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Encyclopedia > Eleftherios Venizelos
Elefthérios Venizélos
(Greek: Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος)
Eleftherios Venizelos

In office
18 October 1910 – 15 March 1915
Preceded by Stephanos Dragoumis
Succeeded by Dimitrios Gounaris
In office
23 August 1915 – 7 October 1915
Preceded by Dimitrios Gounaris
Succeeded by Alexandros Zaimis
In office
27 June 1917 – 18 November 1920
Preceded by Alexandros Zaimis
Succeeded by Dimitrios Rallis
In office
24 January 1924 – 19 February 1924
Preceded by Stylianos Gonatas
Succeeded by Georgios Kafantaris
In office
4 July 1928 – 26 May 1932
Preceded by Alexandros Zaimis
Succeeded by Alexandros Papanastasiou
In office
5 June 1932 – 3 November 1932
Preceded by Alexandros Papanastasiou
Succeeded by Panagis Tsaldaris
In office
16 January 1933 – 6 March 1933
Preceded by Panagis Tsaldaris
Succeeded by Alexandros Othonaios

Born 23 August 1864(1864-08-23)
Mournies, Chania, Crete, Ottoman Empire
Died 18 March 1936 (aged 71)
Hotel Ritz, Paris, France
Nationality Greek
Political party Liberal Party
Spouse Maria Katelouzou, Elena Skylitsi
Children Kyriakos Venizelos, Sophoklis Venizelos
Profession Lawyer
Religion Christian Orthodox

Eleftherios Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Greek: Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος) (Mournies Chania, 23 August 1864 - Paris, 18 March 1936) was one of the greatest statesmen of modern Greece.[1][2][3] He played a significant role in the autonomy of the Cretan State and later in the union of Crete with Greece. Also under his leadership, Greece doubled in area and population during the Balkan wars (1912–13) with the liberation of Macedonia, Epirus and brought Greece on the side of the Allies in the World War I. Though with his policies he came in direct conflict with the monarchy, causing the National Schism that lasted for decades, he also set the basis for the modernization of the Greek society. Venizelos defined an entire era in Greek history, and is still a point of reference in Greek politics today. Image File history File links Acap. ... For the airport in Athens, Georgia, United States, see Athens-Ben Epps Airport. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 405 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (973 × 1,440 pixels, file size: 558 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... Stephanos Dragoumis (Greek: Στέφανος Δραγούμης) (1842-1923) was a judge, writer and Prime Minister of Greece in 1909. ... Categories: Historical stubs | 1866 births | 1922 deaths | Prime Ministers of Greece ... Categories: Historical stubs | 1866 births | 1922 deaths | Prime Ministers of Greece ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Dimitrios Rallis (1844-1921) was descended from an old Greek political family. ... Stylianos Gonatas, General, Senator and Prime Minister of Greece Stylianos Gonatas (Greek: , 1876-1966) was a Greek military officer and Prime Minister of Greece in 1922-1924. ... Georgios Kaphantaris (alternative spellings: Kafantaris or Kafandaris) was a Greek politician, born in Anatoliki Frangista, Evritania prefecture in 1873. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Alexandros Papanastasiou (8 July 1876, Tripoli, Arcadia — 17 November 1936) was a Greek politician, sociologist and Prime Minister. ... Alexandros Papanastasiou (8 July 1876, Tripoli, Arcadia — 17 November 1936) was a Greek politician, sociologist and Prime Minister. ... Panagis Tsaldaris (1868-1936) (or Panagiotis Tsaldaris or Panayotis Tsaldaris, Greek: Παναγής Τσαλδάρης) was a revered conservative politician and leader for many years (1922-1936) of the dominant before the World War II Peoples Party. ... Panagis Tsaldaris (1868-1936) (or Panagiotis Tsaldaris or Panayotis Tsaldaris, Greek: Παναγής Τσαλδάρης) was a revered conservative politician and leader for many years (1922-1936) of the dominant before the World War II Peoples Party. ... Alexandros Othonaios (Greek: , Gytheio 1879 - Athens 1970) was a distinguished Greek general, who became briefly Prime Minister of an emergency government during an abortive coup in 1933. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The municipaliy of Eleftherios Venizelos in Chania prefecture Eleftherios Venizelos (Greek: Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος) is a municipality of the Chania Prefecture on the Greek island of Crete, centred on the town of Mournies. ... Chania (Greek Χανιά pronounced , also transliterated Hania, older form Chanea and Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: خانيه Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania Prefecture. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hôtel Ritz at Place Vendôme The Hôtel Ritz is a hotel located at 15 Place Vendôme, in the heart of Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Komma Fileleftheron (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων - literally Party of the Friends of Liberty; usually translated as Liberal Party) was one of the major Greek political parties of the early 20th Century. ... Sophoklis Venizelos (Greek: Σοφοκλής Βενιζέλος, born 1894, died 1964) was a prominent Greek politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Greece. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The municipaliy of Eleftherios Venizelos in Chania prefecture Eleftherios Venizelos (Greek: Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος) is a municipality of the Chania Prefecture on the Greek island of Crete, centred on the town of Mournies. ... Chania (Greek Χανιά pronounced , also transliterated Hania, older form Chanea and Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: خانيه Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania Prefecture. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The National Schism (Greek: , Ethnikos Dikhasmos, sometimes called The Great Division) is a historical event involving the disagreement between King Constantine and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos over whether Greece should enter World War I. During the war Greece was of strategic importance due to its position in the link between...

Contents

Early life, education and entry into politics

Eleftherios was born in Mournies, near Chania (also known as Canea) in then-Ottoman Crete to Kyriakos Venizelos, a Cretan revolutionary.[4] When the Cretan revolution of 1866 broke out, Venizelos' family fled to the island of Syros. Due to the participation of his father in the revolution, they were not allowed to return to Crete, and stayed in Syros until 1872, when the Sultan granted an amnesty. The municipaliy of Eleftherios Venizelos in Chania prefecture Eleftherios Venizelos (Greek: Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος) is a municipality of the Chania Prefecture on the Greek island of Crete, centred on the town of Mournies. ... Chania (Greek Χανιά pronounced , also transliterated Hania, older form Chanea and Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: خانيه Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania Prefecture. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Syros (Greek: Σύρος), or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ...


He spent his final year of secondary education at a school in Ermoupolis in Syros from which he received his Certificate in 1880. In 1881 he enrolled at the Law School of the University of Athens and got his degree in Law with excellent grades. He returned in Crete in 1886. There he worked as a lawyer in Chania, but soon entered politics as a member of the island's liberal party.[4] As a deputy, he was distinguished for his eloquence and his radical opinions. Throughout his life he had a passion for reading, and was constantly improving his skills in English and French. Ermoupoli (Greek: Ερμούπολη - Ermoúpoli), also known as Syros is a town in eastern Greece. ... The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greek: Εθνικόν και Καποδιστριακόν Πανεπιστήμιον Αθηνών), usually referred to simply as the University of Athens, is the oldest university in the region of the eastern Mediterranean and has been in continuous operation since its establishment in 1837. ...


The situation in Crete was fluid, the Turkish government undermined the reforms that it had made under international pressure, and inevitably in 1888 disturbances burst out. The Ottoman Empire intervened in December 1889 and removed all the privileges granted to the Cretans according to the Treaty of Berlin. The crisis was continued till 1894, when an assembly was created, but was immediately led to an impasse, because Greeks and Turks could not find points of agreement. Bulgarian autonomy after the Treaty of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich. ...


Personal life and family

In December 1891 Venizelos married Maria Katelouzou, daughter of Eleftherios Katelouzos. The newly-weds lived in the upper floor of the Chalepa house, while Venizelos' mother and his brother and sisters lived on the ground floor. There, they enjoyed the happy moments of their marriage, and there, also, their two children were born, Kyriakos in 1892 and Sophoklis in 1894. Their married life, however, was short and marked by misfortune. Maria died of post-puerperal fever in November 1894 after the birth of their second child, Sophoklis. Her death deeply affected Venizelos and as sign of his mourning, he grew his characteristic beard and mustache, which he retained for the rest of his life.[4] Sophoklis Venizelos (Greek: Σοφοκλής Βενιζέλος, born 1894, died 1964) was a prominent Greek politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Greece. ...


In 1920, after his defeat in the November elections, he left for Paris in a self-imposed exile. In September 1921, twenty seven years after the death of his first wife Maria, he married in Highgate in London an exceedingly wealthy woman called Elena Skylitsi and settled down in Paris in a flat at 22 rue Beanjon. He lived there until 1927, when he returned to Chania.[4] In 1928 he entered Greek politics again. This article is on the London suburb. ...


