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Encyclopedia > Electrum
Electrum coin of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus.
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Electrum coin of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus.

Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals. Color ranges from pale to bright yellow, depending on the proportions of gold and silver. Alexius I Comnenus. ... Alexius I Comnenus. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ...


Electrum was used in as early as the third millennium BC in Old Kingdom Egypt, sometimes as an exterior coating to the pyramidions atop ancient Egyptian pyramids.[1] The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... In archaeological parlance, a pyramidion is the uppermost piece, or capstone, of an Egyptian pyramid. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pyramids A pyramid is any three-dimensional structure where the upper surfaces are triangular and converge on one point. ...


Electrum was also used in the making of ancient drinking vessels and coins. A beaker is a small ceramic or metal drinking vessel shaped to be held in the hands. ... A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal and usually in the shape of a disc, which is issued by a government to be used as a form of money. ...


Composition

Electrum consists primarily of gold and silver but is sometimes found with traces of copper and other metals. As a result, electrum is usually a good conductor of electricity. General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... In science and engineering, conductors are materials that contain movable charges of electricity. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ...


Analysis of the electrum composition in ancient Greek coinage dating from 600 BC showed that the gold composition was 55.5% in archaic Phocaea. In the early classical period the gold composition of electrum ranged from 46% in Phokaia to 43% in Mytilene. In later coinage from these areas, dating to 326 BC, the gold composition averaged 40% to 41%. Satellite photo showing location of the ancient cities of Phocaea, Cyme and Smyrna Phocaea (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. ...


Appearance

The color of electrum is pale yellow or yellowish-white and the name is a Latinized form of the Greek word ηλεκτρον (elektron) mentioned in the Odyssey meaning a metallic substance consisting of gold alloyed with silver. The same word was also used for the substance amber, probably because of the pale yellow color of certain varieties, and it is from the electrostatic properties of amber that the modern English words "electron" and "electricity" derive. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre The Odyssey (Greek: , Odusseia) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the poet Homer. ... Amber pendants. ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the forces exerted by a static (i. ...


Electrum was often referred to as white gold in ancient times but could be more accurately described as "pale gold". The modern use of the term white gold usually concerns gold, silver and palladium alloys. White gold is an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, such as silver or palladium. ... White gold is an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, such as silver or palladium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number palladium, Pd, 46 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 106. ...


History

Electrum is mentioned in an expedition sent by Pharaoh Sahure of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt (see Sahure). Sahure was the second king of ancient Egypts 5th Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifth Dynasty. ... Sahure was the second king of ancient Egypts 5th Dynasty. ...


Electrum is believed to have been used in coins circa 600 BC in Lydia under the reign of Alyattes, infrequently referred to as Alyattes II as a result of a possible previous king Alyattes, though it is far from certain that this figure was a king of Lydia or even existed. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC The 600s BC are the years 609 to 600 BC. Events and trends 609 BC - King Josiah... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Alyattes II, king of Lydia (619_560 BC), the real founder of the Lydian empire, was the son of Sadyattes, of the house of the Mermnadae. ...


Electrum was much better for coinage than gold, mostly because it was harder and more durable, but also because techniques for refining gold were not widespread at the time. General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ...


In Lydia, 14.1 grams of electrum was made into one stater (meaning "Standard"). A stater was about one month's pay for a soldier. To complement the stater, fractions were made: the trite (third), the hekte (sixth), and so forth, including 1/24 of a stater, and even down to 1/48th and 1/96th of a stater. The 1/96 stater was only about 0.14 to 0.15 grams. Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ...


Because of the variety of electrum's composition, it was rather difficult to determine the exact worth of each coin. Widespread trading was somewhat hampered by this, as a foreign merchant would offer rather poor rates on local electrum coin.


These difficulties were eliminated in 570 BC when pure silver coins were introduced. However, electrum currency remained fairly popular until approximately 350 BC. The simplest reasoning for this would be that, because of the gold content, one 14.1 gram stater would be worth as much as ten 14.1 gram silver pieces.


In fiction

In the fictional Star Wars universe, Jedi Master Mace Windu wielded a lightsaber that had a hilt made of electrum (only members of the Jedi Council were permitted to make such a saber). It is unknown if electrum had any effect on the lightsaber; it is believed to be only cosmetic. The Sith Lord Darth Sidious also constructed a lightsaber that had a hilt made of electrum. The cover of the 2004 DVD widescreen release of the revamped original Star Wars Trilogy. ... Mace Windu (72 BBY - 19 BBY) is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Darth Sidious, Dark Lord of the Sith, who often contacts his minions via hologram. ...


A naturally-occurring golden alloy named electrum featured in the Transformers episode, The Golden Lagoon, but featured the additional unusual property of rendering Transformers immune to damage when coated in it. However, it proved to be vunerable to intense levels of heat. Various Transformers toys. ...


Before 3rd Edition, an electrum coin (electrum piece) was worth five silver pieces (half a gold piece) in the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. For other uses, see Dungeons & Dragons (disambiguation). ...


The Terry Pratchett book Pyramids features an Electrum-plated Pyramidion that was used in a failed attempt to "flare off" the time stored in a magical pyramid. Terence David John Pratchett OBE (born April 28, 1948, in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England[1]) is an English fantasy author, best known for his Discworld series. ... Pyramids is the seventh Discworld novel by Terry Pratchett, published in 1989. ...


In the Rex Mundi comic, electrum is a rare metal valued by sorcerers for its ability to focus magical energies. Rex Mundi is a term in Latin to describe the King of the World, a term deriving from Cathar heresies of the Middle Ages, and taken up in such esoteric pseudohistorical works as Holy Blood, Holy Grail. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Electrum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (791 words)
Electrum was used in as early as the third millennium BCE in Old Kingdom Egypt, sometimes as an exterior coating to the pyramidions atop ancient Egyptian pyramids.
Electrum is believed to have been used in coins circa 600 BC in Lydia under the reign of Alyattes, infrequently referred to as Alyattes II as a result of a possible previous king Alyattes, though it is far from certain that this figure was a king of Lydia or even existed.
Electrum was much better for coinage than gold, mostly because it was harder and more durable, but also because techniques for refining gold were not widespread at the time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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