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Encyclopedia > Electronic music
Luigi Russolo and his assistent Ugo Piatti with their Intonarumori, 1913.
Luigi Russolo and his assistent Ugo Piatti with their Intonarumori, 1913.
The young Léon Theremin playing a theremin, 1919.

Electronic music refers to music that emphasizes the use of electronic musical instruments or electronic music technology as a central aspect of the sound of the music. [1] Historically electronic music was considered to be any music created with the use of electronic musical instruments or electronic processing, but in modern times, that distinction has been lost because almost all recorded music today, and the majority of live music performances, depends on extensive use of electronics. [2][3] Today, the term electronic music serves to differentiate music that uses electronics as its focal point or inspiration, from music that uses electronics mainly in service of creating an intended production that may have some electronic elements in the sound but does not focus upon them. [4] Electronic music is music made with electronics. ... Teleharmonium by Thaddeus Cahill 1897 Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Teleharmonium by Thaddeus Cahill 1897 Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Telharmonium console by Thaddeus Cahill 1897 The earliest purely electronic musical instrument was the Telharmonium or Teleharmonium, developed by Thaddeus Cahill in 1897. ... Thaddeus Cahill (1867 - 1934) was a prominent inventor of the early 20th century. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Luigi Russolo ca. ... Luigi Russolo ca. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... A young Léon Theremin playing a theremin Léon Theremin (born Lev Sergeyevich Termen, Лев Сергеевич Термен in Russian) (August 15, 1896–November 3, 1993) was a Russian inventor. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. ... Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, in particular the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, performance, search and retrieval. ...


Contemporary electronic music expresses both serious or academic music forms including electronic art music, experimental music, musique concrète, and others; and popular music forms including multiple styles of electronic dance music such as techno, house, trance, electro, breakbeat, jungle, drum and bass, industrial music; synth pop styles of the 1980s; and styles that are intended more as experimental styles or for home listening such as electronica, IDM, glitch, ambient and trip-hop.[5] This article is about the broad genre of classical music in the Western musical tradition. ... Electronic music has existed, in various forms, for more than a century. ... For experimental rock music, see experimental rock. ... Musique concrète (French; literally, concrete music), is a style of avant-garde music that relies on natural environmental sounds and other non-musical noises to create music. ... Popular music is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more of the mass media. ... Electronic dance music (EDM) is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Electro, short for electro funk (also known as robot hip hop and Electro hop) is an electronic style of hip hop directly influenced by Kraftwerk and funk records (unlike earlier rap records which were closer to disco). ... This article is about breakbeat, the electronic dance music genre. ... Jungle music can mean: Drum and bass - the current term used to encompass the entire musical genre of jungle and drum & bass Oldschool jungle - a style specific to the earliest form of drum and bass, it is still produced to this day Ragga jungle - a substyle of oldschool jungle, characterized... Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b, DnB, dnb, dnb, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... It has been suggested that Chicago Industrial be merged into this article or section. ... Synth pop is a style of popular music in which the synthesizer is the dominant musical instrument. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Electronica refers to a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; but unlike electronic dance music, is not specifically focused on the dance floor. ... Intelligent dance music (commonly IDM) is a genre of electronic music derived from dance music of the 1980s and early 1990s which puts an emphasis on novel processing and sequencing. ... Glitch (also known as Clicks and Cuts from a representative compilation series by the German record label Mille Plateaux) is a genre of electronic music that became popular in the late 1990s with the increasing use of digital signal processing, particularly on computers. ... Ambient music refers to a kind of music that envelops the listener without drawing attention to itself [1] // The term ambient music was first coined by Brian Eno in the mid-1970s to refer to music that can be either actively listened to with attention or as easily ignored, depending... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A distinction can be made between instruments that produce sound through electromechanical means as opposed to instruments that produce sound using electronic components. [6]


Examples of electromechanical instruments are the teleharmonium, Hammond B3, and the electric guitar, whereas examples of electronic instruments are a Theremin, synthesizer, and a computer. [7]

Electronic music
Asian Underground / ASU
Ambient
Breakbeat
Drum and bass
Oldschool jungle
Electronica
Electronic art music
House music
Industrial
Intelligent dance music / IDM
Krautrock
Synthpop
Techno
Trance

Contents

Asian Underground is a term associated with various British Asian musicians (mostly Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Sri Lankan) who blend elements of western underground dance music and the traditional music of their home countries. ... Ambient music refers to a kind of music that envelops the listener without drawing attention to itself [1] // The term ambient music was first coined by Brian Eno in the mid-1970s to refer to music that can be either actively listened to with attention or as easily ignored, depending... This article is about breakbeat, the electronic dance music genre. ... Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b, DnB, dnb, dnb, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... Oldschool jungle is the name given to a style of electronic music that incorporates influences from genres including breakbeat hardcore, techno, rare groove and reggae/dub/dancehall. ... Electronica refers to a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; but unlike electronic dance music, is not specifically focused on the dance floor. ... Electronic music has existed, in various forms, for more than a century. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... Intelligent dance music (commonly IDM) is a genre of electronic music derived from dance music of the 1980s and early 1990s which puts an emphasis on novel processing and sequencing. ... Krautrock, also known as Kosmische Musik, is a generic name for the experimental music scene that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

History

A live performance with electronic instruments.
A live performance with electronic instruments.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 750 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 750 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Late 19th century to early 20th century

Before electronic music, there was a growing desire for composers to use emerging technologies for musical purposes. Several instruments were created that employed electromechanical designs and they paved the way for the later emergence of electronic instruments. An electromechanical instrument called the Teleharmonium (or Telharmonium) was developed by Thaddeus Cahill in the years 1898-1912. Simple inconvenience hindered the adoption of the Teleharmonium: the instrument weighed seven tons and was the size of a boxcar. Several more refined versions were also constructed a few years later (the final and most refined model arriving in 1907, weighing in at 200 tons).[citation needed] The first electronic instrument is often viewed to be the Theremin, invented by Professor Leon Theremin circa 1919–1920.[citation needed] Another early electronic instrument was the Ondes Martenot, which was most famously used in the Turangalîla-Symphonie by Olivier Messiaen as well as other works by him. It was also used by other, primarily French, composers such as Andre Jolivet.[citation needed] Composers are people who write music. ... Telharmonium console by Thaddeus Cahill 1897 The earliest purely electronic musical instrument was the Telharmonium or Teleharmonium, developed by Thaddeus Cahill in 1897. ... Thaddeus Cahill (1867 - 1934) was a prominent inventor of the early 20th century. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... A young Léon Theremin playing a theremin Léon Theremin (born Lev Sergeyevich Termen, Лев Сергеевич Термен in Russian) (August 15, 1896–November 3, 1993) was a Russian inventor. ... Ondes martenot demonstrated by inventor Maurice Martenot The Ondes Martenot (or Ondes-Martenot or Ondes martenot or Ondium Martenot or Martenot or ondes musicale) is an early electronic musical instrument with a keyboard and slide invented in 1928 by Maurice Martenot, and originally very similar in sound to the Theremin. ... The Turangalîla-Symphonie is a large-scale piece of orchestral music by Olivier Messiaen. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... André Jolivet (August 8, 1905 – December 20, 1974) was a French composer. ...