In 1935, after a failed coup attempt, he left from Chania once again into self-imposed exile in Paris. A year later, in 1936, on 18 March, in the flat at 22 rue Beanjon, the "light of the Great man went out".[4] The attempted coup of March 1935 (Greek: ) was a Venizelist revolt against the Peoples Party government of Panagis Tsaldaris, which was suspected of pro-royalist tendencies. ...


Political Career

The Cretan uprising

The numerous revolutions in Crete, during and after the Greek War of Independence, (1821, 1833, 1841, 1858, 1866, 1878, 1889, 1895, 1897)[3] were the result of the Cretans' desire for Enosis — Union with Greece. In the Cretan revolution of 1868, the two sides, under the pressure of the Great Powers, came to an agreement, which was finalized in the Pact of Chalepa. Later the Pact was included in the provisions of the Treaty of Berlin, which was supplementing previous concessions granted to the Cretans — e.g. the Organic Law Constitution (1868) designed by William James Stillman. In summary the Pact was granting a large degree of self-government to Greeks in Crete as a means of limiting their desire to rise up against their Ottoman overlords.[5] However, the Muslims of Crete, who identified with Ottoman Turkey, were not satisfied by these reforms, as in their view the administration was delivered to the hands of the Christian Greek inhabitants of the island. In practice, the Ottoman Empire failed to enforce the provisions of the Pact, fueling tensions between the two communities; instead, the Ottoman authorities attempted to maintain order by the dispatch of substantial military reinforcements throughout the 1880-1896 period. Throughout the period, the "Cretan problem" was a major issue of friction in the relations of independent Greece with the Ottoman Empire. Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... The word Ένωσις (enosis) is Greek for union. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The Pact of Halepa was an agreement made in 1878 between the Ottoman Empire (then ruled by the Sultan Abdul Hamid II) and the representatives of several European states. ... Bulgarian autonomy after the Treaty of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich. ... William James Stillman (June 1, 1828 - July 6, 1901), United States painter and journalist, was born at Schenectady, New York. ...

Chania in 1897 after being torched by the Turks.
Chania in 1897 after being torched by the Turks.

In January 1897, violence and disorder was escalating on the island, thus polarizing the population. Massacres against the Christian population took place in Chania[3][6][7][8] and Rethimno.[3][8][9] The Greek government, pressured by public opinion, intransigent political elements and extreme nationalist groups and the Great Powers reluctant to intervene, decided to send warships and personnel to assist the Cretan Greeks.[3][7] The Great Powers had no option then but to proceed with the occupation of the island, but they were late. A Greek force of 1,500 men had landed at Kolymbari on 1 February 1897,[3] and its commanding officer, Colonel Timoleon Vassos declared that he was taking over the island "in the name of the King of the Hellenes" and that he was announcing the union of Crete with Greece.[7] This led to an uprising that spread throughout the island immediately. The Great Powers finally decided to land their troops and stopped the Greek army force from approaching Chania. At the same time their fleets blockaded Crete, preventing both Greeks and Turks from bringing any more troops to the island. Chania (Greek Χανιά pronounced , also transliterated Hania, older form Chanea and Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: خانيه Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania Prefecture. ... Categories: Greece geography stubs | Crete | Cities and towns in Greece ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... George I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: , Georgios A Vasileus ton Ellinon; December 24, 1845 – March 18, 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 to 1913. ...


Venizelos, at that time, was touring the island and decided to act. He hurried to Malaxa, near Chania, where a group of about 2,000 rebels had assembled, and established himself as their header. He proposed an attack, along with other rebels, on the Turkish forces at Akrotiri in order to displace them from the plains (Malaxa is in a higher altitude). Venizelos' subsequence actions at Akrotiri form a central set-piece in the Venizelos myth. People composed poems on Akrotiri and his role there; editorials and articles spoke about his bravery, his visions and his diplomatic genius as inevitable accompaniment of later greatness.[3] Venizelos spent the night in Akrotiri and a Greek flag was raised. The Turkish forces requested help from the foreign admirals and attacked the rebels, while the ships of the Powers bombarded the rebel positions at Akrotiri. A shell threw down the flag, which was raised up again immediately, accompanied by the excited shouts from the crews of Greek warships, which were anchored off shore but unable to intervene. The mythologizing became more pronounced when we come to his actions in that February, as the following quotes display: The municipaliy of Akrotiri in Chania prefecture Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι, literally promontory) is a peninsula and municipality in Crete, east of Chania. ... Flag ratio: 7:12 The Flag of Greece is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white. ...

  • Venizelos turned towards to the port of Souda, where the warships were anchored and explained: "You have cannon-balls - fire away! But our flag will not come down"... [after the flag was hit] Venizelos ran forward; his friends stopped him; why expose a valuable life so uselessly?[3]
  • On 20th of February was ordered by the admirals to lower the flag and disband his rebel force. He refused![3]
  • There was that famous day in February 1897 when... he rejected the orders of the Protecting Powers and in the picturesque phrase in the Greek newspapers "defied the navies of Europe"[3]
  • Under the smooth diplomat of today is the revolutionist who prodded the Turks out of Crete and the bold chieftain who camped with a little band of rebels on a hilltop above Canea and there he defied the consuls and the fleets of all the Powers![3]

In the same evening of the bombardment, Venizelos wrote a protest to the foreign admirals, which was signed by all the chieftains present at Akrotiri. He wrote that the rebels would keep their positions until everyone is killed from the shells of European warships, in order not to let the Turks recapture Akrotiri.[3] The letter was deliberately leaked to the international press, evoking emotional reactions in Greece and in Europe, where the sight of Christians, who wanted their freedom, by Christian vessels, caused popular indignation. In many European capitals demonstrations took place in support of the rebels,[citation needed] while the presiding board of the Greek parliament in Athens received numerous telegrams from celebrities that recommended to the Greek government to have a more decisive attitude in favor to the Cretan people.[citation needed] Souda (Greek: Σούδα) is a town and municipality of the Greek island of Crete, in the prefecture of Chania. ...


The Ottoman Empire, in reaction to the rebellion of Crete and the assistance sent by Greece, relocated a significant part of its army in the Balkans to the north of Thessaly, close to the borders with Greece.[citation needed] Greece in reply reinforced its borders in Thessaly. However, irregular Greek forces and followers of the Megali Idea acted without orders and raided Turkish outposts,[citation needed] leading to a declaration of war by the Ottoman Empire on Greece, which became known as the Greco-Turkish War. This development forced Greece to recall her troops from Crete and join with the rest of the army on the mainland.[citation needed] The Turkish army was better prepared, due to the recent reforms carried out by a German mission under Baron von der Goltz, and the Greek army was in retreat within weeks. The Great Powers again intervened and an armistice was signed in May 1897.[3] Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... The Megali Idea (Greek: Μεγάλη Ιδέα, lit. ... The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days War, was a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, under its ruler Sultan Hamid. ... Warning: this article is based primarily on information from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica and does not reflect modern scholarship. ...


The humiliating defeat of Greece in the Greco-Turkish war cost small territorial losses in small readjustments of the border line in northern Thessaly, but turned into a diplomatic victory. The Great Powers (Britain, France, Russia, and Italy), following the massacre in Iraklion on 25 August,[8] imposed a final solution on the Cretan Question: Crete was proclaimed as an autonomous State, the Republic of Crete. Venizelos played an important role towards this solution due to his frequent communication with the admirals of the Great Powers.[3] The four Great Powers assumed the administration of Crete; and Prince George of Greece (second son of King George I) became High Commissioner, with Venizelos serving as his minister of Justice from 1899 to 1901.[10] The European powers helped Prince George to create a Cretan Gendarmerie for enforcing the law in the island. The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days War, was a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, under its ruler Sultan Hamid. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... His Royal Highness Prince George of Greece and Denmark (24 June 1869, Corfu – 25 November 1957, St Cloud) was the third child of King George I of Greece and Grand Duchess Olga. ... George I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: , Georgios A Vasileus ton Ellinon; December 24, 1845 – March 18, 1913) was King of Greece from 1863 to 1913. ... The Cretan Gendarmerie (Greek Κρητική Χωροφυλακή) was a gendarmerie force created soon after Crete gained its autonomy from Ottoman rule in the late 19th century. ...


Autonomous Crete

The council of Crete in which Venizelos participated. He is the second from the left.
The council of Crete in which Venizelos participated. He is the second from the left.

