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Encyclopedia > Electronics
Surface mount electronic components
Surface mount electronic components

Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. Although considered to be a theoretical branch of physics, the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems is an essential technique in the fields of electronic engineering and computer engineering. A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... Resistor symbols (American) Resistor symbols (Europe, IEC) Axial-lead resistors on tape. ... An inductor is a passive electrical device employed in electrical circuits for its property of inductance. ... See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ... In electronics, a vacuum tube (U.S. and Canadian English) or (thermionic) valve (outside North America) is a device generally used to amplify, or otherwise modify, a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... An electronic circuit is an electrical circuit that also contains active electronic devices such as transistors or vacuum tubes. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Computer engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science[1]. Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. ...


The study of new semiconductor devices and surrounding technology is sometimes considered a branch of physics. This article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ...

Contents

Overview of electronic systems and circuits

Commercial digital voltmeter checking a prototype
Commercial digital voltmeter checking a prototype

Electronic systems are used to perform a wide variety of tasks. The main uses of electronic circuits are: ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 85 KB) Raviteja---Two digital voltmeters. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 85 KB) Raviteja---Two digital voltmeters. ... Two digital voltmeters. ...

  1. The controlling and processing of data.
  2. The conversion to/from and distribution of electric power.

Both these applications involve the creation and/or detection of electromagnetic fields and electric currents. While electrical energy had been used for some time prior to the late 19th century to transmit data over telegraph and telephone lines, development in electronics grew exponentially after the advent of radio. For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... The electromagnetic field is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... Electrical energy can refer to several closely related things. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


One way of looking at an electronic system is to divide it into 3 parts:

  • Signal processors – These circuits serve to manipulate, interpret and transform inputted signals in order to make them useful for a desired application. Recently, complex signal processing has been accomplished with the use of Digital Signal Processors.
  • OutputsActuators or other devices (such as transducers) that transform current/voltage signals back into useful physical form (e.g., by accomplishing a physical task such as rotating an electric motor).

For example, a television set contains these 3 parts. The television's input transforms a broadcast signal (received by an antenna or fed in through a cable) into a current/voltage signal that can be used by the device. Signal processing circuits inside the television extract information from this signal that dictates brightness, colour and sound level. Output devices then convert this information back into physical form. A cathode ray tube transforms electronic signals into a visible image on the screen. Magnet-driven speakers convert signals into audible sound. Input3 is the term denoting either an entrance or changes which are inserted into a system and which activate/modify a process. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... This article is about transducers in engineering. ... In the fields of communications, signal processing, and in electrical engineering more generally, a signal is any time-varying quantity. ... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals, and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... Output is the term denoting either an exit or changes which exits a system and which activate/modify a process. ... An actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to emit a given amount of light. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ...


Electronic devices and components

Main article: Electronic component

An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system whose intention is to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a desired manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system. Components are generally intended to be in mutual electromechanical contact, usually by being soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB), to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). Components may be packaged singly or in more or less complex groups as integrated circuits. Various components An electronic component is a basic electronic element usually packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads. ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ...


Types of circuits

Analog circuits

Main article: Analog circuits
Hitachi J100 adjustable frequency drive chassis.
Hitachi J100 adjustable frequency drive chassis.

Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits. The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a 'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components. An analog circuit (or analogue circuit) is an electric circuit that operates on analog signals. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 514 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (659 × 768 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hitachi J100 adjustable frequency drive chassis. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 514 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (659 × 768 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hitachi J100 adjustable frequency drive chassis. ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ...


Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, modulators, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Some analog circuitry these days may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve upon the basic performance of the circuit. This type of circuit is usually called "mixed signal."


Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear operation. An example is the comparator which takes in a continuous range of voltage but puts out only one of two levels as in a digital circuit. Similarly, an overdriven transistor amplifier can take on the characteristics of a controlled switch having essentially two levels of output. Electrical switches. ...


Digital circuits

Main article: Digital circuits

Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. Digital circuits are the most common physical representation of Boolean algebra and are the basis of all digital computers. To most engineers, the terms "digital circuit", "digital system" and "logic" are interchangeable in the context of digital circuits. In most cases the number of different states of a node is two, represented by two voltage levels labeled "Low"(0) and "High"(1). Often "Low" will be near zero volts and "High" will be at a higher level depending on the supply voltage in use. Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ...