Post-war years: 1940s to 1950s

The tape recorder had been developed in Germany during the early 1930s. Whereas Wire recorders had been in use since 1898, the first practical tape recorder was called the Magnetophon (Angus 1984[citation needed]). It wasn't long before composers used the tape recorder to develop a new technique for composition called Musique concrète. This technique involved editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds.[8] Frequently, composers used sounds that were produced entirely by electronic devices not designed for a musical purpose.[citation needed] The first pieces of musique concrète were written by Pierre Schaeffer, who later worked alongside such avant-garde classical composers as Pierre Henry, Pierre Boulez and Karlheinz Stockhausen.[citation needed] Stockhausen worked for many years at the WDR Cologne's Studio for Electronic Music,[9][10] on two occasions combining electronically generated sounds with relatively conventional orchestras—in Mixtur (1964) and Hymnen, dritte Region mit Orchester (1967).[citation needed] Stockhausen stated that his listeners had told him his electronic music gave them an experience of "outer space," sensations of flying, or being in a "fantastic dream world." [11] More recently, Stockhausen has turned to producing electronic music in his own studio in Kürten, his most recent work in the genre being Cosmic Pulses (2007). The first electronic music for magnetic tape composed in America was completed by Louis and Bebe Barron in 1950.[citation needed] Sony reel-to-reel tape recorder. ... Wire recording is a type of analogue audio storage in which the recording is made onto thin steel or stainless steel wire. ... Magnetophon was the brand or model name of the pioneering reel-to-reel tape recorder developed by engineers of the German electronics company AEG in the 1930s, based on the magnetic tape invention by Fritz Pfleumer. ... Musique concrète (French; literally, concrete music), is a style of avant-garde music that relies on natural environmental sounds and other non-musical noises to create music. ... Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer (August 14, 1910–August 19, 1995) was a French composer, noted as the inventor of musique concrète. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... 20th century classical music was extremely diverse, ranging from the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff to the complete serialism of Pierre Boulez, and from the simple triadic harmonies of minimalist composers such as Philip Glass to the musique concrète of Pierre Schaeffer and the microtonal music adopted by... Pierre Henry (born December 9, 1927 in Paris, France) is a French composer, considered a pioneer of the musique concrète genre of electronic music. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a German composer, and one of the most important and controversial composers of the 20th century. ... The Westdeutsche Rundfunk (WDR) is a public broadcaster in the German Bundesland North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office is in Köln. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... Kürten is a village and a municipality in the Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Louis (1920-1989) and Bebe Barron (b. ...


Two new electronic instruments made their debut in 1957. Unlike the earlier Theremin and Ondes Martenot, these instruments were hard to use, required extensive programming, and neither could be played in real time. The first of these electronic instruments was the computer when Max Mathews used a program called Music 1, later users were Edgard Varèse, and Iannis Xenakis. The other electronic instrument that appeared that year was the first electronic synthesizer. Called the RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer, it used vacuum tube oscillators and incorporated the first electronic music sequencer. It was designed by RCA and installed at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center where it remains to this day.[citation needed] Max Vernon Mathews was born in Columbus, Nebraska, on November 13, 1926. ... Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse (December 22, 1883 – November 6, 1965) was a French-born composer. ... Iannis Xenakis Iannis Xenakis (Ιάννης Ξενάκης) (May 29, 1922 Brăila – February 4, 2001 Paris) was a Greek composer and architect who spent much of his life in Paris. ... RCA Mark II with Babbit, Mauzey, Ussachevsky The RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer (nicknamed Victor) was the flagship piece of equipment at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was traditionally a device or piece of software that allows the user to record, play back and edit musical patterns. ...


The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, now known as the Computer Music Center, is the oldest center for electronic and computer music research in the United States. It was founded in 1958 by Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening who had been working with magnetic tape manipulation since the early 1950s. A studio was built there with the help of engineer Peter Mauzey (Luening 1968, 48) and it became the hub of American electronic music production until about 1980. Robert Moog developed voltage controlled oscillators and envelope generators while there, and these were later used as the heart of the Moog synthesizer.[citation needed] The Computer Music Center (CMC) at Columbia University is the oldest center for electronic and computer music research in the United States. ... Vladimir Ussachevsky (Hailar, Manchuria, November 3, 1911 – New York, New York, January 2, 1990) was a composer particularly known for his work in electronic music. ... Otto Luening (born June 15, 1900 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; died September 2, 1996 in New York City) was an American composer and an early pioneer of electronic music. ... Peter Mauzey is an electrical engineer associated with the development of electronic music in the 1950s and 1960s at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. ... Dr. Robert Arthur Moog (pronounced // to rhyme with vogue, not //) (May 23, 1934 – August 21, 2005) was a pioneer of electronic music, best known as the inventor of the Moog synthesizer. ... The term Moog(pronounced // as in moan) synthesizer can refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Dr. Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for analog and digital music synthesisers. ...


1960s to late 1970s

Raymond Scott's Electronium, an "instantaneous composition-performance machine", ca. 1971.
Raymond Scott's Electronium, an "instantaneous composition-performance machine", ca. 1971.

Because of the complexities of composing with a synthesizer or computer, let alone the lack of access, most composers continued exploring electronic sounds using musique concrète even into the 60s.[citation needed] But musique concrète was clumsy, and a few composers sought better technology for the task. That search led three independent teams to develop the world's first playable electronic synthesizers.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 521 × 325 pixelsFull resolution (521 × 325 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Raymond Scotts Electronium, ca. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 521 × 325 pixelsFull resolution (521 × 325 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Raymond Scotts Electronium, ca. ... Raymond Scott, 1937 Raymond Scott (born Harry Warnow, September 10, 1908 – February 8, 1994), was an American composer, orchestra leader, pianist, engineer, recording studio maverick, and electronic instrument inventor. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ...


The first of these synthesizers to appear was the Buchla. Appearing in 1963, it was the product of an effort spearheaded by musique concrète composer Morton Subotnick. In 1962, working with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, Subotnick and business partner Ramon Sender hired electrical engineer Don Buchla to build a "black box" for composition. Subotnick describes their idea in the following terms: Buchla & Associates is a manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, notably synthesizers. ... Morton Subotnick (born April 13, 1933) is an American composer of electronic music, best known for his Silver Apples of the Moon, the first electronic work commissioned by a record company, Nonesuch, and composed on the Buchla modular synthesizer which he helped to design. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... Ramon Sender (born Oct 29, 1934 in Madrid, Spain) is a composer and the co-founder, with Morton Subotnick, of the San Francisco Tape Music Center in 1961. ... Don Buchla (1937— ) is a pioneer in the field of music synthesizers, releasing his first units months after Robert Moogs first synthesizers. ...

Our idea was to build the black box that would be a palette for composers in their homes. It would be their studio. The idea was to design it so that it was like an analog computer. It was not a musical instrument but it was modular... It was a collection of modules of voltage-controlled envelope generators and it had sequencers in it right off the bat... It was a collection of modules that you would put together. There were no two systems the same until CBS bought it... Our goal was that it should be under $400 for the entire instrument and we came very close. That's why the original instrument I fundraised for was under $500.[citation needed]

Another playable synthesizer, the first to use a piano-styled keyboard, was the brainchild of Robert Moog. In 1964, he invited composer Herb Deutsch to visit his studio in Trumansburg. Moog had met Deutsch the year before, heard his music, and decided to follow the composer's suggestion and build electronic music modules. By the time Deutsch arrived for the visit, Moog had created prototypes of two voltage-controlled oscillators. Deutsch played with the devices for a few days; Moog found Deutsch's experiments so musically interesting that he subsequently built a voltage-controlled filter. Then, by a stroke of luck, Moog was invited that September to the Audio Engineering Society Convention in New York City, where he presented a paper called "Electronic Music Modules" and sold his first synthesizer modules to choreographer Alwin Nikolais. By the end of the convention, Moog had entered the synthesizer business.[citation needed] Dr. Robert Arthur Moog (pronounced // to rhyme with vogue, not //) (May 23, 1934 – August 21, 2005) was a pioneer of electronic music, best known as the inventor of the Moog synthesizer. ... Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from amongst engineers, scientists, manufacturers and other organisations and individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry. ... Alwin Nikolais born in 1910 in Southington, Connecticut]. He studied piano at an early age and began his performing career as an organist accompanying silent films. ...