Prince George was appointed High Commissioner of the Cretan State for a three-year term. On 13 December 1898, he arrived at Chania, where he received an unprecedented reception. On 27 April 1899, the High Commissioner created an Executive Committee composed of the Cretan leaders. Venizelos became minister of Justice and with the rest of the Committee, they began to organize the State. After Venizelos submitted the complete juridical legislation on 18 May 1900, disagreements between him and Prince George began to emerge. is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


Prince George was intending to travel to Europe and announced to the Cretan population that "at the duration of his travel, he would ask the Great Powers [to agree to] the union of Crete with Greece and hoped he will achieve it due to his close bonds [with the European royal houses]". The statement reached the public without the knowledge or approval of the Committee. Venizelos said to the Prince that it would not be proper to give hope to the population for something that wasn't feasible at the given moment. As Venizelos had expected, during the Prince's journey, the Great Powers rejected the his request.


The disagreements continued on other topics; the Prince wanted to build a palace, but Venizelos strongly opposed it as that would mean perpetuation of the current arrangement of Governorship; Cretans accepted it only as temporary, until a final solution was found. Relations between the two men became increasingly soured, and Venizelos repeatedly submitted his resignation.


In a meeting of the Executive Committee, Venizelos expressed his opinion that the island was not in essence autonomous, since militarily forces of the Great Powers were still present, and that the Great Powers were governing thought their representative, the Prince. Venizelos suggested that once the Prince's service expired, then the Great Powers should be invited to the Committee, which, according to article 39 of the constitution (which was suppressed in the conference of Rome) woould elect a new sovereign, thereby removing the need for the presence of the Great Powers. Once the Great Powers' troops left the island along with the their representatives, then the union with Greece would be easier to achieve. This proposal was exploited by Venizelos' opponents, who accused him that he wanted Crete as an autonomous hegemony. Venizelos replied to the accusations by submitting once again his resignation, with the reasoning that for him it would be impossible henceforth to collaborate with the Committee's members; he assured the Commissioner however that he did not intend to join the opposition.


On 6 March 1901, in a report, he exposed the reasons that compelled him to resign to the High Commissioner, which was however leaked to the press. On 20 March, Venizelos was dismissed, because "he, without any authorization, publicly supported opinions opposite of those of the Commissioner". Henceforth, Venizelos assumed the leadership of the opposition to the Prince. For the next three years, he carried out a hard political conflict, until the administration was virtually paralyzed and tensions dominated the island. Inevitably, these events led in March 1905 to the Theriso Revolution, whose leader he was. is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Theriso (Greek: Θέρισο, Δήμος Θερίσου) is a town and municipality in the west of the island of Crete, Greece. ...


Revolution of Theriso

On 23 March 1905, the rebels gathered in Theriso and declared "the political union of Crete with Greece as a single free constitutional state"; the resolution was given to the Great Powers, where it was arguing that the illegitimate transient arrangement was preventing the island's economic growth and the only natural solution to the Cretan Question was the union with Greece. The Great Powers in reply to the rebels that they would use military force to impose their decisions. However, more deputies joined with Venizelos, in Theriso. The Great Powers' consuls met with Venizelos in Mournies, in an attempt to achieve an agreement, but without any results. Theriso (Greek: Θέρισο, Δήμος Θερίσου) is a town and municipality in the west of the island of Crete, Greece. ...


The revolutionary government asked that Crete to be granted a regime similar with that of Eastern Rumelia. On 18 July, the Great Powers declared military law, but it did not discourage the rebels. On 15 August the regular assembly in Chania voted most from the reforms that Venizelos proposed. Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ...

Committee for the draft of a new constitution for Crete in 1906-07.
Committee for the draft of a new constitution for Crete in 1906-07.

The Great Powers' consuls met Venizelos in a new meeting and they accepted the reforms Venizelos had proposed. This led to the end of the revolution of Theriso and to the resignation of Prince George as the High Commissioner. The Great Powers assigned to the king of Greece, George I, the election of a new Commissioner. An ex-Prime Minister of Greece, Alexandros Zaimis, was chosen for the place of High Commissioner, and it was allowed for Greek officers and non-commissioned officers to undertake the organization of the Cretan Constabulary. As soon as the Constabulary was organized, the foreigner troops began to withdraw from the island. Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ...


In September 1908 the emperor of Austria announced the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the independence of Bulgaria. The Cretans, on 24 September 1908 burst out a new revolution in the island. Thousands citizens in Chania and the surrounding regions on that day formed a rally, in which Venizelos declared the final union of Crete with the Greece. Having communicated with the government of Athens, Zaimis left to Athens before the rally.


An assembly was convened and it declared the independence of Crete, the civil servants were put under oath faith in the name of the king George I of Greece, while a fivefold Executive Committee was created with the command to control the island for the king George I of Greece and according to the laws of Greek state. Chairman of committee was the Michelidakis and Venizelos became minister of Justice and Foreign Affairs. In April 1910 new assembly was convened, and Venizelos was elected chairman and then became Prime Minister. All the foreigner troops left from Crete and the power transfered entirely to Venizelos' government.


Venizelos in Greece

In August 1909 the Military League, displeased with the social and military status quo, carried out action against the government, followed through into a type of lockout in the Athenian suburb of Goudi. Even thought it did not overturn the government with a coup d'etat, it forced the Dimitrios Rallis' government to resign and a new one was formed with Kiriakoulis Mavromichalis. However, the political dead-end remained till the Military League invited Venizelos from Crete to undertake the leadership. Venizelos went to Athens and after consulting with the Military League and with representatives of the political world, proposed a new government and Parliament's reformation. The proposals were considered that they could constitute danger for the political regime. Venizelos stopped all his contacts and started to prepare his return to Crete. King George I, fearing the escalation of the crisis, convened a council with political leaders, and recommended them to accept Venizelos' proposals. The king, after a lot of postponements, he agreed to assign Stephanos Dragoumis (Venizelos' indication) for forming a new government, which would lead the country to elections. In the elections of 8 August 1910, Venizelos was elected members of the Parliament, with Venizelos himself representing Athens. His founded his political party, Komma Fileleftheron (Liberal Party). On 2 October 1910, he formed a government and started to reorganize the economic, political, and national affairs of the country. The Military League (Greek: ) was a political organization that was founded in May 1909 by a number of officers in the Greek army displeased with the social and military status quo. ... Dimitrios Rallis (1844-1921) was descended from an old Greek political family. ... Kiriakoulis Petros Mavromichalis (Greek: Κυριακούλης Μαυρομιχάλης) (1850-1916) was a Greek politician of the late 19th and early 20th Century who briefly served as Prime Minister of Greece. ... The Military League (Greek: ) was a political organization that was founded in May 1909 by a number of officers in the Greek army displeased with the social and military status quo. ... Stephanos Dragoumis (Greek: Στέφανος Δραγούμης) (1842-1923) was a judge, writer and Prime Minister of Greece in 1909. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Komma Fileleftheron (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων - literally Party of the Friends of Liberty; usually translated as Liberal Party) was one of the major Greek political parties of the early 20th Century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Because of his prudence in shaking-up the army and fleet and creating the Balkan League, the country was well prepared for the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, and thus it became possible to liberate the Northern territories of Epirus, Macedonia, and the Aegean Islands. He had many debates with Crown Prince Constantine on the route the Army should take and which cities should be liberated first. This was the first conflict between Venizelos and Constantine, who shortly became king after his father's assassination in 1913. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Epirus (Greek: Ήπειρος, Ípiros), is a periphery in northwestern Greece. ... Aegean Sea Islands: map showing island groups. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. ...


The Balkan Wars

Main article: Balkan Wars

At the time there were diplomatic contacts with Turks to initiate reforms in Macedonia and in Thrace, which at the time were under the control of Ottoman Empire, for improving the living conditions of the Christian populations. Failure of the reforms would leave the only option of removing Turkey from the Balkans. This last option appeared feasible, because Turkey was under a constitutional transition and its administrative mechanism was disorganized and weakened. Also, there was no fleet capable to transport forces from Asia Minor to Europe while the Greek fleet was dominating the Aegean Sea. Venizelos did not want to make any immediate major movements in the Balkans, until the Greek army is reorganized (an effort that had begun from the last government Georgios Theotokis). Hence, Venizelos proposed to Turkey to recognize the Cretans the right to send deputies to the Greek Parliament, in order to close the Cretan Question. However, the Young Turks (feeling confident after the Greco-Turkish war in 1987) threated that they will make a military walk to Athens, if the Greeks insisted to such claims. Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Georgios Theotokis was a Greek politician and four times prime minister of Greece. ... This article is about the Turkish nationalist constitutionalist movement. ... The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days War, was a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, under its ruler Sultan Hamid. ...