Computers, electronic clocks, and programmable logic controllers (used to control industrial processes) are constructed of digital circuits. Digital Signal Processors are another example. This article is about the machine. ... A quartz clock A quartz clock is a timepiece that uses an electronic oscillator which is made up by a quartz crystal to keep precise time. ... PLC & input/output arrangements A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of industrial processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ...


Building-blocks:

Highly integrated devices: A logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. ... In electronics, an adder or summer is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. ... A Binary multiplier is an electronic hardware device used in a computer or other electronic device to perform rapid multiplication of two numbers in binary representation. ... In digital circuits, the flip-flop, latch, or bistable multivibrator is an electronic circuit which has two stable states and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory. ... In general, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal. ... In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to frequently used values—typically, these values are involved in multiple expression evaluations occurring within a small region on the program. ... MUX redirects here. ... In electronics, a Schmitt (or Schmidt) trigger is a comparator circuit that incorporates positive feedback. ...

A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... An Altera Stratix II GX FPGA. A field-programmable gate array is a semiconductor device containing programmable logic components called logic blocks, and programmable interconnects. ...

Mixed-signal circuits

Main article: Mixed-signal integrated circuit

Mixed-signal circuits refers to integrated circuits (ICs) which have both analog circuits and digital circuits combined on a single semiconductor die or on the same circuit board. Mixed-signal circuits are becoming increasingly common. Mixed circuits are usually used to control an analog device using digital logic, for example the speed of a motor. Analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters are the primary examples. Other examples are transmission gates and buffers. A mixed-signal integrated circuits combines analog and digital circuitry. ... A mixed-signal integrated circuits combines analog and digital circuitry. ... Analog electronics (or analogue, see analog) are those electronic systems with a continuously variable signal. ... This article or section should include material from AD converters In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D, or A to D) is a device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. ... In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device for converting a digital (usually binary) code to an analogue signal (current, voltage or charges). ... CMOS Transmission Gate A transmission gate is an electronic element. ...


Heat dissipation and thermal management

Heat generated by electronic circuitry must be dissipated to prevent immediate failure and improve long term reliability. Techniques for heat dissipation can include heatsinks and fans for air cooling, and other forms of computer cooling such as water cooling. These techniques use convection, conduction, & radiation of heat energy. CPU heatsink with fan attached Heat generated by electronic devices and circuitry must be dissipated to improve reliability and prevent premature failure. ... A large copper heatsink. ... For other uses, see Fan. ... Computer cooling is the process of removing heat from computer components. ... Watercooling is a method of heat removal from components. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Heat conduction or thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter, from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, and acts to equalize temperature differences. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ...


Noise

Main article: Electronic noise

Noise is associated with all electronic circuits. Noise is defined[1] as unwanted disturbances superposed on a useful signal that tend to obscure its information content. Noise is not the same as signal distortion caused by a circuit. Associated with all electronic circuits is noise. ...


Electronics theory

Mathematical methods are integral to the study of electronics. To become proficient in electronics it is also necessary to become proficient in the mathematics of circuit analysis. // Mathematical methods in electronics Mathematical methods are integral to the study of electronics. ...


Circuit analysis is the study of methods of solving generally linear systems for unknown variables such as the voltage at a certain node or the current though a certain branch of a network. A common analytical tool for this is the SPICE circuit simulator. In electrical engineering, the term node refers to any point on a circuit where the voltage is the same. ... This article presents the essential definitions. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ...


Also important to electronics is the study and understanding of electromagnetic field theory. The electromagnetic field is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. ...


Electronic test equipment

Electronic test equipment is used to create stimulus signals and capture responses from electronic Devices Under Test (DUTs). In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced and repaired. Back to Electronics A Tektronix model 475A portable analogue oscilloscope Electronic test equipment (sometimes called testgear) is used to create stimulus signals and capture responses from electronic Devices Under Test (DUTs). ... Device under test (DUT), also known as unit under test (UUT), is a term commonly used to refer to a manufactured product undergoing testing. ...


Practical electronics engineering and assembly requires the use of many different kinds of electronic test equipment ranging from the very simple and inexpensive (such as a test light consisting of just a light bulb and a test lead) to extremely complex and sophisticated such as Automatic Test Equipment.