Also in 1964, Paul Ketoff, a sound engineer for RCA Italiana in Rome, approached William O. Smith, who headed the electronic music studio at the city's American Academy, with a proposal to build a small playable synthesizer for the academy's studio. Smith consulted with Otto Luening, John Eaton, and other composers who were in residence at the academy at the time. Smith accepted Ketoff's proposal, and Ketoff delivered his Synket (for Synthesizer Ketoff) synthesizer in early 1965.[citation needed] William O. Smith may refer to the following people: William Orlando Smith, US Congressman from Pennsylvania William O. Smith (Saint John), a mayor of Saint John, New Brunswick,Canada, from 1852 to 1853. ... Otto Luening (born June 15, 1900 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; died September 2, 1996 in New York City) was an American composer and an early pioneer of electronic music. ... John Eaton, (30 March 1935 â€“ ) is an American composer. ...


Although electronic music began in the world of classical (or "art") composition, within a few years it had been adopted into popular culture with varying degrees of enthusiasm. One of the first electronic signature tunes for television was the theme music for Doctor Who in 1963. It was created at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop by Ron Grainer and Delia Derbyshire.[citation needed] The theme music of a radio or television program is a piece that is written specifically for that show and usually played during the title sequence and/or end credits. ... For other uses, see Doctor Who (disambiguation). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The BBC Radiophonic Workshop, one of the sound effects units of the BBC, was created in 1958 to produce effects and new music for radio, and was closed in March 1998, although much of its traditional work had already been outsourced by 1995. ... Ron Grainer (August 11, 1922 - February 21, 1981) was an Australian-born composer who worked for most of his professional career in the United Kingdom. ... Delia Derbyshire (5 May 1937 - 3 July 2001) was a British musician and composer who was a pioneer of electronic music. ...


In the late 1960s, Wendy Carlos popularized early synthesizer music with two notable albums Switched-On Bach and The Well-Tempered Synthesizer, which took pieces of baroque classical music and reproduced them on Moog synthesizers. The Moog generated only a single note at a time, so that producing a multilayered piece, such as Carlos did, required many hours of studio time.[citation needed] The early machines were notoriously unstable, and went out of tune easily.[citation needed] Still, some musicians, notably Keith Emerson of Emerson Lake and Palmer did take them on the road.[citation needed] The theremin, an exceedingly difficult instrument to play, was even used in some popular music. Many people believe it to be used in "Good Vibrations" by The Beach Boys, however the instrument used was actually an Electro-Theremin.[citation needed] There was also the Mellotron which appeared in the Beatles' "Strawberry Fields Forever", and the volume tone pedal was uniquely used as a backing instrument in "Yes It Is".[citation needed] Fifty Foot Hose used a custom-built guitar synthesizer, plus reverse sounds of drums, cymbals and electric bass, along with other magnetic tape transformations, on their 1967 album Cauldron.[citation needed] The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Wendy Carlos (November 14, 1939 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island) is an American composer and electronic musician. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... Switched-On Bach is a musical album by Wendy Carlos (then Walter Carlos) on CBS Records, released in 1968. ... The Well-Tempered Synthesizer is a 1969 album released by Wendy Carlos (then released as Walter Carlos) following the groundbreaking Switched-On Bach in the previous year. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Dr. Robert Arthur Moog (pronounced // to rhyme with vogue, not //) (May 23, 1934 – August 21, 2005) was a pioneer of electronic music, best known as the inventor of the Moog synthesizer. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... Keith Noel Emerson (born 2 November 1944 in Todmorden, Yorkshire) is a British keyboard player and composer. ... ELP can also stand for Extra Long Play, a format for the VCR tape. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... The Beach Boys are an American rock and roll band. ... The Electro-Theremin aka Tannerin is a unique electronic musical instrument developed by trombonist Paul Tanner and amateur inventor Bob Whitsell in the late 1950s. ... The Mellotron is an electromechanical polyphonic keyboard musical instrument originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yes It Is is a 1965 Beatles single credited to John Lennon and Paul McCartney, which was first released as the B-side of Ticket to Ride. It features some of The Beatles most complex and dissonant three-part vocal harmonies and showcases George Harrisons early use of pedal... Cauldron album cover Fifty Foot Hose were a psychedelic rock band that formed in San Fransisco in the late 1960s. ... A guitar/synthesizer (also guitar synthesizer, guitar/synth, or guitar synth) is any one of a number of systems originally conceived to allow a guitar player to play synthesizers. ... Cauldron is the one and only album from San Franciscos Fifty Foot Hose. ...


As technology developed, and synthesizers became cheaper, more robust and portable, they were adopted by many rock bands. Examples of relatively early pioneers in this field are bands like The United States of America, The Silver Apples, Fifty Foot Hose, Pink Floyd and Genesis, and although not all of their music was electronic (with the exception of The Silver Apples), much of the resulting sound was dependent upon the synthesiser although it usually merely substituted for an organ.[citation needed] In the 1970s, the electronic style was revolutionised by the Düsseldorf band Kraftwerk, who used electronics and robotics to symbolise and sometimes gleefully celebrate the alienation of the modern technological world. To this day their music remains uncompromisingly electronic.[citation needed] In Germany particularly electronic sounds were incorporated into popular music by bands such as Cluster, Neu!, Tangerine Dream, Can, Popol Vuh, DAF and others.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is not about the 90s alternative group, The Presidents of the United States of America. ... The Silver Apples were a psychedelic electronic music duo from New York City composed of Simeon Coxe III, who performed as Simeon, on a primitive synthesizer of his own devising, and drummer Danny Taylor. ... Cauldron album cover Fifty Foot Hose were a psychedelic rock band that formed in San Fransisco in the late 1960s. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... Genesis is an English rock band formed in 1967. ... Kraftwerk (pronounced [], German for power station) is a German musical group from Düsseldorf that has made key contributions to the development of improvisational rock and electronic music, most notably within the latter categorys sub-genres which later became known as synthpop, electro, techno, house and IDM. Early musical... Look up cluster in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neu! (the German word for new, pronounced noy) were a German band, probably the archetypal example of what the UK music press at the time dubbed Krautrock. ... Tangerine Dream is a German electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. ... Can was a musical group formed in West Germany in 1968. ... Popol Vuh is a German cosmic music band founded by pianist and keyboardist Florian Fricke in 1970 together with Holger Trulzsch (percussion) and Frank Fiedler (electronics). ... The word daf and similar can mean: The word daff is a colloquial short form of daffodil. ...


