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Encyclopedia > Electronic commerce

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Electronic commerce

Bills and coins

Online goods and services
Streaming media
Electronic books
Software Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... An ebook is an electronic (or digital) version of a book. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...

Retail services
Banking · Food ordering
Flower delivery · DVD rental Online banking (or Internet banking) is a term used for performing transactions, payments etc. ... Online food ordering services are websites that feature interactive menus allowing customers to place orders with their local restaurants. ... Online flower delivery services are websites that allow you to place floral and allied gifting orders by browsing an online catalogue. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Marketplace services
Trading communities
Auctions · Online wallet
Advertising
Price comparison service An online trading community exists to provide its members with a structured method for trading, bartering, or selling goods or services. ... The online auction business model is one in which participants bid for products and services over the Internet. ... A online wallet is a program or web service that allows users to store and control their online shopping information, like logins, passwords, shipping address and credit card details, in one central place. ... Online advertising is a form of advertising utilizing the Internet and World Wide Web in order to deliver marketing messages and attract customers. ... On the internet, a price comparison service (also known as shopping comparison or price engine) allows individuals to see lists of prices for specific products. ...

E-procurement
E-procurement (Electronic Procurement) is the business-to-business purchase and sale of supplies and services through the Internet as well as other information and networking systems, such as electronic data interchange (EDI) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). ...


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Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily since the spread of the Internet. A wide variety of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail as well. This article is about a term used in economics. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... Electronic funds transfer or EFT refers to the computer-based systems used to perform financial transactions electronically. ... Supply chain management (SCM) is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the operations of the supply chain as efficiently as possible. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Internet marketing, also referred to as online marketing or Emarketing, is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. ... Online Transaction Processing (or OLTP) is a class of program that facilitates and manages transaction-oriented applications, typically for data entry and retrieval transaction processing. ... An inter-company, application-to-application communication of data in standard format for business transactions. ... In business management, inventory consists of a list of goods and materials held available in stock. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


A large percentage of electronic commerce is conducted entirely electronically for virtual items such as access to premium content on a website, but most electronic commerce involves the transportation of physical items in some way. Online retailers are sometimes known as e-tailers and online retail is sometimes known as e-tail. Almost all big retailers have electronic commerce presence on the World Wide Web. The virtual is a concept applied in many fields with somewhat differing connotations, and also denotations. ...


Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses is referred to as Business-to-business or B2B. B2B can be open to all interested parties (e.g. commodity exchange) or limited to specific, pre-qualified participants (private electronic market). External Links International Chamber of E-Commerce: e-commerce store/catalog, point-n-click website builder, e-business tools & services ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of the business transactions. Electronic business is any information system or application that empowers business processes. ...

Contents

History

Early development

The meaning of electronic commerce has changed over the last 30 years. Originally, electronic commerce meant the facilitation of commercial transactions electronically, using technology such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT). These were both introduced in the late 1970s, allowing businesses to send commercial documents like purchase orders or invoices electronically. The growth and acceptance of credit cards, automated teller machines (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were also forms of electronic commerce. From the 1990s onwards, electronic commerce would additionally include enterprise resource planning systems (ERP), data mining and data warehousing. An inter-company, application-to-application communication of data in standard format for business transactions. ... Electronic funds transfer or EFT refers to the computer-based systems used to perform financial transactions electronically. ... A Purchase Order (abbreviated PO) is a commercial document issued by a buyer to a seller, indicating the type, quantities and agreed prices for products or services that the seller will provide to the buyer. ... An invoice or bill is a commercial document issued by a seller to a buyer, indicating the products, quantities and agreed prices for products or services with which the seller has already provided the buyer. ... A credit card system is a type of retail transaction settlement and credit system, named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. ... An NCR interior, multi-function ATM in the USA Smaller indoor ATMs dispense money inside convenience stores and other busy areas, such as this off-premise Wincor Nixdorf mono-function ATM in Sweden An on-premise NCR interior, multi-function through-the-wall ATM at a CIBC branch in Canada... Telephone banking is a service provided by a financial institution which allows its customers to perform transactions over the telephone. ... Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERPs) integrate (or attempt to integrate) all data and processes of an organization into a unified system. ... Data mining is the principle of sorting through large amounts of data and picking out relevant information. ... A data warehouse is a record of an enterprises past transactional and operational activities, stored in a database. ...


Perhaps it is introduced from the Telelphone Exchange Office.The earliest example of many-to-many electronic commerce in physical goods was the Boston Computer Exchange, a marketplace for used computers launched in 1982. The first online information marketplace, including online consulting, was likely the American Information Exchange, another pre-Internet online system introduced in 1991. Boston Computer Exchange was the worlds first e-commerce company, and dominated electronic trading in used computers in the US in the 1980s. ...