It then appeared to Venizelos that the only way was to join in an alliance with the other Balkan counties Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro. He convinced the successor Konstantinos to represent Greece in a royal feast in Sofia, furthermore he organized a visit of Bulgarian students in Athens, in 1911. These had a positive impact and in May 1912 Greece and Bulgaria signed a treaty. But the slaughters of Kotsanon and Mpranas accelerated the developments. Serbia and Bulgaria forged a secret alliance, and invited Greece the last days of September 1912 to join with them in the war against Turkey. Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...

The territorial expansion of Greece.

Venizelos seeing no improvements coming after his approach with the Turks concerning the Cretan Question and at the same time not wanting to see Greece to remain inactive as it happened in the Turko-Russian war in 1877 (where Greece's neutrality left the country out of the peace talks). Thus, on 30 September 1912 Greece declared the war on Turkey, and that was the First Balkan war. On 1 October, in a regular session of the Parliament it was announced the declaration of war to Turkey and accepting the Cretan deputies, with Venizelos declaring the union of Crete with Greece. The Greek population received these developments with a big enthusiasm. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (868x624, 28 KB) Map created by User:Adam Carr, August 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (868x624, 28 KB) Map created by User:Adam Carr, August 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...


The army, with general the successor Konstantinos, marched to Macedonia, achieving many victories and on 26 October 1912 liberated Thessaloniki. This period was marked also by known Venizelos' disagreement with Konstantinos A, concerning the course of the army should follow and which cities should be liberated first. Venizelos, forecasting the problems of maintaining order after the liberation of Thessaloniki and that the Bulgarian allies (but also the big European Forces) would promote a picture of anarchy in the city along with the Greek state's incompetence, Venizelos ordered, long before the liberation of the city, the transport of the Cretan Gendarmerie to Thessaloniki. On 20 November, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria signed truce with Turkey. It followed a conference in London, where Greece took part even though the Greek army continued its enterprises in the area. The conference led to the Treaty of London between the allies and Turkey. Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... The Cretan Gendarmerie (Greek Κρητική Χωροφυλακή) was a gendarmerie force created soon after Crete gained its autonomy from Ottoman rule in the late 19th century. ...


Nevertheless, the Bulgarians wanted to become the hegemonic force in the Balkans made excessive claims, while Serbia asked more territories than that it had been agreed with the Bulgarians, due to the additional help provided to the Bulgarians in the Thrace. Venizelos clarified to the Bulgarians, in the conference of London that Thessaloniki (which was a major and strategic port in the surrounding area) was belonging to Greece, mainly due to the fact that it was first occupied by the Greek army.


The rupture between the allies due to the Bulgarian diplomatic tactics was inevitable. And Bulgaria was found against Greece and Serbia. On 19 May 1913, Greece and Serbia signed a pact of alliance in Thessaloniki and on 19 June 1913 the Balkan War II was declared. The king henceforth Konstantinos turned away the Bulgarian forces from Thessaloniki, pushed the Bulgarian forces further with repeated victories. Bulgaria overcame from the Greek and Serbian armies and while in the north the Romanian army was marching towards to Sofia, the Bulgarians asked for truce. The Venizelos went to Vyroneia, where the Greek headquarters were, for determining with Konstantinos what would be the territorial claims of Greece in the peace conference. Thus he went to Bucharest, where a peace conference was assembled. On 28 June 1913 a peace treaty was signed with Greece, Montenegro, Serbia and Romania on one side and from Bulgaria on the other. All Greek claims became acceptable, thus gaining Macedonia, Epirus and Crete. This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ...


Dispute over Greece's role in World War I

The next conflict between Constantine and Venizelos was during World War I. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Though Greece remained neutral for the first years, Venizelos supported an alliance with the Entente, believing that Britain and France would win. On the other hand, Constantine favoured the Central Powers and wanted to remain neutral. After a series of debates, Venizelos resigned on 21 February 1915. Venizelos's party again won the elections and formed a government. Although Venizelos promised to remain neutral, Bulgaria's attack on Serbia, with which Greece had a treaty of alliance, obliged him to abandon that policy. A major dispute with the king caused him to resign again. He did not take part in the next elections, as he considered the dissolution of Parliament unconstitutional. Meanwhile, using the excuse of saving Serbia, the Allies disembarked an army in Thessaloniki. European military alliances in 1914. ... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I. European military alliances in 1914. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ...

Combatants  Austria-Hungary Bulgaria  German Empire Serbia Montenegro Commanders Oskar Potiorek Nikola Zhekov Kliment Boyadzhiev Georgi Todorov Ivan Valkov August von Mackensen Radomir Putnik Živojin MiÅ¡ić Stepa Stepanović Petar Bojović Nicholas I The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia at the outset of...

The National Schism

This debate between Venizelos and Constantine was the cause of the National Schism, which affected the country for many decades. In 1916, after the invasion of the Macedonia region by a joint German, Austrian and Bulgarian army, Venizelos' followers under his command organized a military coup in Thessaloniki, and proclaimed the "Temporary Government of National Defence". There, they founded a new "state" including Northern Greece, Crete and the Aegean Islands, with the backing of the Allies who, in the mean time, had occupied the city and port of Thessaloniki under the command of General Maurice Sarrail. The National Schism (Greek: , Ethnikos Dikhasmos, sometimes called The Great Division) is a historical event involving the disagreement between King Constantine and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos over whether Greece should enter World War I. During the war Greece was of strategic importance due to its position in the link between... Maurice-Paul-Emmanuel Sarrail (1856–1929) was a French general of the First World War. ...


Return to Athens

In May 1917, after the exile of Constantine to Switzerland and the succession of his second son Alexander, Venizelos returned to Athens and allied with the Entente and declared war on the Central Powers. Greek military forces (though divided between supporters of the monarchy and supporters of Venizelos) began to take part in military operations against the Bulgarian army on the border. By the fall of 1918, the Greek army, with nine divisions, was the largest part of the Allied army in Greece. Alexander I, King of the Hellenes, ruled Greece from 1917-1920. ...


Under the command of French General Franchet d'Esperey, Allied forces launched a major offensive against the Bulgarian and German army, starting on 14 September 1918. The Bulgarian army quickly gave up their defensive positions and began retreating back towards Bulgaria. On 30 September, the Bulgarian government asked for an armistice. The Greek army ended up playing a small role in one of the final campaigns of World War I. Louis Félix Marie François Franchet dEspèrey ( 25 May 1856 – 3 July 1942) was a French general during the First World War. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Negotiation of postwar treaties

Following the conclusion of World War I, Venizelos took part in the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and as Greece's representative signed the Treaty of Neuilly (27 November 1919) and the Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920). As the result of these treaties, Greece acquired Western Thrace, (temporarily) Eastern Thrace and Smyrna. On his journey home, he faced an assassination attack at the Gare de Lyon railway station in Paris. After his recovery he returned in Greece, where he was welcomed as a hero because he had liberated areas with Greek populations. Paris 1919 redirects here. ... The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Inside the Gare de Lyon. ...


1920 electoral defeat and withdrawal from politics

Despite the war victory, he lost the November 1920 elections, to the great dissatisfaction of the newly liberated populations in Asia Minor, and King Constantine was recalled. As a result of his defeat, Venizelos left for Paris, withdrawing from politics. Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


Following the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), as the representative of Greece, he signed the Treaty of Lausanne with Turkey on 24 July 1923. After an insurrection led by General Ioannis Metaxas forced King George into exile (his father, Constantine, having been again dethroned the previous year), Venizelos returned to Greece and became prime minister once again. However, he left again in 1924 after quarrelling with anti-monarchists. He returned later and took over the Liberal Party once more. Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, İsmet İnönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871 – January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. ... George II, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος Β [Geōrgios] Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (20 July 1890–1 April 1947) ruled Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. ...


During these absences from power, he translated Thucydides into modern Greek, although the translation and incomplete commentary were only published in 1940, after his death. Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ...


Return to power in 1928 and subsequent exile

Statue of Eleftherios Venizelos on Crete

In the elections held on 5 July 1928, Venizelos's party regained power and forced the government to hold new elections on 19 August of the same year; this time his party won 228 out of 250 places in Parliament. Venizelos governed Greece until 1932, when the People's Party under Panagis Tsaldaris returned to power. The political climate became more tense, and in 1933 Venizelos was the target of a second assassination attempt. The pro-royalist tendencies of the government led to an attempted military coup in March 1935, under the leadership of Venizelos and General Nikolaos Plastiras. After the coup's failure, Venizelos left Greece once more. is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Peoples Party of Greece (Laiko Komma or Laikon Komma) was a conservative political party founded by Dimitrios Gounaris, the main political rival of Eleftherios Venizelos and his Liberal Party. ... Panagis Tsaldaris (1868-1936) (or Panagiotis Tsaldaris or Panayotis Tsaldaris, Greek: Παναγής Τσαλδάρης) was a revered conservative politician and leader for many years (1922-1936) of the dominant before the World War II Peoples Party. ... The attempted coup of March 1935 (Greek: ) was a Venizelist revolt against the Peoples Party government of Panagis Tsaldaris, which was suspected of pro-royalist tendencies. ... Nikolaos Plastiras (Greek: Νικόλαος Πλαστήρας) (November 4, 1883 - July 26, 1953) was a general of the Greek army. ...