Some of the leading jazz pianists, most notably Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, Joe Zawinul (Weather Report) and Jan Hammer (Mahavishnu Orchestra) started to use synthesizers on their fusion recordings during the years 1972-1974.[citation needed] The very first fusion albums containing synthesizer were recorded in 1972. These recordings, I Sing the Body Electric by Weather Report and Crossings by Herbie Hancock, used synthesizer for sound effects rather than a replacement for piano (and actually neither Hancock nor Zawinul played the synthesizer on those albums themselves).[citation needed] But in 1973 the synthesizer - used now as a solo instrument - was already part of the jazz fusion sound as heard in Weather Report's Sweetnighter album and Hancock's famous Head Hunters.[citation needed] Corea and Hammer soon followed, and both developed unique ways of playing synthesizers - utilizing slide, vibrato, ring modulators, distortion and wahwah. Later, Hancock released the well known Future Shock album, a collaboration with producer Bill Laswell in the 1980s, which spawned a pop hit "Rockit" in 1983.[citation needed] For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an Academy Award and multiple Grammy Award-winning jazz pianist and composer from Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Hancock is one of jazz musics most important and influential pianists and composers. ... Armando Anthony Chick Corea (born June 12, 1941) is a multiple Grammy Award winning American jazz pianist/keyboardist and composer. ... Joe Zawinul live with The Zawinul Syndicate (Freiburg/Germany, 2007) Josef Erich Zawinul (born July 7, 1932 in Vienna, Austria, died September 11, 2007 in Vienna) was a jazz keyboardist and composer. ... For the song Weather Report by The American Analog Set, see The Golden Band. ... Jan Hammer (IPA: ) (born 17 April 1948, in Prague, then Czechoslovakia, today part of the Czech Republic) is a composer and keyboardist. ... The original lineup in 1972, featuring Billy Cobham, John McLaughlin, Jerry Goodman, Jan Hammer and Rick Laird. ... Jazz fusion (or jazz-rock fusion or fusion) is a musical genre that merges elements of jazz with other styles of music, particularly pop, rock, folk, reggae, funk, metal, country, R&B, hip hop, electronic music and world music. ... Head Hunters is an album by Herbie Hancock, released in 1973 (see 1973 in music) on Columbia Records. ... Ring modulation is an audio effect performed by multiplying two audio signals, where one is typically a sine-wave or another simple waveform. ... For other uses, see Distortion (disambiguation). ... Wah-wah is an imitative word for the sound of bending or altering musical notes to improve expressiveness, sounding much like a human voice saying the syllable wah for each note. ... Bill Laswell (born February 12, 1955 in Salem, Illinois and raised in Albion, Michigan) is an American bassist, producer and record label owner. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Rockit was a single from Herbie Hancocks 1983 album Future Shock. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


Musicians such as Kraftwerk, Cluster, Tangerine Dream, Klaus Schulze, Brian Eno, Suicide, Vangelis, Mike Oldfield, Jean Michel Jarre, Ray Buttigieg, as well as the Japanese composers Isao Tomita and Kitaro, also popularised the sound of electronic music.[citation needed] The film industry also began to make extensive use of electronic music in soundtracks. An example is the Wendy Carlos' score for A Clockwork Orange.[citation needed] Kraftwerk (pronounced [], German for power station) is a German musical group from Düsseldorf that has made key contributions to the development of improvisational rock and electronic music, most notably within the latter categorys sub-genres which later became known as synthpop, electro, techno, house and IDM. Early musical... Look up cluster in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tangerine Dream is a German electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. ... Klaus Schulze is a German electronic music composer and musician. ... Brian Eno (pronounced ) born on 15 May 1948 in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England) is an English electronic musician, music theorist and record producer. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Evangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou (Greek: Ευάγγελος Οδυσσέας Παπαθανασίου IPA: ) is a world-renowned Greek composer of electronic, new age and classical music and musical performer, under the artist name Vangelis Papathanassiou (Βαγγέλης Παπαθανασίου) or just Vangelis (a diminutive of Evangelos) [IPA: or ]. He is best known for his Academy Award winning score for the film Chariots... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... It has been suggested that Ray Buttigieg/Cykx be merged into this article or section. ... Isao Tomita , born April 22, 1932), is a renowned Japanese electronic music composer. ... Kitaro Kitaro (喜多郎 Kitarō) (born as Masanori Takahashi (高橋正則 Takahashi Masanori) on February 4, 1953 in Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan) is a composer and multi-instrumentalist. ... In film formats, the soundtrack is the physical area of the film which records the synchronized sound. ... Wendy Carlos (November 14, 1939 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island) is an American composer and electronic musician. ... This article is about the film. ...


The score for Forbidden Planet, by Louis and Bebe Barron,[12] was entirely composed using custom built electronic circuits in 1956. On the album sleeve notes of the Forbidden Planet soundtrack,[citation needed] Louis and Bebe explain: This article is about the 1956 film. ... Louis (1920-1989) and Bebe Barron (b. ...

We design and construct electronic circuits which function electronically in a manner remarkably similar to the way that lower life-forms function psychologically. [. . .]. In scoring Forbidden Planet – as in all of our work – we created individual cybernetics circuits for particular themes and leit motifs, rather than using standard sound generators. Actually, each circuit has a characteristic activity pattern as well as a "voice". [. . .]. We were delighted to hear people tell us that the tonalities in Forbidden Planet remind them of what their dreams sound like.

Once electronic sounds became more common in popular recordings, other science fiction films such as Blade Runner and the Alien series of movies began to depend heavily for mood and ambience upon the use of electronic music and electronically derived effects. Electronic groups were also hired to produce entire soundtracks, just like other popular music stars.[citation needed] Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ... Alien (1979), directed by Ridley Scott, is an extremely popular and influential science fiction/horror film that spawned several sequels and imitators. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Late 1970s to late 1980s

In the late 1970s and early 1980s there was a great deal of innovation around the development of electronic music instruments. Analogue synthesizers largely gave way to digital synthesizers and samplers. Early samplers, like early synthesizers, were large and expensive pieces of gear. Companies like Fairlight and New England Digital sold instruments that cost upwards of $100,000. In the mid 1980s, however, the introduction of low-cost digital samplers made the technology available to more musicians.[citation needed] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This article is about the demo/warez group. ... New England Digital Corp. ...


From the late 1970s onward, much popular music was developed on these digital machines. Groups and artists such as Ultravox, Gary Numan, The Human League, Landscape, Visage, Daniel Miller, Pete Shelley, Heaven 17, Eurythmics, Severed Heads, John Foxx, Thomas Dolby, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, Norman Iceberg, Yazoo, Erasure, Alphaville, Art of Noise, Yello, Depeche Mode and New Order developed new ways of making popular music by electronic means.[citation needed] Ultravox (formerly Ultravox!) was one of the primary exponents of the British electronic pop music movement of the early 1980s. ... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... The Human League are an award winning, Grammy nominated British synthpop/New Wave band formed in 1977 who, after a key change in line up, achieved great popularity in the 1980s. ... Landscape were a British synthpop band of the early 1980s best known for their 1981 hits, Einstein A Go-Go and Norman Bates. Landscape consisted of: Richard James Burgess, Christopher Heaton, Andy Pask, Peter Thoms and John Walters Richard James Burgess went on to produce bands such as Spandau Ballet... Visage was a New Romantic band that began life in 1978, mainly to provide some danceable music to be played on Steve Stranges and Rusty Egans Billys London nightclub. ... The Normal is the recording artist name used by English film editor Daniel Miller, who is best known as the founder of the record label Mute Records. ... Pete Shelley Pete Shelley (born Peter McNeish, April 17, 1955 in Leigh, Lancashire) is an English singer, songwriter and guitarist, best-known as the leader of Buzzcocks, one of the first generation punk rock groups from England. ... Heaven 17 are an English synthpop band originating in Sheffield in the early 1980s. ... For the approach to music education, see Eurhythmics. ... A photo of The Severed Heads from the back of the album Since The Accident. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thomas Dolby (born Thomas Morgan Robertson, on 14 October 1958) is an English musician, producer, and inventor. ... Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (often abbreviated to OMD) are a synth pop group whose founder members are originally from the Wirral Peninsula, UK. OMD record for Virgin Records (originally for Virgins DinDisc subsidiary). ... Norman Iceberg (born Norman Joseph Bédard on July 30, 1962) is a Canadian singer and songwriter. ... Yazoo (known as Yaz in the U.S.) was a short-lived but highly successful English synthpop duo from Basildon, Essex that had a number of top ten hits in the British charts in the early 1980s. ... This article is about the a musical group Erasure. ... Alphaville is a German synthpop/-rock music group which gained popularity in the 1980s. ... Art of Noise Edited twelve inch single featured the iconic Art of Noise mask Art of Noise was an avant-garde synthpop group formed in 1983 by producer Trevor Horn, music journalist Paul Morley, and session musicians/studio hands Anne Dudley, J.J. Jeczalik, and Gary Langan. ... Yello is a popular Swiss electronica band consisting of Dieter Meier and Boris Blank. ... Depeche Mode (IPA: /dɛ.pɛʃ moʊd/) are an electronic music group that formed in 1980 in Basildon, Essex, England. ... This article is about the alternative rock/electronic band New Order. ...