Computer aided design (CAD)

Today's electronics engineers have the ability to design circuits using premanufactured building blocks such as power supplies, semiconductors (such as transistors), and integrated circuits. Electronic design automation software programs include schematic capture programs and printed circuit board design programs. Popular names in the EDA software world are NI Multisim, Cadence (ORCAD), Eagle PCB and Schematic, Mentor (PADS PCB and LOGIC Schematic), Altium (Protel), LabCentre Electronics (Proteus) and many others. PCB Layout Program Electronic design automation (EDA) is the category of tools for designing and producing electronic systems ranging from printed circuit boards (PCBs) to integrated circuits. ... The process of circuit design can cover systems ranging from national power grids all the way down to the individual transistors within an integrated circuit. ... An electronic circuit is an electrical circuit that also contains active electronic devices such as transistors or vacuum tubes. ... A wall wart style variable DC power supply with its cover removed. ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... PCB Layout Program Electronic design automation (EDA) is the category of tools for designing and producing electronic systems ranging from printed circuit boards (PCBs) to integrated circuits. ... Schematic capture or schematic entry is a step in the design cycle of electronic design automation at which the electronic diagram, or schematic of the designed electronic circuit is created by a designer. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... An ORCAD Electrical system diagram; Typically OrCAD is used with Electronic components such as ICs, Etc. ...


Construction methods

Main article: Electronic packaging

Many different methods of connecting components have been used over the years. For instance, early electronics often used point to point wiring with components attached to wooden breadboards to construct circuits. Cordwood construction and wire wraps were other methods used. Most modern day electronics now use printed circuit boards (made of FR4), and highly integrated circuits. Health and environmental concerns associated with electronics assembly have gained increased attention in recent years, especially for products destined to the European Union, with its Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE), which went into force in July 2006. Electronic packaging is a major discipline within the field of electronic engineering, and includes a wide variety of technologies. ... Point-to-point construction is the way most electronics were constructed before the 1950s. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... This article deals with electronics manufacturing and prototyping techniques, see Wire wrap jewellery for the jewellery related topic Wire wrap is a technique for constructing small numbers of complex electronics. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... FR-4 is an abbreviation for Flame Resistant 4. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... The Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS) 2002/95/EC [1] (commonly referred to as the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive) was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union. ... WEEE Man The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) is the European Community directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment which, together with the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC, became European Law in February 2003, setting collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of...


Electronics industry

The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...

Branch pages

A digital circuit that acts as a binary clock, hand-wired on a series of breadboards Digital electronics are electronics systems that use digital signals. ... Analog electronics (or analogue, see analog) are those electronic systems with a continuously variable signal. ... Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. ... Fuzzy electronics is using of fuzzy logic, instude of two value logic in Digital electronics. ... The process of circuit design can cover systems ranging from national power grids all the way down to the individual transistors within an integrated circuit. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that interact with light, and thus is usually considered a sub-field of photonics. ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. ...

See also

Electronics Portal

Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_ksim. ... Analog signal processing is any signal processing conducted on analog signals by analog means. ... The circuit diagram for a 4 bit TTL counter, a type of state machine A circuit diagram (also known as an electrical diagram, elementary diagram, or electronic schematic) is a simplified conventional pictorial representation of an electrical circuit. ... Computer engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science[1]. Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. ... A datasheet is a document summarizing the performance and other characteristics of a component (e. ... Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. ... Abandoned monitor Electronic waste or e-waste is any broken or unwanted electrical or electronic appliance. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... An electronic circuit is an electrical circuit that also contains active electronic devices such as transistors or vacuum tubes. ... The Electronic Waste Recycling Fee is a fee imposed by the government of the state of California in the United States on new purchases of electronic products with viewable screens. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... List of the CMOS 4000 series Categories: | ... List of 7400 series TTL integrated circuits: 7400: Quad 2-input NAND Gate 7401: Quad 2-input NAND Gate with Open Collector Outputs 7402: Quad 2-input NOR Gate 7403: Quad 2-input NAND Gate with Open Collector Outputs (different pinout than 7401) 7404: Hex Inverter 7405: Hex Inverter with... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Signal theory is the theory of the engineering discipline of signal processing. ... This article is about transducers in engineering. ...

References

  1. ^ IEEE Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms ISBN-13: 978-0471428060

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

External links

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The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... AI redirects here. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... 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Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, particularly the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, and performance. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as voice recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words in the form of digital data, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Visual technology is the engineering discipline dealing with visual representation. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... 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Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... 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Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...

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