After his departure, trials and executions of prominent Venizelists were carried out, and he himself sentenced to death in absentia. The severely weakened Second Hellenic Republic was abolished in October 1935 and George II returned to the throne, following a rigged referendum. The history of the Hellenic Republic constitutes three discrete periods in Greek History: 1822 - 1832, 1924 - 1935 and 1974 - present. ... The Greek plebiscite of 1935 was held to decide on monarchy. ...


Exile and death

Venizelos left for Paris, where he died in 1936 while staying at the Hotel Ritz. A crowd of supporters from the local Greek community in Paris accompanied his body to the railway station prior to its departure for Greece. Hôtel Ritz at Place Vendôme The Hôtel Ritz is a hotel located at 15 Place Vendôme, in the heart of Paris, France. ...


His body was taken by the destroyer Pavlos Kountouriotis to Chania, avoiding Athens so as not to cause unrest. He was subsequently buried in Akrotiri in Crete with much ceremony. USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Kountouriotis (Greek: ) was a Greek destroyer of the Dardo class, which served with the Hellenic Navy during the Second World War. ... The municipaliy of Akrotiri in Chania prefecture Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι, literally promontory) is a peninsula and municipality in Crete, east of Chania. ...


References

  1. ^ Venizélos, Eleuthérios. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  2. ^ National Foundation Research "Eleftherios k.Venizelos"
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Eleftherios Venizelos: The Trials of Statesmanship, By Paschalis Kitromilides
  4. ^ a b c d e National Foundation Research "Eleftherios k.Venizelos"
  5. ^ Halepa, Pact of. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  6. ^ Lowell Sun (newspaper), 6/2/1897, pg1
  7. ^ a b c Robert F. Holland and Diana Makrides"The British and the Hellenes: Struggles for mastery in the Eastern Mediterranean 1850-1960", Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199249962
  8. ^ a b c National Foundation Research "Eleftherios k.Venizelos"
  9. ^ Theodore P. Ion The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 4, No. 2. (Apr., 1910), pp. 276-284.
  10. ^ National Foundation Research "Eleftherios k.Venizelos"

See also

Preceded by
Stephanos Dragoumis
Prime Minister of Greece
18 October 1910 - 10 March 1915
Succeeded by
Dimitrios Gounaris
Preceded by
Dimitrios Gounaris
Prime Minister of Greece
23 August 1915 - 7 October 1915
Succeeded by
Alexandros Zaimis
Preceded by
Alexandros Zaimis
Prime Minister of Greece
27 June, 1917 - 18 November 1920
Succeeded by
Dimitrios Rallis
Preceded by
Stylianos Gonatas
Prime Minister of Greece
24 January 1924 - 19 February 1924
Succeeded by
Georgios Kaphantaris
Preceded by
Alexandros Zaimis
Prime Minister of Greece
4 July 1928 - 26 May 1932
Succeeded by
Alexandros Papanastasiou
Preceded by
Alexandros Papanastasiou
Prime Minister of Greece
5 June, 1932 - 3 November 1932
Succeeded by
Panagis Tsaldaris
Preceded by
Panagis Tsaldaris
Prime Minister of Greece
16 January 1933 - 6 March 1933
Succeeded by
Alexandros Othonaios