According to a biography of the folk rock band Crosby, Stills & Nash, a number of early experimental electronic music works were recorded throughout the early 1970s out of a collaboration between David Crosby, Grateful Dead members Jerry Garcia, Phil Lesh, and Mickey Hart, and composer Ned Lagin. These included the Lagin album Seastones, first released in 1975.[13] In 1980, UK recording artist Gary Numan helped to bring to electronic music into the wider marketplace of pop music with his hit "Cars" from the album The Pleasure Principle. Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Crosby, Stills & Nash, also Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young when including occasional fourth member Neil Young, are a folk rock/rock supergroup. ... David Van Cortlandt Crosby (born August 14, 1941) is an American guitarist, singer, and songwriter. ... This article is about the band. ... Jerome John Jerry the Bulldog Garcia (August 1, 1942 – August 9, 1995) was an American musician, songwriter, and artist best known for being the lead guitarist and vocalist of the psychedelic rock band the Grateful Dead. ... Phillip Chapman Lesh (born March 15, 1940 in Berkeley, California) is a musician and founding member of the rock band, Grateful Dead; he played bass guitar in that group throughout their entire 30-year career. ... Mickey Hart (born September 11, 1943) is a percussionist and musicologist. ... Although often uncredited, Ned Lagin played keyboards at a number of the Grateful Deads live shows between 1970 and 1975. ... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... Cars is a 1979 song by Gary Numan, released as a single and on the album The Pleasure Principle. ...


The new kinds of electronic noise that synthesizers could create contributed to the formation of the genre of industrial music, pioneered by groups such as Throbbing Gristle in 1975, Wavestar and Cabaret Voltaire. Artists like Nine Inch Nails in 1989, KMFDM, and Severed Heads, took the innovations of musique concrète and applied them to dance and rock music. Others, such as Test Department, Einstürzende Neubauten, took this new sound and created noisy electronic compositions. Other groups, such as Robert Rich, Zoviet France, and Rapoon created soundscapes using synthesized noise. Still others (Front 242, Skinny Puppy) combined this harshness with pop and dance, creating electronic body music.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Chicago Industrial be merged into this article or section. ... Throbbing Gristle (formed on September 3, 1975, in London) are a British Avant-Garde group that evolved from the performance art group COUM Transmissions. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wavestar is a British New Age Music Synthesizer band. ... Cabaret Voltaire was a British music group from Sheffield, England. ... “NIN” redirects here. ... KMFDM is an industrial rock band and the brainchild of founding member Sascha Konietzko. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... Test Dept. ... Einstürzende Neubauten is an experimental music band, originally from West Berlin, formed in 1980. ... Robert Rich is an ambient musician and composer based in California, USA. With a discography spanning over twenty years, he is widely regarded as a figure whose sound has greatly influenced todays ambient, new age, and even IDM music. ... Zoviet france (also known as Soviet France, and also written as :zoviet*france:) is a fairly prolific industrial music group from Newcastle upon Tyne in Northern England. ... Rapoon is the musical vehicle of Robin Storey, a former member of Zoviet France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Skinny Puppy is a prominent industrial band, formed in Vancouver, BC, Canada in 1982. ... Electronic body music (mainly known by its acronym EBM) is a music genre that combines elements of industrial music and electronic punk music. ...


During this time, dub musicians such as industrial-funk outfit Tackhead, vocalist Mark Stewart and others on Adrian Sherwood's On-U Sound record label in the 1980s integrated the aesthetics of industrial and noise music with tape and dub production. This paved the way for much of the 1990s interest in dub, first through bands such as Meat Beat Manifesto and later downtempo and trip hop producers such as Kruder & Dorfmeister. Still, others, like Big Noise, Bruce Haack, Robert Lowe, Glenn Davis (DR G) and Sprites built, or had built some or all of the instruments that they used.[citation needed] For other uses, see Dub. ... Tackhead (sometimes known as The Maffia or Fats Comet) are band that were most active during the 1980s and early 1990s, and briefly reformed in 2004 for a tour. ... Mark Stewart is a British musician and founding member of the Pop Group. ... Adrian Sherwood Adrian Sherwood (born 1958) is a British record producer best known for his work with dub music as well as for remixing a number of popular acts such as Coldcut, Depeche Mode, Primal Scream, Pop Will Eat Itself, and Sinéad OConnor. ... On-U Sound Records is an English record label best known for releasing its own unique flavour of dub music since the 1980s. ... Meat Beat Manifesto, often shortened to Meat Beat or MBM, is an electronic music outfit originally consisting of Jack Dangers and Jonny Stephens formed in 1987 in Swindon, UK. This was also the hometown of the band XTC, who helped Meat Beat get started. ... Downtempo (or Downbeat) is a laid-back electronic music style similar to Ambient music. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... Kruder & Dorfmeister, named after Peter Kruder and Richard Dorfmeister, is an Austrian duo most known for their downtempo-dub remixes of pop, hip-hop, and drum and bass songs. ... Bruce Clinton Haack (1931-1988) was a musician and composer, and a pioneer within the realm of electronic music. ... Glenn Davis can refer to one of the following Glenn Robert Davis, a member of the United States House of Representatives representing Wisconsins Ninth Congressional District from April 22, 1947 to January 3, 1957 and again from January 3, 1965 to December 31, 1974. ... Sprites are an independent new wave/indie pop music group from Maryland, USA. Their lineup is ever-changing, with only the founding members (the husband-wife duo of Jason Korzen (formerly of Barcelona) and Amy Korzen) staying constant. ...


Recent developments: 1980s to early 2000s

The development of the techno sound in Detroit, Michigan and house music in Chicago, Illinois in the 1980s, and the later UK-based acid house movement of the late 1980s and early 1990s fueled the development and acceptance of electronic music into the mainstream and introduced electronic dance music to nightclubs. Electronic composition can create faster and more precise rhythms than is possible using traditional percussion, as is used in Trance music. The sound of electronic dance music often features electronically altered (samples) of traditional instruments and vocals.[citation needed] Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... “Detroit” redirects here. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the 1994 novel by Irvine Welsh, see The Acid House. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electronic dance music (EDM) is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds over time. ... “Percussion” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about reusing existing sound recordings in creating new works. ...


