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Encyclopedia > Electron configuration
Electron atomic and molecular orbitals
Electron atomic and molecular orbitals

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (e.g., a crystal). Like other elementary particles, the electron is subject to the laws of quantum mechanics, and exhibits both particle-like and wave-like nature. Formally, the quantum state of a particular electron is defined by its wavefunction, a complex-valued function of space and time. According to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, the position of a particular electron is not well defined until an act of measurement causes it to be detected. The probability that the act of measurement will detect the electron at a particular point in space is proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction at that point. Image File history File links Electron_orbitals. ... Image File history File links Electron_orbitals. ... Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems comprised of electrons and an atomic nucleus. ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Probability densities for the electron at different quantum numbers (l) In quantum mechanics, the quantum state of a system is a set of numbers that fully describe a quantum system. ... This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ... In mathematics, a complex number is a number of the form where a and b are real numbers, and i is the imaginary unit, with the property i 2 = −1. ... The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg while collaborating in Copenhagen around 1927. ...


Electrons are able to move from one energy level to another by emission or absorption of a quantum of energy, in the form of a photon. Because of the Pauli exclusion principle, no more than two electrons may exist in a given atomic orbital; therefore an electron may only leap to another orbital if there is a vacancy there. A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is an indivisible entity of energy. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ... In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. ...


Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the structure of the periodic table of elements. The concept is also useful for describing the chemical bonds that hold atoms together. In bulk materials this same idea helps explain the peculiar properties of lasers and semiconductors. The Periodic Table redirects here. ... For alternative meanings see laser (disambiguation). ... A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. ...

Contents

Electron configuration in atoms

The discussion below presumes knowledge of material contained at Atomic orbital. In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. ...


Summary of the quantum numbers

The state of an electron Is in poop an atom is given by four quantum numbers. Three of these are integers and are properties of the atomic orbital in which it sits (a more thorough explanation is given in that article). Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantity in the dynamics of the quantum system. ... In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. ...

number denoted allowed range represents
principal quantum number n integer, 1 or more Partly the overall energy of the orbital, and by extension its general distance from the nucleus. In short, the energy level it is in. (1+)
azimuthal quantum number l integer, 0 to n-1 The orbital's angular momentum, also seen as the number of nodes in the density plot. Otherwise known as its orbital. (s=0, p=1...)
magnetic quantum number m integer, -l to +l, including zero. Determines energy shift of an atomic orbital due to external magnetic field (Zeeman effect). Indicates spatial orientation.
spin quantum number ms +½ or -½ (sometimes called "up" and "down") Spin is an intrinsic property of the electron and independent of the other numbers. s and l in part determine the electron's magnetic dipole moment.

No two electrons in one atom can have the same set of these four quantum numbers (Pauli exclusion principle). In atomic physics, the principal quantum number symbolized as n is the first quantum number of an atomic orbital. ... The Azimuthal quantum number (or orbital angular momentum quantum number) symbolized as l (lower-case L) is a quantum number for an atomic orbital which determines its orbital angular momentum. ... By virtue of its charge and spin motion, an electron develops a magnetic field. ... In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, the space surrounding moving electric charges, changing electric fields and magnetic dipoles contains a magnetic field. ... The Zeeman effect (IPA ) is the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of a magnetic field. ... In atomic physics, the spin quantum number is a quantum number that parametrizes the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of a given particle. ... In physics, the magnetic moment of an object is a vector relating the aligning torque in a magnetic field experienced by the object to the field vector itself. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ...


Shells and subshells

Shells and subshells (also called energy levels and sublevels) are defined by the quantum numbers, not by the distance of its electrons from the nucleus, or even their overall energy. In large atoms, shells above the second shell overlap (see Aufbau principle). Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ...


States with the same value of n are related, and said to lie within the same electron shell.
States with the same value of n and also l are said to lie within the same electron subshell, and those electrons having the same n and l are called equivalent electrons.
If the states also share the same value of m, they are said to lie in the same atomic orbital.
Because electrons have only two possible spin states, an atomic orbital cannot contain more than two electrons (Pauli exclusion principle). Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In atomic physics, an electron subshell is a group of atomic orbitals with the same values of the principal quantum number n and the angular momentum quantum number l. ... In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ...