Venizelism was one of the major political movements in Greece from the 1900s until the mid 1970s. ... The Megali Idea (Greek: Μεγάλη Ιδέα, lit. ... Stephanos Dragoumis (Greek: Στέφανος Δραγούμης) (1842-1923) was a judge, writer and Prime Minister of Greece in 1909. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... Categories: Historical stubs | 1866 births | 1922 deaths | Prime Ministers of Greece ... Categories: Historical stubs | 1866 births | 1922 deaths | Prime Ministers of Greece ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... Dimitrios Rallis (1844-1921) was descended from an old Greek political family. ... Stylianos Gonatas, General, Senator and Prime Minister of Greece Stylianos Gonatas (Greek: , 1876-1966) was a Greek military officer and Prime Minister of Greece in 1922-1924. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... Alexandros Papanastasiou (8 July 1876, Tripoli, Arcadia — 17 November 1936) was a Greek politician, sociologist and Prime Minister. ... Alexandros Papanastasiou (8 July 1876, Tripoli, Arcadia — 17 November 1936) was a Greek politician, sociologist and Prime Minister. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... Panagis Tsaldaris (1868-1936) (or Panagiotis Tsaldaris or Panayotis Tsaldaris, Greek: Παναγής Τσαλδάρης) was a revered conservative politician and leader for many years (1922-1936) of the dominant before the World War II Peoples Party. ... Panagis Tsaldaris (1868-1936) (or Panagiotis Tsaldaris or Panayotis Tsaldaris, Greek: Παναγής Τσαλδάρης) was a revered conservative politician and leader for many years (1922-1936) of the dominant before the World War II Peoples Party. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... Alexandros Othonaios (Greek: , Gytheio 1879 - Athens 1970) was a distinguished Greek general, who became briefly Prime Minister of an emergency government during an abortive coup in 1933. ... The Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός in Greek) is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. ... Flag Capital Nafplion Language(s) Greek Religion Greek Orthodox Government Republic Governor  - 1828-1831 Ioannis Kapodistrias  - 1831-1832 Augustinos Kapodistrias  - 1832-1833 Governmental Commission History  - Start of Greek Revolution March, 1821  - Established January 1, 1822  - Treaty of Constantinople May 7, 1832  - Disestablished June 18, 1832  - London Protocol August 30, 1832... Alexander Mavrocordatos (1791-1865) Athens, Benaki Museum Prince Alexander Mavrocordatos (Greek: ) (born February 11, 1791, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (now Ä°stanbul, Turkey} – died August 18, 1865, Aegina), Greek statesman, a descendant of the Mavrocordatos family of Hospodars. ... Athanasios Kanakaris (Αθανάσιος Κανακάρης) was a Greek politician. ... Petros Mavromichalis (1765-1848) (in Greek Πέτρος Μαυρομιχάλης) also known as Petrobey (Πετρομπέης), was the leader of the Maniot people during the first half of the 19th century. ... A portrait of Georgios Kountouriotis Georgios Kountouriotis (Greek: Γεωργιος Κουντουριώτης) (1782-1858) was a Greek politician of Arvanite descent and Prime Minister. ... Andreas Asimakou Zaimis (Greek:Ανδρέας Ζαΐμης) (1791-1840) was a Greek freedom fighter and government leader during the Greek War of Independence. ... statue of John Capodistria in Panepistimiou Street, Athens John Capodistria, (in Greek Ioannis Kapodistrias or Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας, and in Italian Giovanni Capo dIstria, Count Capo dIstria) (February 11, 1776 - October 9, 1831), Greek-born diplomat of the Russian Empire and later first head of state of independent Greece... Augustinos Kapodistrias (in Greek Αυγουστίνος Καποδίστριας , 1778- 1857). ... Capital Athens Language(s) Greek Religion Greek Orthodox Government Constitutional Monarchy King  - 1832-1862 Otto  - 1863-1913 George I  - 1913-1917 Constantine I  - 1917-1920 Alexander  - 1920-1922 Constantine I  - 1922-1924 George II Historical era Enlightenment Era  - London Protocol August 30, 1832  - Military junta April 21, 1967 The Kingdom... Spiridon Trikoupis (1788-1873). ... Alexander Mavrocordatos (1791-1865) Athens, Benaki Museum Prince Alexander Mavrocordatos (Greek: ) (born February 11, 1791, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (now Ä°stanbul, Turkey} – died August 18, 1865, Aegina), Greek statesman, a descendant of the Mavrocordatos family of Hospodars. ... Ioannis Kolettis (1773-1847) - Athens, National Historical Museum Ioannis Kolettis (1773-1847) was a Greek politician who played a significant role in Greek affairs from the Greek War of Independence. ... Josef Ludwig, Graf von Armansperg (1787-1853) served as the Interior and Finance Minister (1826-1828) and Foreign and Finance Minister (1828-1831) under King Ludwig I of Bavaria in the government of Bavaria. ... Ignaz von Rundhart (1790-1838) was a Bavarian scholar and public servant who was dispatched to Greece to serve as President of the Privy Council (Prime Minister) during the reign of King Otto. ... King Otto or Othon of Greece, (Greek: , Othon, Vasileus tis Ellados) also Prince of Bavaria (June 1, 1815 – July 26, 1867) was made the first modern king of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers... Alexander Mavrocordatos (1791-1865) Athens, Benaki Museum Prince Alexander Mavrocordatos (Greek: ) (born February 11, 1791, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (now Ä°stanbul, Turkey} – died August 18, 1865, Aegina), Greek statesman, a descendant of the Mavrocordatos family of Hospodars. ... King Otto or Othon of Greece, (Greek: , Othon, Vasileus tis Ellados) also Prince of Bavaria (June 1, 1815 – July 26, 1867) was made the first modern king of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers... Andreas Metaxas (1786 - September 19, 1860) was a Greek politician born on the island of Cephalonia. ... Constantine Kanaris Constantine Kanaris (or Canaris, Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης) (1793 or 1795 – September 2, 1877) was a Greek admiral, freedom fighter and politician. ... Alexander Mavrocordatos (1791-1865) Athens, Benaki Museum Prince Alexander Mavrocordatos (Greek: ) (born February 11, 1791, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (now Ä°stanbul, Turkey} – died August 18, 1865, Aegina), Greek statesman, a descendant of the Mavrocordatos family of Hospodars. ... Ioannis Kolettis (1773-1847) - Athens, National Historical Museum Ioannis Kolettis (1773-1847) was a Greek politician who played a significant role in Greek affairs from the Greek War of Independence. ... Kitsos Tzavelas during the War of Independence Kitsos Tzavelas (Greek: Κιτσος Τζαβέλας) (1800-1855) was a Greek fighter and Prime Minister. ... A portrait of Georgios Kountouriotis Georgios Kountouriotis (Greek: Γεωργιος Κουντουριώτης) (1782-1858) was a Greek politician of Arvanite descent and Prime Minister. ... Constantine Kanaris Constantine Kanaris (or Canaris, Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης) (1793 or 1795 – September 2, 1877) was a Greek admiral, freedom fighter and politician. ... Portrait of Antonios Kriezis Antonios Kriezis (Greek: Αντώνιος Κριεζής) (1796–1865) was a soldier who fought in the Greek War of Independence of 1821 and later served as a Prime Minister of Greece. ... Constantine Kanaris Constantine Kanaris (or Canaris, Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης) (1793 or 1795 – September 2, 1877) was a Greek admiral, freedom fighter and politician. ... Alexander Mavrocordatos (1791-1865) Athens, Benaki Museum Prince Alexander Mavrocordatos (Greek: ) (born February 11, 1791, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (now Ä°stanbul, Turkey} – died August 18, 1865, Aegina), Greek statesman, a descendant of the Mavrocordatos family of Hospodars. ... Prime Minister Voulgaris 1802-1878 Dimitrios Voulgaris (Greek: Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης) (December 20, 1802- January 10, 1878) was a Greek revolutionary fighter during the Greek War of Independence of 1821 who became a politician after independence. ... Athanasios Miaoulis was an Arvanite Greek born in 1815. ... Gennaios Kolokotronis (Greek: Γενναίος Κολοκοτρώνης) (1803 - 1868) was baptized Ioannis Kolokotronis in Stemnitsa, Arcadia. ... Prime Minister Voulgaris 1802-1878 Dimitrios Voulgaris (Greek: Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης) (December 20, 1802- January 10, 1878) was a Greek revolutionary fighter during the Greek War of Independence of 1821 who became a politician after independence. ... Aristides Moraïtines (Greek: Αριστειδης Μοραïτινης) (1806-1875) was born in Smyrna (now Izmir, Turkey). ... Zinovios Zafirios Valvis (1800 - 1872) was a Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Benizelos Rouphos (Greek: Μπενιζέλος Ρούφος) (1795 - 1868) was a Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Prime Minister Voulgaris 1802-1878 Dimitrios Voulgaris (Greek: Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης) (December 20, 1802- January 10, 1878) was a Greek revolutionary fighter during the Greek War of Independence of 1821 who became a politician after independence. ... Constantine Kanaris Constantine Kanaris (or Canaris, Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης) (1793 or 1795 – September 2, 1877) was a Greek admiral, freedom fighter and politician. ... Zinovios Zafirios Valvis (1800 - 1872) was a Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Constantine Kanaris Constantine Kanaris (or Canaris, Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης) (1793 or 1795 – September 2, 1877) was a Greek admiral, freedom fighter and politician. ... Benizelos Rouphos (Greek: Μπενιζέλος Ρούφος) (1795 - 1868) was a Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Alèxandros Koumoundoùros (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος) (1817 - February 26, 1883) was born in “Zarnàta” (part of Stavropìgio), located in the Messenian side of the Mani Peninsula. ... Epameinontas Deligiorgis (1829-1879). ... Benizelos Rouphos (Greek: Μπενιζέλος Ρούφος) (1795 - 1868) was a Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Prime Minister Voulgaris 1802-1878 Dimitrios Voulgaris (Greek: Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης) (December 20, 1802- January 10, 1878) was a Greek revolutionary fighter during the Greek War of Independence of 1821 who became a politician after independence. ... Alèxandros Koumoundoùros (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος) (1817 - February 26, 1883) was born in “Zarnàta” (part of Stavropìgio), located in the Messenian side of the Mani Peninsula. ... Aristides