Circuit Bending

Probing for "bends" using a jeweler's screwdriver and alligator clips.
Probing for "bends" using a jeweler's screwdriver and alligator clips.
Main article: Circuit bending

Circuit bending is the creative short-circuiting of low voltage, battery-powered electronic audio devices such as guitar effects, children's toys and small synthesizers to create new musical instruments and sound generators. Emphasizing spontaneity and randomness, the techniques of circuit bending have been commonly associated with noise music, though many more conventional contemporary musicians and musical groups have been known to experiment with "bent" instruments. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 410 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) My photo, released under a creative commons license. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 410 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) My photo, released under a creative commons license. ... Probing for bends using a jewelers screwdriver and alligator clips Circuit bending is the creative short-circuiting of low voltage, battery-powered electronic audio devices such as guitar effects, childrens toys and small synthesizers to create new musical instruments and sound generators. ... Probing for bends using a jewelers screwdriver and alligator clips Circuit bending is the creative short-circuiting of low voltage, battery-powered electronic audio devices such as guitar effects, childrens toys and small synthesizers to create new musical instruments and sound generators. ... For alternate meanings see Short circuit (disambiguation) A short circuit (sometimes known as simply a short) is a fault whereby electricity moves through a circuit in an unintended path, usually due to a connection forming where none was expected. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. ... Guitar effects are electronic devices that modify the tone, pitch, or sound of an electric guitar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term synthesiser is also used to mean frequency synthesiser, an electronic system found in communications. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Overview

Genres

Electronic music, especially in the late 1990s fractured into many genres, styles and sub-styles, too many to list here, and most of which are included in the main list. Although there are no hard and fast boundaries, broadly speaking we can identify the experimental and classical styles: electronic art music, musique concrète, acousmatic art; the industrial music and synth pop styles of the 1980s; styles that are primarily intended for dance such as italo disco, techno, house, trance, electro, breakbeat, jungle, drum and bass, Gabber, and styles that are intended more as experimental styles or for home listening such as electronica, IDM, glitch, Breakcore and trip-hop. The proliferation of personal computers and the MIDI interface beginning in the 1980s brought about a new genre of electronic music, known loosely as chip music or bitpop. These styles, produced initially using specialized sound chips in PCs such as the Commodore 64, Commodore Amiga, and Atari ST among others, grew primarily out of the demoscene. The latter categories such as IDM, glitch and chip music share much in common with the art and musique concrète styles which predate it by several decades. This is a list of electronic music genres and sub-genres, though for the latter not all possess their own article (in which case, see the main genre article). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This is a list of electronic music genres and sub-genres, though for the latter not all possess their own article (in which case, see the main genre article). ... For experimental rock music, see experimental rock. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Electronic music has existed, in various forms, for more than a century. ... Musique concrète (French; literally, concrete music), is a style of avant-garde music that relies on natural environmental sounds and other non-musical noises to create music. ... // The acousmatic is an art of sound [2]. Acousmatic music (or musique acousmatique) is music which is fixed definitively on a medium and the resulting works can only be heard through that medium. ... It has been suggested that Chicago Industrial be merged into this article or section. ... Synth pop is a style of popular music in which the synthesizer is the dominant musical instrument. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Electro, short for electro funk (also known as robot hip hop and Electro hop) is an electronic style of hip hop directly influenced by Kraftwerk and funk records (unlike earlier rap records which were closer to disco). ... This article is about breakbeat, the electronic dance music genre. ... Jungle music can mean: Drum and bass - the current term used to encompass the entire musical genre of jungle and drum & bass Oldschool jungle - a style specific to the earliest form of drum and bass, it is still produced to this day Ragga jungle - a substyle of oldschool jungle, characterized... Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b, DnB, dnb, dnb, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... Gabber (IPA pronunciation: ), gabba, or hardcore, is a style of electronic music and a subgenre of hardcore techno. ... Electronica refers to a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; but unlike electronic dance music, is not specifically focused on the dance floor. ... Intelligent dance music (commonly IDM) is a genre of electronic music derived from dance music of the 1980s and early 1990s which puts an emphasis on novel processing and sequencing. ... Glitch (also known as Clicks and Cuts from a representative compilation series by the German record label Mille Plateaux) is a genre of electronic music that became popular in the late 1990s with the increasing use of digital signal processing, particularly on computers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Chiptune or chip music is music written in sound formats where all the sounds are synthesized in realtime by a computer or video game console sound chip, instead of using sample_based synthesis. ... Bitpop is a type of electronic music, where at least part of the music is made using old 8-bit computers, game consoles and little toy instruments. ... C-64 redirects here. ... Amiga is the name of a range of home/personal computers using the Motorola 68000 processor family, whose development started in 1982. ... The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... The demoscene is a computer art subculture that specializes itself on producing demos, non-interactive audio-visual presentations, which are run real-time on a computer. ...