Web development

When the Web first became well-known among the general public in 1994, many journalists and pundits forecast that e-commerce would soon become a major economic sector. However, it took about four years for security protocols (like HTTPS) to become sufficiently developed and widely deployed. Subsequently, between 1998 and 2000, a substantial number of businesses in the United States and Western Europe developed rudimentary web sites. https is a URI scheme used to indicate a secure HTTP connection. ...


In the dot com era, electronic commerce came to include activities more precisely termed "Web commerce" -- the purchase of goods and services over the World Wide Web, usually with secure connections with e-shopping carts and with electronic payment services such as credit card payment authorizations. The dot-com bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 during which stock markets in Western nations saw their value increase rapidly from growth in the new Internet sector and related fields. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... A security protocol (cryptographic protocol or encryption protocol) is an abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods. ... Shopping cart software is software used in e-commerce to simulate a shopping cart. ... This article is about the payment system. ...


Although a large number of "pure" electronic commerce companies disappeared during the dot-com collapse in 2000 and 2001, many "brick-and-mortar" retailers recognized that such companies had identified valuable niche markets (need for a product or service that is not being addressed by mainstream providers) and began to add e-commerce capabilities to their Web sites. For example, after the collapse of online grocer Webvan, two traditional supermarket chains, Albertsons and Safeway, both started e-commerce subsidiaries through which consumers could order groceries online. Dot-com (also dotcom or redundantly dot. ... Webvan logo as seen on an orphaned shipping bin Webvan was an online credit and delivery grocery business that went bankrupt in 2001. ... {{This article is about the US-based corporation|Safeway}} Safeway Inc. ...


The emergence of electronic commerce also significantly lowered barriers to entry in the selling of many types of goods; many small home-based proprietors are able to use the internet to sell goods. Often, small sellers use online auction sites such as eBay, or sell via large corporate websites like Amazon.com, in order to take advantage of the exposure and setup convenience of such sites. This article is about the online auction center. ...


$259 billion of online sales including travel are expected in 2007 in USA, an 18% increase from the previous year, as forecasted by the State of Retailing Online 2007 report from the National Retail Federation (NRF) and Shop.org.[1] The National Retail Federation is the worlds largest retail trade association, with membership that comprises all retail formats and channels of distribution including department, specialty, discount, catalog, Internet, independent stores, chain restaurants and grocery stores as well as the industrys key trading partners of retail goods and services. ...


Currently there are 67 Fortune 1000 companies that have ecommerce revenues greater than $10 million. The 5 largest Internet retailers are Amazon, Staples, Office Depot, Dell, and Hewlett Packard. This indicates that the top categories of products sold on the Internet are books, music, office supplies, computers, and other consumer electronics. A list of Fortune 1000 companies ranked by ecommerce revenues can be found on AListNet. [2]


Timeline

  • 1990: Tim Berners-Lee wrote the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, using a NeXT computer.
  • 1992: J.H. Snider and Terra Ziporyn published Future Shop: How New Technologies Will Change the Way We Shop and What We Buy. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312063598.
  • 1994: Netscape released the Navigator browser in October under the code name Mozilla. Pizza Hut offered pizza ordering on its Web page. The first online bank opened. Attempts to offer flower delivery and magazine subscriptions online. Adult materials were also commercially available, as were cars and bikes. Netscape 1.0 in late 1994 introduced SSL encryption that made transactions secure.
  • 1995: Jeff Bezos launched Amazon.com and the first commercial-free 24 hour, internet-only radio stations, Radio HK and NetRadio started broadcasting. Dell and Cisco began to aggressively use Internet for commercial transactions. eBay was founded by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as AuctionWeb.
  • 1998: Electronic postal stamps can be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web.
  • 1999: business.com was sold for US $7.5 million, which was purchased in 1997 for US $150,000. The peer-to-peer filesharing software Napster was launched.
  • 2000: The dot-com bust.
  • 2003: Amazon.com had its first year with a full year of profit.

Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... WorldWideWeb was the worlds first web browser and WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) HTML editor. ... NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ... Netscape Communications Corporation was the publisher of the Netscape Navigator web browser as well as many other internet and intranet client and server software products. ... Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, nowadays called SeaMonkey suite. ... Pornography (from Greek πορνογραφια pornographia — literally writing about or drawings of harlots) is the representation of the human body or human sexual behaviour with the goal of sexual arousal, similar to, but (according to some) distinct from, erotica. ... Netscape Navigator, also known as Netscape, was a proprietary web browser that was popular during the 1990s. ... Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS), its successor, are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communications on the Internet. ... Amazon. ... NetRadio (Net. ... Dell Inc. ... “Cisco” redirects here. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Business. ... Napster was a file sharing service that paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Limewire, iMesh, Morpheus, and BearShare, which are now used for many of the same reasons and can download music, pictures, and other files. ... Dot-com (also dotcom or redundantly dot. ... Amazon. ...