Moraïtines (Greek: Αριστειδης Μοραïτινης) (1806-1875) was born in Smyrna (now Izmir, Turkey). ... Prime Minister Voulgaris 1802-1878 Dimitrios Voulgaris (Greek: Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης) (December 20, 1802- January 10, 1878) was a Greek revolutionary fighter during the Greek War of Independence of 1821 who became a politician after independence. ... Epameinontas Deligiorgis (1829-1879). ... Alèxandros Koumoundoùros (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος) (1817 - February 26, 1883) was born in “Zarnàta” (part of Stavropìgio), located in the Messenian side of the Mani Peninsula. ... Prime Minister Voulgaris 1802-1878 Dimitrios Voulgaris (Greek: Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης) (December 20, 1802- January 10, 1878) was a Greek revolutionary fighter during the Greek War of Independence of 1821 who became a politician after independence. ... Epameinontas Deligiorgis (1829-1879). ... Prime Minister Voulgaris 1802-1878 Dimitrios Voulgaris (Greek: Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης) (December 20, 1802- January 10, 1878) was a Greek revolutionary fighter during the Greek War of Independence of 1821 who became a politician after independence. ... Charilaos Trikoupis - Athens, Photographic Archive of Hellenic Literary and Historical Museum Charilaos Trikoupis (July 11, 1832 (O.S.) – 1896) was a Greek politician who served as a Prime Minister of Greece seven times from 1875 until 1895. ... Alèxandros Koumoundoùros (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος) (1817 - February 26, 1883) was born in “Zarnàta” (part of Stavropìgio), located in the Messenian side of the Mani Peninsula. ... Epameinontas Deligiorgis (1829-1879). ... Alèxandros Koumoundoùros (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος) (1817 - February 26, 1883) was born in “Zarnàta” (part of Stavropìgio), located in the Messenian side of the Mani Peninsula. ... Epameinontas Deligiorgis (1829-1879). ... Alèxandros Koumoundoùros (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος) (1817 - February 26, 1883) was born in “Zarnàta” (part of Stavropìgio), located in the Messenian side of the Mani Peninsula. ... Constantine Kanaris Constantine Kanaris (or Canaris, Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης) (1793 or 1795 – September 2, 1877) was a Greek admiral, freedom fighter and politician. ... Alèxandros Koumoundoùros (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος) (1817 - February 26, 1883) was born in “Zarnàta” (part of Stavropìgio), located in the Messenian side of the Mani Peninsula. ... Charilaos Trikoupis - Athens, Photographic Archive of Hellenic Literary and Historical Museum Charilaos Trikoupis (July 11, 1832 (O.S.) – 1896) was a Greek politician who served as a Prime Minister of Greece seven times from 1875 until 1895. ... Alèxandros Koumoundoùros (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος) (1817 - February 26, 1883) was born in “Zarnàta” (part of Stavropìgio), located in the Messenian side of the Mani Peninsula. ... Charilaos Trikoupis - Athens, Photographic Archive of Hellenic Literary and Historical Museum Charilaos Trikoupis (July 11, 1832 (O.S.) – 1896) was a Greek politician who served as a Prime Minister of Greece seven times from 1875 until 1895. ... Alèxandros Koumoundoùros (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος) (1817 - February 26, 1883) was born in “Zarnàta” (part of Stavropìgio), located in the Messenian side of the Mani Peninsula. ... Charilaos Trikoupis - Athens, Photographic Archive of Hellenic Literary and Historical Museum Charilaos Trikoupis (July 11, 1832 (O.S.) – 1896) was a Greek politician who served as a Prime Minister of Greece seven times from 1875 until 1895. ... Theodoros Deligiannis (in Greek: Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης)(1820 - 13 June 1905) was a Greek statesman. ... Dimitrios Valvis (1814-1886) was a Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Charilaos Trikoupis - Athens, Photographic Archive of Hellenic Literary and Historical Museum Charilaos Trikoupis (July 11, 1832 (O.S.) – 1896) was a Greek politician who served as a Prime Minister of Greece seven times from 1875 until 1895. ... Theodoros Deligiannis (in Greek: Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης)(1820 - 13 June 1905) was a Greek statesman. ... Konstantinos Konstantopoulos (Greek: ) (1832-1910) was a conservative Greek politician and Prime Minister of Greece. ... Charilaos Trikoupis - Athens, Photographic Archive of Hellenic Literary and Historical Museum Charilaos Trikoupis (July 11, 1832 (O.S.) – 1896) was a Greek politician who served as a Prime Minister of Greece seven times from 1875 until 1895. ... Sotirios Sotiropoulos (Greek: Σωτήριος Σωτηρόπουλος) (1831-1898) was a Greek lawyer and politician and briefly served as Prime Minister of Greece. ... Charilaos Trikoupis - Athens, Photographic Archive of Hellenic Literary and Historical Museum Charilaos Trikoupis (July 11, 1832 (O.S.) – 1896) was a Greek politician who served as a Prime Minister of Greece seven times from 1875 until 1895. ... Nikolaos Deligiannis (1845-1910) was caretaker Prime Minister of Greece from January to June, 1895. ... Theodoros Deligiannis (in Greek: Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης)(1820 - 13 June 1905) was a Greek statesman. ... Dimitrios Rallis (1844-1921) was descended from an old Greek political family. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Georgios Theotokis was a Greek politician and four times prime minister of Greece. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Theodoros Deligiannis (in Greek: Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης)(1820 - 13 June 1905) was a Greek statesman. ... Georgios Theotokis was a Greek politician and four times prime minister of Greece. ... Dimitrios Rallis (1844-1921) was descended from an old Greek political family. ... Georgios Theotokis was a Greek politician and four times prime minister of Greece. ... Theodoros Deligiannis (in Greek: Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης)(1820 - 13 June 1905) was a Greek statesman. ... Dimitrios Rallis (1844-1921) was descended from an old Greek political family. ... Georgios Theotokis was a Greek politician and four times prime minister of Greece. ... Dimitrios Rallis (1844-1921) was descended from an old Greek political family. ... Stephanos Dragoumis (Greek: Στέφανος Δραγούμης) (1842-1923) was a judge, writer and Prime Minister of Greece in 1909. ... Categories: Historical stubs | 1866 births | 1922 deaths | Prime Ministers of Greece ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Stephanos Skouloudis (Greek: ) (November 23, 1838–August 19, 1928) was a Greek banker, diplomat and prime minister. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos (Greek: Νικόλαος Καλογερόπουλος) (1851–1927) was a Greek politician and briefly Prime Minister of Greece. ... Spyridon Lambros, Professor and Prime Minister of Greece Spyridon Lambros (Greek: Σπυρίδων Λάμπρος) (1851–1919) was a Greek history professor and briefly Prime Minister of Greece. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Dimitrios Rallis (1844-1921) was descended from an old Greek political family. ... Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos (Greek: Νικόλαος Καλογερόπουλος) (1851–1927) was a Greek politician and briefly Prime Minister of Greece. ... Categories: Historical stubs | 1866 births | 1922 deaths | Prime Ministers of Greece ... Nikolaos Stratos (Greek: ) (1872-1922) was a Prime Minister of Greece for a few days in May, 1922. ... Petros Protopapadakis (Greek: Πέτρος Πρωτοπαπαδάκης) (1854-1922) was Prime Minister of Greece. ... Anastasios Charalambis (Greek: ) (1862-March 11, 1949) was a military General and interim Prime Minister of Greece for one day in 1922. ... Sotirios G. Krokidas (Greek: ) (1852–1924) was an interim Prime Minister of Greece in 1922. ... Stylianos Gonatas, General, Senator and Prime Minister of Greece Stylianos Gonatas (Greek: , 1876-1966) was a Greek military officer and Prime Minister of Greece in 1922-1924. ... Georgios Kaphantaris (alternative spellings: Kafantaris or Kafandaris) was a Greek politician, born in Anatoliki Frangista, Evritania prefecture in 1873. ... The history of the Hellenic Republic constitutes three discreet periods in Greek History: 1827 - 1832, 1924 - 1935 and 1974 - present. ... Alexandros Papanastasiou (8 July 1876, Tripoli, Arcadia — 17 November 1936) was a Greek politician, sociologist and Prime Minister. ... Themistoklis Sophoulis (1860-1949) (or Themistoklis Sofoulis, Greek: Θεμιστοκλής Σοφούλης) was a prominent centrist politician, belonging to the centre-left wing of the Liberal Party, which he led for many years. ... Andreas Michalakopoulos (Greek: Ανδρέας Μιχαλακόπουλος) (1876 in the Achaia prefecture - 1938), an important Greek politician in the mid-war period who served as Prime Minister of Greece from October 7, 1924 to June 26, 1925 and was a close associate of the famous Eleftherios Venizelos for more than 20 years. ... General Pangalos (1920) Theodoros Pangalos (Greek Θεόδωρος Πάγκαλος) (Born 1878, Salamina, Greece; died 1952, Athens, Greece) was a Greek general who briefly ruled the country in 1925 and 1926. ... Athanasios Eftaxias (in Greek: Αθανάσιος Ευταξίας) was a Greek politician born in 1849 and deceased in 1931. ... Georgios Kondylis Georgios Kondylis (Greek: Γεώργιος Κονδύλης) (1878 - February 1, 1936) was a general of the Greek army and Prime Minister of Greece. ... Alexandros Zaimis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης) (1855–1936) was a Greek politician. ... Alexandros Papanastasiou (8 July 1876, Tripoli, Arcadia — 17 November 1936) was a Greek politician, sociologist and Prime Minister. ... Panagis Tsaldaris (1868-1936) (or Panagiotis Tsaldaris or Panayotis Tsaldaris, Greek: Παναγής Τσαλδάρης) was a revered conservative politician and leader for many years (1922-1936) of the dominant before the World War II Peoples Party. ... Alexandros Othonaios (Greek: , Gytheio 1879 - Athens 1970) was a distinguished Greek general, who became briefly Prime Minister of an emergency government during an abortive coup in 1933. ... Panagis Tsaldaris (1868-1936) (or Panagiotis Tsaldaris or Panayotis Tsaldaris, Greek: Παναγής Τσαλδάρης) was a revered conservative politician and leader for many years (1922-1936) of the dominant before the World War II Peoples Party. ... Georgios Kondylis Georgios Kondylis (Greek: Γεώργιος Κονδύλης) (1878 - February 1, 1936) was a general of the Greek army and Prime Minister of Greece. ... Capital Athens Language(s) Greek Religion Greek Orthodox Government Constitutional Monarchy King  - 1832-1862 Otto  - 1863-1913 George I  - 1913-1917 Constantine I  - 1917-1920 Alexander  - 1920-1922 Constantine I  - 1922-1924 George II Historical era Enlightenment Era  - London Protocol August 30, 1832  - Military junta April 21, 1967 The Kingdom... Konstantinos Demertzis (in Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Δεμερτζής) was a Greek politician born in 1876. ... Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871 – January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. ... Alexandros Koryzis (Greek: , 1885 – April 18, 1941) was the Prime Minister of Greece briefly in 1941. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... Georgios Tsolakoglou (Greek: , Agrafa, April 1886 - Athens, May 1948) was a Greek military officer who became the countrys first quisling Prime Minister during the Axis Occupation in 1941-1942. ... Konstantinos Logothetopoulos was a distinguished Greek medical doctor who became Prime Minister of a quisling government during the Axis occupation of Greece. ... Ioannis Rallis (1878-1946) was the third Nazi collaborator prime minister of Greece, from 7 April 1943 to 12 October 1944, succeeding Konstantinos Logothetopoulos in the Nazi-held puppet government in Athens. ... Evripidis Bakirtzis (Greek: ) (1895 - 1947) was de facto Prime Minister of Greece from 10 March to 18 April 1944 as head of the Political Committee of National Liberation, a government of resistance-held territories during World War II. Categories: | | | | ... Sophoklis Venizelos (Greek: Σοφοκλής Βενιζέλος, born 1894, died 1964) was a prominent Greek politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Greece. ... Alexandros Svolos (Greek: , 1892 - 22 February 1956) was a prominent Greek legal expert, who also served as president of the Political Committee of National Liberation, a Resistance-based government during the Axis Occupation of Greece. ... Georgios Papandreou, the Geros of Democracy George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... Nikolaos Plastiras (Greek: Νικόλαος Πλαστήρας) (November 4, 1883 - July 26, 1953) was a general of the Greek army. ... Petros Voulgaris (Greek: ) was a Greek admiral born in 1884 and deceased in 1957. ... Statue of Archbishop Damaskinos near the Athens Cathedral. ... Panagiotis Kanellopoulos Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (1902-1986) was a distinguished Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Themistoklis Sophoulis (1860-1949) (or Themistoklis Sofoulis, Greek: Θεμιστοκλής Σοφούλης) was a prominent centrist politician, belonging to the centre-left wing of the Liberal Party, which he led for many years. ... Panagiotis Poulitsas (in Greek: Παναγιώτης Πουλίτσας) was a judge. ... Konstantinos Tsaldaris (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Τσαλδάρης) (1884 in Alexandria, Egypt - 1970 in Athens) was a Prime Minister of Greece two times He studied law at the University of Athens as well as Berlin, London and Florence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Konstantinos Tsaldaris (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Τσαλδάρης) (1884 in Alexandria, Egypt - 1970 in Athens) was a Prime Minister of Greece two times He studied law at the University of Athens as well as Berlin, London and Florence. ... Themistoklis Sophoulis (1860-1949) (or Themistoklis Sofoulis, Greek: Θεμιστοκλής Σοφούλης) was a prominent centrist politician, belonging to the centre-left wing of the Liberal Party, which he led for many years. ... Markos Vafiadis (Theodosiopolis, Asia Minor, 1906 - Athens, Greece, February 23, 1992) was a leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Greek Civil War. ... A photo of Zachariadis Nikolaos Zachariadis (27 April 1903, Edirne, Ottoman Empire -8 August 1973, Surgut, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union) was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) from 1931 to 1956. ... Dimitrios Mitsos Partsalidis (Greek: Δημήτρης Παρτσαλίδης) (1905 - 1980) was a Greek communist politician. ... Alexandros Diomedes (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Διομήδης, January 3, 1875 - November 11, 1950) was a former governor of the Central Bank of Greece who became Prime Minister of Greece upon the death of Themistoklis Sophoulis. ... Ioannis Theotokis (in Greek: Ιωάννης Θεοτόκης) was a Greek politician. ... Sophoklis Venizelos (Greek: Σοφοκλής Βενιζέλος, born 1894, died 1964) was a prominent Greek politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Greece. ... Nikolaos Plastiras (Greek: Νικόλαος Πλαστήρας) (November 4, 1883 - July 26, 1953) was a general of the Greek army. ... Sophoklis Venizelos (Greek: Σοφοκλής Βενιζέλος, born 1894, died 1964) was a prominent Greek politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Greece. ... Nikolaos Plastiras (Greek: Νικόλαος Πλαστήρας) (November 4, 1883 - July 26, 1953) was a general of the Greek army. ... Dimitrios Kiousopoulos (Greek: ) was a jurist and a Greek politician born in 1892 in Andritsaina in Elis. ... Alexander Papagos (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Παπάγος, Alexandros Papagos). ... This article is about the former Greek president who lived from 1907 to 1998. ... Konstantinos Georgakopoulos (Greek: ) (26 December 1890–1978 was a Greek lawyer, politician and Prime Minister. ... This article is about the former Greek president who lived from 1907 to 1998. ... Konstantinos Dovas (Greek: ) (20 December 1898–1973) was a was a Greek general, politician and Prime Minister. ... This article is about the former Greek president who lived from 1907 to 1998. ... Panagiotis Pipinelis (Παναγιώτης Πιπινέλης) was a Greek politician and diplomat. ... Stylianos Mavromichalis (Greek: ) (born 1902–30 October 1981) was a Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... Georgios Papandreou, the Geros of Democracy George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... Ioannis Paraskevopoulos (1900-1984), was a Greek banker and politican who served briefly as the Prime Minister of Greece during the 1960s. ... Georgios Papandreou, the Geros of Democracy George Papandreou (in Greek Georgios Papandreou or Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) (18 February 1888 - 1 November 1968) was a Greek politician. ... Georgios Athanasiadis-Novas(Greek: Γεώργιος Αθανασιάδης-Νόβας) (1893-1986) Prime Minister of Greece in 1965. ... Ilias Tsirimokos (Ηλίας Τσιριμώκος) was a Greek politician who served as Prime Minister of the country for a very brief period (from August 20, 1965 to September 17, 1965). ... Stephanos Stephanopoulos (1898 - 1982) was a Greek politician. ... Ioannis Paraskevopoulos (1900-1984), was a Greek banker and politican who served briefly as the Prime Minister of Greece during the 1960s. ... Panagiotis Kanellopoulos Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (1902-1986) was a distinguished Greek politician and Prime Minister. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... Konstantinos Kollias (1901-1998) was a former Greek Attorney General who was proclaimed Prime Minister by the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 that overthrew Panagiotis Kanellopoulos government on April 21, 1967. ... Georgios Papadopoulos (Greek: Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος, May 5, 1919 – June 27, 1999) was the head of the military coup détat that took place in Greece on April 21, 1967 and leader of the military government that ruled the country during the period 1967 - 1974. ... Spiros Markezinis (1909 - January 4, 2000) was a Greek politician, longtime member of the Vouli (Greeces parliament), and briefly Prime Minister. ... Adamantios Androutsopoulos (1919 - 10 November 2000) was a lawyer, professor, and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1973 to 1974. ... The history of the Hellenic Republic constitutes three discreet periods in Greek History: 1827 - 1832, 1924 - 1935 and 1974 - present. ... This article is about the former Greek president who lived from 1907 to 1998. ... George Rallis (Greek form Giorgos or Georgios Rallis) (26 December 1918-15 March 2006), was a Greek politician, and Prime Minister of Greece from 10 May 1980 to 21 October 1981. ... Andreas Georgiou Papandreou (Greek: ) (5 February 1919 – 23 June 1996) was a Greek economist, a socialist politician and a major figure in Greek politics. ... Tzannis Tzannetakis (born September 13, 1927), Greek politician, was briefly Prime Minister of Greece during the political crisis of 1989-1990. ... Yiannis Grivas (also spelled Ioannis Grivas) (born 1923), Greek judge, was a non-party interim Prime Minister of Greece. ... Xenophon Zolotas Xenophon Euthymiou Zolotas (in Greek: Ξενοφών Ζολώτας )(March 26, 1904 – June 11, 2004) an eminent Greek economist, served as an interim non-party Prime Minister of Greece. ... Constantine Mitsotakis Constantine Mitsotakis (in Greek:Κωνσταντίνος Μητσοτάκης-Konstantinos Mitsotakis) (born October 18, 1918), Greek politician, was born in Chania, Crete. ... Andreas Georgiou Papandreou (Greek: ) (5 February 1919 – 23 June 1996) was a Greek economist, a socialist politician and a major figure in Greek politics. ... Costas Simitis Constantinos Georgiou Simitis (born June 23, 1936), usually known as Costas Simitis, was Prime Minister of Greece and leader of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) from 1996 to 2004. ... This article is about the Greek Prime Minister whose term began in 2004. ... German soldiers raising the Swastika over the Acropolis. ... A caretaker is a term mainly used in the United Kingdom, meaning a concierge or janitor. ...


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Eleftherios Venizelos (748 words)
Eleftherios Venizelos was born in 1864 in the village of Mournies Crete and studied law at the University of Athens at a time when Crete was still under the Ottoman Empire.
Venizelos was in favor of enosos, or Union with Greece and fought in the rebellion of 1897.
Venizelos was arguably the greatest leader in the history of the modern Greek state, perhaps one of the great leaders of the world.
Eleftherios Venizelos (1062 words)
Venizelos became leader of the opposition, and when matters came to a head, led an armed insurgency, which eventually forced the prince to leave the island.
Venizelos moved to Athens and through the elections of August 8, 1910, he and his team were elected members of the Parliament.
The Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport in Spata, near Athens, Greece is named after him, and he is depicted on the Greek €0.50 coin.
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