Notable artists and DJs

With the explosive growth of computer-music technology and consequent reduction in the cost of equipment in the late 1990s, the number of artists and DJs working within electronic music increased significantly.[citation needed] With the advent of hard disk recording systems, it is possible for any home computer user to become a musician, and hence the rise in the number of "bedroom bands", often consisting of a single person. Nevertheless notable artists can still be identified. Within the experimental and classical or "art" traditions still working today are Karlheinz Stockhausen, Pierre Boulez and Steve Reich.[citation needed] The genre of cosmic electronic music was formed at the turn of the 1970s in Germany by Popol Vuh, Klaus Schulze and Tangerine Dream.[citation needed] Influential musicians in industrial and later synth pop styles include Throbbing Gristle (who reformed in 2004), Jean Michel Jarre, Cabaret Voltaire (now defunct), the Human League and Kraftwerk who released their first album in over a decade in 2003.[citation needed] In house, techno, and drum-and-bass pioneers such as Juan Atkins, Richie Hawtin (aka Plastikman who made his own mixers, effects and electronic table sets), Derrick May, Goldie, A Guy Called Gerald and LTJ Bukem are still active as of 2006.[citation needed] Commercially successful artists working under the "electronica" rubric such as Cut Chemist, Air, Fatboy Slim, Faithless, Fluke, The Chemical Brothers, Daft Punk, DJ Shadow, The Crystal Method, Massive Attack, Nine Inch Nails, DJ Spooky, Nathan Fake, The Prodigy, Orbital, Propellerheads, Underworld, Björk, Benny Benassi, BT and Moby continue to release albums and perform regularly (sometimes in stadium-sized arenas, such has the popularity of electronic dance music grown). Some DJs such as Paul Oakenfold, Daft Punk, John Digweed, Sasha, Paul van Dyk, Armin van Buuren, Ferry Corsten,Tiësto and Amon Tobin have reached true superstar status and can command five-figure fees for a single performance.[citation needed] They perform for hours on end mixing their music into pre-recorded singles. Some DJs have world-wide radio, and internet, broadcast shows that air weekly, such as A State of Trance, a show mixed by Armin van Buuren.[citation needed] The critically acclaimed Autechre, Squarepusher, the art band De Signer and Aphex Twin continue to put out challenging records of (mostly) home-listening music.[citation needed] For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a German composer, and one of the most important and controversial composers of the 20th century. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Kosmische Musik is a style of mostly electronic music that was born in Germany in late 1960s-early 1970s; the term often refers to the whole German electronic and prog rock scene, including the so called Krautrock. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Popol Vuh is a German cosmic music band founded by pianist and keyboardist Florian Fricke in 1970 together with Holger Trulzsch (percussion) and Frank Fiedler (electronics). ... Klaus Schulze is a German electronic music composer and musician. ... Tangerine Dream is a German electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. ... Throbbing Gristle (formed on September 3, 1975, in London) are a British Avant-Garde group that evolved from the performance art group COUM Transmissions. ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... Cabaret Voltaire was a British music group from Sheffield, England. ... The Human League are an English synthpop band formed in 1977, who, after several changes in line up, achieved great popularity in the 1980s and a limited comeback in the mid-1990s. ... Kraftwerk (pronounced [], German for power station) is a German musical group from Düsseldorf that has made key contributions to the development of improvisational rock and electronic music, most notably within the latter categorys sub-genres which later became known as synthpop, electro, techno, house and IDM. Early musical... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Juan Atkins (born December 9, 1962 in Detroit) is an American musician. ... Derrick May, also known as Mayday and Rhythim is Rhythim, is an electronic musician from Detroit, Michigan U.S.. He was born in Detroit in 1963 and began to explore electronic music early in his life. ... For other uses, see Goldie (disambiguation). ... A Guy Called Gerald is the stage name for musician, record producer and DJ Gerald Simpson from Moss Side in Manchester, United Kingdom. ... LTJ Bukem is the stage name used by the drum and bass musician, producer and DJ Danny Williamson (born 1967, London). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Electronica refers to a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; but unlike electronic dance music, is not specifically focused on the dance floor. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... For the Japanese band, see Air (Japanese band). ... FatBoy Slim (born Quentin Leo Cook on July 31, 1963,[1] also known as Norman Cook) is a British big beat musician. ... Faithless are a British band whose music is described by the band as a cross between hip-hop and dance. ... Fluke is an English electronic music group formed in the late 1980s by Mike Bryant, Jon Fugler and Mike Tournier with Julian Nugent as the bands manager. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Daft Punk is the collective name of Paris house musicians Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo (born February 8, 1974)[1] and Thomas Bangalter (born January 3, 1975). ... DJ Shadow (born Josh Davis on January 1, 1973) is an American DJ, turntablist, music producer and songwriter. ... The Crystal Method is an American electronic music duo consisting of Ken Jordan and Scott Kirkland. ... Massive Attack are a trip hop band from Bristol, England. ... “NIN” redirects here. ... DJ Spooky, That Subliminal Kid (born Paul D. Miller, 1970), is a Washington DC-born electronic and experimental hip hop musician whose work is often called illbient or trip hop. He is a turntablist and producer. ... Nathan Fake is an electronic music artist from Norfolk, UK who has released numerous singles as well as a full-length album on labels such as Border Community and Traum Schallplatten. ... The Prodigy (or just Prodigy)[1] are an English band. ... Orbital was an English techno duo from 1989 until 2004, consisting of brothers Paul and Phil Hartnoll. ... Propellerheads is a British big beat music band made up of electronic producers Will White and Alex Gifford. ... Underworld is the principal name under which British electronic music duo Karl Hyde and Rick Smith have recorded since the late 1980s. ... This article is about the musician. ... Benny Benassi (born Marco Benassi Geneser July 13, 1967) is an Italian disc jockey and a euro house/electroclash artist, who lives in Reggio Emilia, a town in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Brian Wayne Transeau (born October 4, 1971 in Rockville, Maryland) is an electronic musician, better known by his stage name, BT. He has been called the Father of Trance for his pioneering in the trance genre [1],[2] and Prince of Dance Music for his multi-instrumentalist skills [3], and... Not to be confused with Mooby. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Daft Punk is the collective name of Paris house musicians Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo (born February 8, 1974)[1] and Thomas Bangalter (born January 3, 1975). ... John Digweed John Digweed (born January 1, 1967 in Hastings, England) is a British DJ and record producer. ... Sasha (born Alexander Coe on September 4, 1969), is a Welsh DJ and record producer. ... This article is about the DJ. For the American historian, see Paul Van Dyke. ... Armin van Buuren (born December 25, 1976) is a trance music DJ and producer from Leiden, the Netherlands. ... Ferry Corsten (born December 4, 1973 in Rotterdam, Netherlands) is an early pioneer and producer of trance, in addition to being a world-renowned DJ and remixer. ... Tiësto (born Tijs Verwest on January 17, 1969 in Breda, The Netherlands) is one of the worlds most famous trance DJs. ... Amon Tobin performing live. ... A State of Trance (often abbreviated as ASoT or ASOT) is the title of a weekly radio show hosted by popular trance DJ Armin van Buuren. ... Armin van Buuren (born December 25, 1976) is a trance music DJ and producer from Leiden, the Netherlands. ... Autechre are an English electronic music group consisting of Rob Brown (born c. ... Squarepusher is the performing pseudonym of Tom Jenkinson, an English electronic music artist signed to Warp Records. ... Aphex Twin (born Richard David James on August 18, 1971 in Limerick, Ireland) is a British electronic music artist, credited with pushing forward the genres of techno, ambient, acid and drum and bass. ...


Notable record labels

Until 1978 and the formation of Mute Records, there were virtually no record labels that deal with exclusively electronic music. Because of this dearth of outlets, many of the early techno pioneers started their own. For example, Juan Atkins started Metroplex Records a Detroit-based label, and Richie Hawtin and John Acquaviva started their hugely influential Plus 8 imprint. In the United Kingdom, Warp Records emerged in the 1990s as one of the pre-eminent sources of home-listening and experimental music. Later arrivals include Astralwerks, Ninja Tune, the art/music Label Le Branché, Tiesto's Black Hole Recordings, Oakenfold's Perfecto Record label and John Digweed's Bedrock Records.[citation needed] This is a list of notable electronic music record labels: 12 Inch Records 12k 3 Beat Music 4-Sight Records 8bitpeoples Accidental Music AD Music Ad Noiseam ADP Records Additive Records A Different Drum Alex Tronic Records Alfa Matrix All Around The World A-Musik Anjunabeats Anjunadeep Ant-Zen Architecture... Mute Records is a record label formed in 1978 by Daniel Miller primarily to release his own single, T.V.O.D./Warm Leatherette, under the moniker The Normal. ... In the music industry, a record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... Metroplex is a techno record label in Detroit, founded in 1985 by techno pioneer Juan Atkins. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Richie Hawtin (born Richard Hawtin, June 4, 1970, Banbury, Oxfordshire, England) is a Canadian electronic musician and internationally-touring DJ who was an influential part of Detroit technos second wave of artists in the early 1990s. ... Heycos 23:26, 16 April 2006 (UTC) Category: ... Canadian Techno record label, based in Windsor, Ontario and founded in 1990 by DJs Richie Hawtin and John Acquaviva. ... Warp Records is a pioneering independent UK record label, founded in Sheffield in 1989, notable for discovering some of the most enduring artists in electronic music. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Astralwerks is an New York based record label which releases primarily electronic music. ... Ninja Tune is a London-based independent record label started in 1991 by DJs Matt Black and Jonathan More, better known as Coldcut, with a strong leaning towards Electronic, abstract hip-hop, instrumental hip hop, Nu-Jazz, drum and bass, and chillout music. ... Black Hole Recordings is a Netherlands recording label founded by one of the worlds leading DJs Tijs Verwest (DJ Tiësto), and Arny Bink in 1997. ... Perfecto Records is a label founded by famed trance DJ Paul Oakenfold in 1989. ... Bedrock Records is an English record label for trance, house and techno started by Nick Muir and John Digweed. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Synthpop. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Dark house be merged into this article or section. ... The BBC Radiophonic Workshop, one of the sound effects units of the BBC, was created in 1958 to produce effects and new music for radio, and was closed in March 1998, although much of its traditional work had already been outsourced by 1995. ... // The acousmatic is an art of sound [2]. Acousmatic music (or musique acousmatique) is music which is fixed definitively on a medium and the resulting works can only be heard through that medium. ... Computer music is music generated with, or composed with the aid of, computers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Among other things, the term Laptop Generation can refer to the set of electronic music artists who first made extensive use of computers in creating electronic music. ... // Play It Tonight launched in December of 2003 and was one of the first Electronic Music Download stores available for DJs. ... Electronic music has existed, in various forms, for more than a century. ... Ishkurs Guide to Electronic Music (often referred to as just Ishkurs Guide) is an online Flash-driven guide to electronic music created by Kenneth John Taylor of British Columbia. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The conference is spread across various clubs in Miami. ... Schaffel (from a German word meaning shuffle) is a term used to describe a trend in progressive electronic music in which the time signatures are built in variations of 6/8, 12/8, 3/4, or 4/4 triplet feels. ... Spectral music (or spectralism) is a musical genre or movement originating in France in the 1970s and characterized by the use of computer analysis of sound wave components as the basis for composition. ... Electronic dance music (EDM) is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... Live PA Live PA, sometimes written LivePA, meaning Live Performance Artist or Personal Appearance is a term used to describe the act of performing music (mostly electronic) live. ...