Business applications

Some common applications related to electronic commerce are:

  • E-mail and messaging
  • Documents, spreadsheets, database
  • Accounting and finance systems
  • Orders and shipment information
  • Enterprise and client information reporting
  • Domestic and international payment systems

Government regulations

In the United States, some electronic commerce activities are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). These activities include the use of commercial e-mails, online advertising and consumer privacy. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 establishes national standards for direct marketing over e-mail. The Federal Trade Commission Act regulates all forms of advertising, including online advertising, and states that advertising must be truthful and non-deceptive.[3] Using its authority under Section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair or deceptive practices, the FTC has brought a number of cases to enforce the promises in corporate privacy statements, including promises about the security of consumers’ personal information.[4] As result, any corporate privacy policy related to e-commerce activity may be subject to enforcement by the FTC. | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 (15 U.S.C. 7701, et seq. ... The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1934 established the Federal Trade Commission, a bipartisan body of two hundred members appointed by the President of the United States for seven year terms. ...


Forms

Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering "digital" content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to "meta" services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce.


On the consumer level, electronic commerce is mostly conducted on the World Wide Web. An individual can go online to purchase anything from books, grocery to expensive items like real estate. Another example will be online banking like online bill payments, buying stocks, transferring funds from one account to another, and initiating wire payment to another country. All these activities can be done with a few keystrokes on the keyboard.


On the institutional level, big corporations and financial institutions use the internet to exchange financial data to facilitate domestic and international business. Data integrity and security are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce these days.


Taxation

Main article: Internet taxation

From the inception of the Internet until the late 1990s, the Internet was free of regulation by government in the United States at all levels, and also free of any specially targeted tax levies, duties, imposts, or license fees. By 1996, however, that began to change, as several U.S. states and municipalities began to see Internet services as a potential source of tax revenue. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        From the inception of the Internet until the late 1990s, the Internet was free of regulation by government in the United States at all levels, and also free of any specially targeted tax levies, duties... “Taxes” redirects here. ...


The 1998 Internet Tax Freedom Act halted the expansion of direct taxation of the Internet, grandfathering existing taxes in ten US states.[5] In the United States alone, some 30,000 taxing jurisdictions could otherwise have laid claim to taxes on a piece of the Internet.[6] The law, however, did not affect sales taxes applied to online purchases. These continue to be taxed at varying rates depending on the jurisdiction, in the same way that phone and mail orders are taxed. The Internet Tax Freedom Act was authored by Rep. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ...


The enactment of this legislation has coincided with the beginning of a period of spectacular Internet growth. Its proponents argue that the benefits of knowledge, trade, and communications that the Internet is bringing to more people in more ways than ever before are worth the tax revenue losses, if any, and that the economic and productivity growth attributable to the Internet may well have contributed more revenues to various governments than would otherwise have been received. Opponents, on the other hand, have argued that the Internet would continue to prosper even if taxed, and that the current federal ban on Internet-specific levies denies government at all levels a much-needed source of revenue.


See also

The term (in all its uses) is generally agreed to derive from electronic government which introduces the notion and practicalities of electronic technology into the various dimensions and ramifications of government. ... A Dot-com company, or simply a dot-com, was any company that promoted itself as an Internet business during the Dot-com boom. ... Dot-com redirects here. ... Paid Content is the non-free electronic commerce of digital content and information goods in digital media. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Online sales spike 19 percent. CNN (May 14 2007).
  2. ^ Fortune 1000 Companies Ranked by eCommerce Revenues. AListNet (Sep 1 2007).
  3. ^ Advertising and Marketing on the Internet: Rules of the Road. Federal Trade Commission.
  4. ^ Enforcing Privacy Promises: Section 5 of the FTC Act. Federal Trade Commission.
  5. ^ Internet Tax Freedom Act, 47 U.S.C. § 151 (1998).
  6. ^ Internet Taxation [1] published by Duke University

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... The Internet Tax Freedom Act was authored by Rep. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. ...

References

  • Chaudhury, Abijit; Jean-Pierre Kuilboer (2002). e-Business and e-Commerce Infrastructure. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-247875-6. 
  • Frieden, Jonathan D. & Roche, Sean Patrick (2006-12-19), "E-Commerce: Legal Issues of the Online Retailer in Virginia", Richmond Journal of Law & Technology 13 (2), <http://law.richmond.edu/jolt/v13i2/article5.pdf>
  • Kessler, M. (2003). More shoppers proceed to checkout online. Retrieved January 13, 2004
  • Nissanoff, Daniel (2006). FutureShop: How the New Auction Culture Will Revolutionize the Way We Buy, Sell and Get the Things We Really Want, Hardcover, The Penguin Press, 246 pages. ISBN 1-59420-077-7. 
  • Seybold, Pat (2001). Customers.com. Crown Business Books (Random House). ISBN 0-609-60772-3. 
  • Miller, Roger (2002). The Legal and E-Commerce Environment Today, Hardcover, Thomson Learning, 741 pages. ISBN 0-324-06188-9. 

Electronic business is any information system or application that empowers business processes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

 
 

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