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Encyclopedia > Elephantiasis
Elephantiasis
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 B74.01, I89
ICD-9 125.9, 457.1
DiseasesDB 4824
eMedicine derm/888 

Elephantiasis (Greek ελεφαντίασις, from ελέφαντας, "the elephant") is a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. Elephantiasis generally results from obstructions of the lymphatic vessels. It is most commonly caused by a parasitic disease known as lymphatic filariasis. File links The following pages link to this file: Elephantiasis Categories: National Institutes of Health images ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... A parasitic disease is a disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. ... Lymphatic filariasis is parasitic infection of the lymphatic circulation which may result in the deforming disease known as elephantiasis. ...


Alternatively, elephantiasis may occur in the absence of parasitic infection. This nonparasitic form of elephantiasis, known as nonfilarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, generally occurs in the mountains of central Africa. Nonfilarial elephantiasis is thought to be caused by persistent contact with volcanic ash. Elephantiasis is associated in the public mind with "the Elephant Man", the carnival stage name of Joseph Merrick. The name refers to the resemblance of the sufferer's limbs to the thick, baggy skin on the limbs and trunks of elephants. However, it is now believed that Merrick's deformity was not actually caused by elephantiasis, but by a completely different medical problem called Proteus Syndrome. For the Jamaican missionary to Cameroon, see Joseph Merrick (missionary) Joseph Carey Merrick. ... Proteus Syndrome is a congenital disorder that causes skin overgrowth and atypical bone development, often accompanied by tumors on over half the body. ...

Contents

Treatment

Medicines to treat lymphatic filariasis are most effective when used soon after infection, but they do have some toxic side effects. In addition, the disease is difficult to detect early.


Another form of effective treatment involves rigorous cleaning of the affected areas of the body. Several studies have shown that these daily cleaning routines can be an effective way to limit the symptoms of lymphatic filariasis. The effectiveness of these treatments suggests that many of the symptoms of elephantiasis are not directly a result of the lymphatic filariasis but rather the effect of secondary skin infections.


Also, surgical treatment may be helpful for issues related to scrotal elephantiasis and hydrocele. However, surgery is generally ineffective at correcting elephantiasis of the limbs.


A vaccine is not yet available and is unlikely to be developed in the near future. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


Antibiotics as a possible treatment

In 2003 it was suggested that the common antibiotic doxycycline might be effective in treating elephantiasis[1]. The parasites responsible for elephantiasis have a population of symbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia, that live inside the worm. When the symbiotic bacteria are killed by the antibiotic, the worms themselves also die. Clinical trials in June 2005 by the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine reported that an 8 week course almost completely eliminated microfilariaemia.[2][3] Treatment for onchocerciasis is ivermectin 150 to 200 mcg/kg repeated in 2 weeks or 6 months as directed. Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Wolbachia is a type of bacteria that infects arthropod species, including a high proportion of all insects. ...


References and notes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  1. ^ Hoerauf A, Mand S, Fischer K, Kruppa T, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Debrah AY, Pfarr KM, Adjei O, Buttner DW (2003). "Doxycycline as a novel strategy against bancroftian filariasis-depletion of Wolbachia endosymbionts from Wuchereria bancrofti and stop of microfilaria production". Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 192 (4): 211-6. PMID 12684759. 
  2. ^ Taylor MJ, Makunde WH, McGarry HF, Turner JD, Mand S, Hoerauf A (2005). "Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti: a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial". Lancet 365 (9477): 2116-21. PMID 15964448. 
  3. ^ Outland, Katrina. "New Treatment for Elephantitis: Antibiotics", The Journal of Young Investigators, 2005 Volume 13. 

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Elephantiasis Encyclopedia of Medicine - Find Articles (1028 words)
The word elephantiasis is a vivid and accurate term for the syndrome it describes: the gross (visible) enlargement of the arms, legs, or genitals to elephantoid size.
True elephantiasis is the result of a parasitic infection caused by three specific kinds of round worms.
There are a few different causes of elephantiasis, but the agents responsible for most of the elephantiasis in the world are filarial worms: white, slender round worms found in most tropical and subtropical places.
Elephantiasis - LoveToKnow 1911 (571 words)
ELEPHANTIASIS (Barbadoes leg; Boucnemia), is a disease dependent on chronic lymphatic obstruction, and characterized by hypertrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
Two distinct forms are known, (r) elephantiasis arabum, due to the development of living parasites, filaria sanguinis hominis (or filaria Bancrofti), and (2) the non-filarial form due to lymphatic obstruction from any other cause whatsoever, as erysipelas, the deposit of tuberculous or cancerous material in the lymphatic glands, phlegmasia dolens (white leg), long-continued eczema, andc.
The elephantiasis due to filaria is spread by the agency of mosquitoes, in whose bodies the intermediate stage is passed.
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