References

  • Angus, Robert. 1984. "History of Magnetic Recording, Part One". Audio Magazine (August): 27–33.
  • Bogdanov, Vladimir, Chris Woodstra, Stephen Thomas Erlewine, and John Bush (editors). 2001. The All Music Guide to Electronica: The Definitive Guide to Electronic Music. AMG All Music Guide Series. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-628-9
  • Holmes, Thomas B. 2002. Electronic and Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology and Composition. Second edition. London: Routledge Music/Songbooks. ISBN 0415936438 (cloth) ISBN 0415936446 (pbk)
  • Kettlewell, Ben. 2001. Electronic Music Pioneers. [N.p.]: Course Technology, Inc. ISBN 1-931140-17-0
  • Lebrecht, Norman. 1996. The Companion to 20th-Century Music. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306807343 (pbk)
  • Luening, Otto. 1968. "An Unfinished History of Electronic Music". Music Educators Journal 55, no. 3 (November): 42–49, 135–42, 145.
  • Norman, Katharine. 2004. Sounding Art: Eight Literary Excursions through Electronic Music. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0754604268
  • Prendergast, Mark. 2001. The Ambient Century: From Mahler to Trance: The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age. Forward [sic] by Brian Eno. New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-4213-9, ISBN 1-58234-134-6 (hardcover eds.) ISBN 1-58234-323-3 (paper)
  • Reynolds, Simon. 1998. Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. London: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-35056-0 (US title, Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture. Boston: Little, Brown, 1998 ISBN 0316741116; New York: Routledge, 1999 ISBN 0-415-92373-5)
  • Schaefer, John. 1987. New Sounds: A Listener's Guide to New Music. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-097081-2
  • Shapiro, Peter (editor). 2000. Modulations: a History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound. New York: Caipirinha Productions ISBN 1-891024-06-X
  • Sicko, Dan. 1999. Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk. New York: Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-8428-0
  • United Kingdom. Parliament. Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, c. 33
  • Zimmer, Dave. 2000. Crosby, Stills, and Nash: The Authorized Biography. Photography by Henry Diltz. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80974-5

Further reading

  • Chadabe, Joel. 1997. "Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music". Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0133032310
  • Emmerson, Simon. 1986. "The Language of Electroacoustic Music". London: Macmillan. ISBN 0333397592 (cased), ISBN 0333397606 (pbk)
  • Emmerson, Simon. 2000. "Music,Electronic Media and Culture". Aldershot (UK); Burlington (US): Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0754601099
  • Griffiths, Paul. 1995. "Modern Music and After: Directions Since 1945". Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198165110 (pbk) ISBN 0198165781 (cloth)
  • Heifetz, Robin J. (ed.). 1989. "On The Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of Electroacoustic Music". Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses. ISBN 0838751555
  • Kahn Douglas. 1999. "Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts". Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0262112434 New edition 2001, ISBN 0262611724
  • Licata, Thomas (ed.). (2002). "Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives". Westport,CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313314209
  • Manning, Peter. 2004. "Electronic and Computer Music". Revised and expanded edition. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195144848 (cloth) ISBN 0195170857 (pbk)
  • Roads, Curtis. 1996. "The Computer Music Tutorial". Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0262181584 (cloth) ISBN 0262680823 (pbk)

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Electronic music

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Footnotes

  1. ^ "The novelty of making music with electronic instruments has long worn off. The use of electronics to compose, organize, record, mix, color, stretch, randomize, project, perform, and distribute music is now intimately woven into the fabric of modern experience" (Holmes 2002, 1).
  2. ^ "Electronically produced music is part of the mainstream of popular culture. Musical concepts that were once considered radical - the use of environmental sounds, ambient music, turntable music, digital sampling, computer music, the electronic modification of acoustic sounds, and music made from fragments of speech-have now been subsumed by many kinds of popular music. Record store genres including new age, rap, hip-hop, electronica, techno, jazz, and popular song all rely heavily on production values and techniques that originated with classic electronic music" (Holmes 2002, 1).
  3. ^ "By the 1990s, electronic music had penetrated every corner of musical life. It extended from ethereal sound-waves played by esoteric experimenters to the thumping syncopation that accompanies every pop record" (Lebrecht 1996, 106).
  4. ^ "Purely electronic music is created through the generation of sound waves by electrical means. This is done without the use of traditional musical instruments or of sounds found in nature, and is the domain of computers, synthesizers and other technologies" (Holmes 2002, 6).
  5. ^ "Electronica, microsound, lowercasesound, electroacoustic music, computer music, IDM, analogue music, post-digital music, glitch, acousmatic, noise, sonic art ... The approaches to making questing music with the assistance of technology are now a multifarious explosion of different kinds of listening. The use of technology itself can no longer define a genre" (Norman 2004, xi).
  6. ^ "The stuff of electronic music is electrically produced or modified sounds. ... two basic definitions will help put some of the historical discussion in its place: purely electronic music versus electroacoustic music" (Holmes 2002, 6).
  7. ^ "Electroacoustic music uses electronics to modify sounds from the natural world. The entire spectrum of worldly sounds provides the source material for this music. This is the domain of microphones, tape recorders and digital samplers... can be associated with live or recorded music. During live performances, natural sounds are modified in real time using electronics. The source of the sound can be anything from ambient noise to live musicians playing conventional instruments" (Holmes 2002, 8).
  8. ^ "Musique Concrete was created in Paris in 1948 from edited collages of everyday noise" (Lebrecht 1996, 107).
  9. ^ "The Rhineside cathedral city was the first to build an electronic music studio in 1953. With Stockhausen and Kagel in residence, it became a year-round hive of charismatic avante-gardism [sic]" (Lebrecht 1996, 75).
  10. ^ "... at Northwest German Radio in Cologne (1953), where the term 'electronic music' was coined to distinguish their pure experiments from musique concrete..." (Lebrecht 1996, 107).
  11. ^ "In 1967, just following the world premiere of Hymnen, Stockhausen said this about the electronic music experience: '... Many listeners have projected that strange new music which they experienced—especially in the realm of electronic music—into extraterrestrial space. Even though they are not familiar with it through human experience, they identify it with the fantastic dream world. Several have commented that my electronic music sounds "like on a different star," or "like in outer space." Many have said that when hearing this music, they have sensations as if flying at an infinitely high speed, and then again, as if immobile in an immense space. Thus, extreme words are employed to describe such experience, which are not "objectively" communicable in the sense of an object description, but rather which exist in the subjective fantasy and which are projected into the extraterrestrial space.'" (Holmes 2002, 145).
  12. ^ "From at least Louis and Bebbe Barron's soundtrack for 'The Forbidden Planet" onwards, electronic music - in particular synthetic timbre - has impersonated alien worlds in film" (Norman 2004, 32).
  13. ^ Zimmer 2000, 179.

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