A subshell can contain up to 4l+2 electrons; a shell can contain up to 2n² electrons; where n equals the shell number.


Worked example

Here is the electron configuration for a filled fifth shell:

Shell Subshell Orbitals   Electrons
n = 5 l = 0 m = 0 → 1 type s orbital → max 2 electrons
  l = 1 m = -1, 0, +1 → 3 type p orbitals → max 6 electrons
  l = 2 m = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 → 5 type d orbitals → max 10 electrons
  l = 3 m = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 → 7 type f orbitals → max 14 electrons
  l = 4 m = -4, -3 -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4 → 9 type g orbitals → max 18 electrons
        Total: max 50 electrons

This information can be written as 5s2 5p6 5d10 5f14 5g18 (see below for more details on notation).


Notation

Physicists and chemists use a standard notation to describe atomic electron configurations. In this notation, a subshell is written in the form nxy, where n is the shell number, x is the subshell label and y is the number of electrons in the subshell. An atom's subshells are written in order of increasing energy – in other words, the sequence in which they are filled (see Aufbau principle below). In atomic physics, an electron subshell is a group of atomic orbitals with the same values of the principal quantum number n and the angular momentum quantum number l. ...


For instance, ground-state hydrogen has one electron in the s orbital of the first shell, so its configuration is written 1s1. Lithium has two electrons in the 1s subshell and one in the (higher-energy) 2s subshell, so its ground-state configuration is written 1s2 2s1. Phosphorus (atomic number 15), is as follows: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ...


For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy. It is often abbreviated by noting that the first few subshells are identical to those of one or another noble gas. Phosphorus, for instance, differs from neon (1s2 2s2 2p6) only by the presence of a third shell. Thus, the electron configuration of neon is pulled out, and phosphorus is written as follows: [Ne]3s2 3p3. This article is about the chemical series. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ...


An even simpler version is simply to quote the number of electrons in each shell, e.g. (again for phosphorus): 2-8-5.


The orbital labels s, p, d, and f originate from a now-discredited system of categorizing spectral lines as sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental, based on their observed fine structure. When the first four types of orbitals were described, they were associated with these spectral line types, but there were no other names. The designation g was derived by following alphabetical order. Shells with more than five subshells are theoretically permissible, but this covers all discovered elements. For mnemonic reasons, some call the s and p orbitals spherical and peripheral. A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ...


Aufbau principle

In the ground state of an atom (the condition in which it is ordinarily found), the electron configuration generally follows the Aufbau principle. According to this principle, electrons enter into states in order of the states' increasing energy; i.e., the first electron goes into the lowest-energy state, the second into the next lowest, and so on. The order in which the states are filled is as follows: In physics, the ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals The Aufbau principle from German Aufbau meaning buildup (also Aufbau rule or building-up principle), is used to determine the electron configuration of an atom, molecule or ion. ...

s p d f g
1   1
2   2 3
3   4 5 7
4   6 8 10 13
5   9 11 14 17 21
6   12 15 18 22
7   16 19 23
8   20 24

The order of increasing energy of the subshells can be constructed by going through downward-leftward diagonals of the table above (also see the diagram at the top of the page), going from the topmost diagonals to the bottom. The first (topmost) diagonal goes through 1s; the second diagonal goes through 2s; the third goes through 2p and 3s; the fourth goes through 3p and 4s; the fifth goes through 3d, 4p, and 5s; and so on. In general, a subshell that is not "s" is always followed by a "lower" subshell of the next shell; e.g. 2p is followed by 3s; 3d is followed by 4p, which is followed by 5s, 4f is followed by 5d, which is followed by 6p, and then 7s. This explains the ordering of the blocks in the periodic table.


