaining some aspects of streetcars and trams. Some systems known as light rail, such as the Docklands Light Railway in London and New York City's AirTrain JFK, are rapid transit with some light-rail technologies (though the light rail in these cases may be a mislabeling of advanced light rapid transit). Other light-rail systems may use high platforms but otherwise run as streetcars. A few systems similar to interurbans have even come back, such as New Jersey's River LINE, which operates over freight rails for most of its trip, and along streets on one end. This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail public transport system for the redeveloped Docklands area of eastern London. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... Airtrain at JFK. Note aluminum strip between rails. ... AirTrain at JFK. Note aluminum induction strip between rails. ... An interurban is a streetcar line or system that runs long distances between urban areas. ... State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378 km² (14. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


See also

This is an alphabetical list of cities worldwide that have a metro rail system . ... A metro station is a train station for a metro. ... U-Bahn is a common German abbreviation, referring to a means of urban mass transit internationally known as subway, underground or metro. ... This article has been translated, and needs attention from someone approaching dual fluency. ... AirTrain at JFK. Note aluminum induction strip between rails. ... The Walt Disney World Monorail A monorail is a metro or railroad with a track consisting of a single rail (actually a beam), as opposed to the traditional track with two parallel rails. ... A metrophile is a person who has as a hobby the study of metro (subway, underground) systems. ... All-four is an urban transport scheme first annunciated by the Brooklyn_Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT—New York City) in the 1930s in which different transportation technologies are chosen and implemented in an integrated system. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Rubber-tyred metro is an intermediate form between rail and road transport: the vehicles have wheels with rubber tyres like a bus, but using a set of two parallel concrete (e. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
  • UrbanRail.Net (http://www.urbanrail.net) (formerly called metroPlanet) – descriptions of all metro systems in the world, each with a schematic map showing all stations.
  • Undistorted metro network maps, all at the same scale for comparison (http://www.fakeisthenewreal.org/subway/index.html).
  • Mind the Gap (http://www.cjvlang.com/Spicks/thegap.html) "Mind the Gap" in Japanese, Cantonese and Mandarin.
  • Memoirs of a subway musician (http://www.sawlady.com/sawmemo.htm) This musician played in the subway stations of NYC, Paris, Prague & Rome.
  • Metro Bits (http://mic-ro.com/metro/) Various aspects of the world's metros.
  • rapidtransit.com (http://www.rapidtransit.com/), which includes links to operating companies
  • New York City Subway Resources (http://world.nycsubway.org/), an extensive site that includes many photos and much information about rapid transit systems in the U.S. and worldwide, in addition to New York City.
  • absence-of-fear.de, a german site with a focus on the architecture of the underground stations.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oddities - MEIGS ELEVATED RAILWAY (1806 words)
The road is not a model, but a full-sized elevated railroad in every respect.
The engineer is on an elevated platform in the front part of the engine, the fireman being at the rear end.
As an elevated road in cities, the permanent structure presents far less obstruction to light and air than the usual form.
Definition of Railway from dictionary.net (372 words)
Gravity railway, a railway, in a hilly country, on which the cars run by gravity down gentle slopes for long distances after having been hauled up steep inclines to an elevated point by stationary engines.
Railway scale, a platform scale bearing a track which forms part of the line of a railway, for weighing loaded cars.
Railway spine (Med.), an abnormal condition due to severe concussion of the spinal cord, such as occurs in railroad accidents.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m