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Encyclopedia > Electronic warfare

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Electronic Warfare

Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. Electronic warfare has three main components: electronic support, electronic attack, and electronic protection. Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High...


Electronic support

Main article: Electronic support

Electronic support (ES) is the passive use of the electromagnetic spectrum to gain intelligence about other parties on the battlefield in order to find, identify, locate and intercept potential threats or targets. This intelligence, known as ELINT, might be used directly by fire-control systems for artillery or air strike orders, for mobilization of friendly forces to a specific location or objective on the battlefield, or as the basis of electronic attack or electronic protection actions. French ship Monge, specialised in SIGINT In military telecommunications, the term Electronic Support (ES) is the division of Electronic Warfare involving actions taken under direct control of an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition. ... ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ... A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ...


Because ES is conducted passively, it can be performed without the target observing any electronic activities. ES's strategic counterpart, SIGINT, is continuously performed by most of the world's countries in order to gain intelligence derived from other parties' electronic equipment and tactics. SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ...


An older term for ES is electronic support measures (ESM).


Electronic attack

Main article: Electronic attack

Electronic attack (EA) is the active or passive use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High...

EA operations can be detected by an adversary due to their active transmissions. Many modern EA techniques are considered to be highly classified. The term Jamming can refer to several things: Jamming as an electronic warfare (EW) - a technique to limit the effectiveness of an opponents communications and/or detection equipment, like Radio Jamming and Radar Jamming E-Mail Jamming- used by electronic political activists or hackers to disable e-mail systems... In telecommunication, the term electronic deception means the deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information and to deny valid information to an enemy or to enemy electronics-dependent weapons. ... Active cancellation is a theoretical military jamming system that involves the sampling of an incoming radar signal, analyzing it, then returning this signal slightly out of phase, thus canceling it out. ... Example of an electromagnetic pulse, in this case caused by the electrical discharge required to fire the Z machine. ... Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre... The AN/SLQ-25 Nixie is a towed torpedo decoy used on US and allied warships. ... Balloons are often used or given on special occasions, like cards or flowers. ... Buoy in San Diego Harbor. ... F-117 Stealth Fighter Stealth technology covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared and other detection methods. ... A typical classified document. ...


An older term for EA is electronic countermeasures (ECM).


Electronic protection

Main article: Electronic protection

Electronic protection (EP) includes all activities related to making enemy EA activities less successful by means of protecting friendly personnel, facilities, equipment or objectives. EP can also be implemented to prevent friendly forces from being affected by their own EA. Electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) describes a variety of practices which attempt to reduce or eliminate the effect of Electronic countermeasures (ECM) on electronic sensors aboard vehicles, ships and aircraft and weapons such as missiles. ...

  • Active EP includes such activities as technical modifications to radio equipment (such as frequency-hopping spread spectrum).
  • Passive EP includes such activities as the education of operators (enforcing strict discipline) and modified battlefield tactics or operations.

Older terms for EP include electronic protective measures (EPM) and electronic counter countermeasures (ECCM). Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) is a spread-spectrum method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. ...


See also

The Association of Old Crows is an nonprofit international professional organization specializing in electronic warfare, information operations, and related topics. ... ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ... Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO) is a term used to describe any member of the Armed Forces trained in the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its effective use by an adversary. ... The AN/SLQ-32 is a shipboard electronic warfare suite built by the Raytheon Company of Goleta, California. ... The EF-111A Raven was an electronic warfare aircraft designed to replace the elderly and obsolescent Douglas EB-66 in the United States Air Force. ... The EA-6B Prowler is a twin-engine, mid-wing aircraft manufactured by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Corporation as a modification of the basic A-6 Intruder airframe. ... Four F/A-18 E/F Super Hornets assigned to the Black Aces of Strike Fighter Squadron Forty One (VFA-41) fly over the Western Pacific Ocean in a stack formation. ... The RC-12, officially known as Guardrail is an electronic warfare aircraft operated by the US Army. ... The Joint Functional Component Command Network Warfare, JFCC-NW, is a the command responsible for coordinating offensive computer network operations for the United States Department of Defense. ... The RRT of the 22d MEU-SOC, Tunisia, 1997 The Radio Reconnaissance Platoon is the special operations element of the United States Marine Corps Radio Battalion. ... Interactive Scenario Builder™ The Interactive Scenario Builder™ v3 (Builder™) is a three-dimensional, interactive Radio Frequency (RF) Tactical Decision Aid (TDA). ... // Humvee with ADS mounted. ... An electromagnetic bomb or E-bomb is a weapon designed to disable electronics on a wide scale with an electromagnetic pulse. ... Combatants Israel Syria Commanders Michael Barkai unknown Strength 5 ships¹: 3 SAAR 4 class 2 SAAR 3 class 1 torpedo boat 1 minesweeper 2 Komar-class missile boats 1 Osa-class missile boat Casualties unknown All five ships ¹although source could also be interpreted to refer to 12 ships The... Network-centric warfare (NCW), now commonly called Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense. ... The Historical Electronics Museum loacated in Linthicum, Maryland, displays the history of the United States defense electronics. ...

References

Further Reading

  • Jon Latimer, Deception in War, London: John Murray, 2001

  Results from FactBites:
 
Electronic Warfare (275 words)
Electronic attack, which refers to the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or anti-radiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability.
Electronic protection, which refers to passive and active means taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability.
Electronic warfare support, which involves actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of threat recognition, targeting, planning and conduct of future operations.
Marine Corps Electronic Warfare--A Combat Power Multiplier (3507 words)
The importance of electronic warfare was particularly demonstrated at the battle of Gazala-Bir Hacheim (Tobruk), June, 1942.
That division of electronic warfare involving actions taken under the direct control of an operational commander to search for, intercept, and identify/ locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition.
That division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to ensure friendly effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum despite the enemy's use of electronic warfare.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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