A pair of electrons with identical spins has slightly less energy than a pair of electrons with opposite spins. Since two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins, this causes electrons to prefer to occupy different orbitals. This preference manifests itself if a subshell with l > 0 (one that contains more than one orbital) is less than full. For instance, if a p subshell contains four electrons, two electrons will be forced to occupy one orbital, but the other two electrons will occupy both of the other orbitals, and their spins will be equal. This phenomenon is called Hund's rule. Hunds rule is a principle of physical chemistry which states that before any two electrons occupy an orbital in a subshell, other orbitals in the same subshell must first each contain one electron. ...


The Aufbau principle can be applied, in a modified form, to the protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus (see the shell model of nuclear physics). For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... In nuclear physics, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ...


Orbitals table

This table shows all orbital configurations up to 7s, therefore it covers the simple electronic configuration for all elements from the periodic table up to Ununbium (element 112) with the exception of Lawrencium (element 103), which would require a 7p orbital. The Periodic Table redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3 Physical properties...

s (l=0) p (l=1) d (l=2) f (l=3)
n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
n=5
n=6
n=7

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Exceptions in 3d, 4d, 5d

A d subshell that is half-filled or full (ie 5 or 10 electrons) is more stable than the s subshell of the next shell. This is the case because it takes less energy to maintain an electron in a half-filled d subshell than a filled s subshell. For instance, copper (atomic number 29) has a configuration of [Ar]4s1 3d10, not [Ar]4s2 3d9 as one would expect by the Aufbau principle. Likewise, chromium (atomic number 24) has a configuration of [Ar]4s1 3d5, not [Ar]4s2 3d4 where [Ar] represents the configuration for argon. Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals The Aufbau principle from German Aufbau meaning buildup (also Aufbau rule or building-up principle), is used to determine the electron configuration of an atom, molecule or ion. ... General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ...


Exceptions in Period 4:

Element Z Electron configuration Short electron conf.
Scandium 21 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1 [Ar] 4s2 3d1
Titanium 22 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2 [Ar] 4s2 3d2
Vanadium 23 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3 [Ar] 4s2 3d3
Chromium 24 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5 [Ar] 4s1 3d5
Manganese 25 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5 [Ar] 4s2 3d5
Iron 26 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6 [Ar] 4s2 3d6
Cobalt 27 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7 [Ar] 4s2 3d7
Nickel 28 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8 [Ar] 4s2 3d8
Copper 29 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10 [Ar] 4s1 3d10
Zinc 30 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 [Ar] 4s2 3d10
Gallium 31 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1

Exceptions in Period 5: General Name, Symbol, Number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 44. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gallium, Ga, 31 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 4, p Appearance silvery white   Standard atomic weight 69. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ...

Element Z Electron configuration Short electron conf.
Yttrium 39 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d1 [Kr] 5s2 4d1
Zirconium 40 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d2 [Kr] 5s2 4d2
Niobium 41 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s1 4d4 [Kr] 5s1 4d4
Molybdenum 42 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s1 4d5 [Kr] 5s1 4d5
Technetium 43 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d5 [Kr] 5s2 4d5
Ruthenium 44 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s1 4d7 [Kr] 5s1 4d7
Rhodium 45 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s1 4d8 [Kr] 5s1 4d8
Palladium 46 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 4d10 [Kr] 4d10
Silver 47 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s1 4d10 [Kr] 5s1 4d10
Cadmium 48 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 [Kr] 5s2 4d10
Indium 49 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p1 [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p1

Exceptions in Period 6: General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ...

Element Z Short electron conf.
Iridium 77 [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d7
Platinum 78 [Xe] 6s1 4f14 5d9
Gold 79 [Xe] 6s1 4f14 5d10
Mercury 80 [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10
Thallium 81 [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p1

This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ...

Relation to the structure of the periodic table

Main article: Periodic table – Structure of the periodic table

Electron configuration is intimately related to the structure of the periodic table. The chemical properties of an atom are largely determined by the arrangement of the electrons in its outermost "valence" shell (although other factors, such as atomic radius, atomic mass, and increased accessibility of additional electronic states also contribute to the chemistry of the elements as atomic size increases) therefore elements in the same table group are chemically similar because they contain the same number of "valence" electrons. The Periodic Table redirects here. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... The valence shell is the outermost shell of an atom, which contains the electrons most likely to account for the nature of any reactions involving the atom and of the bonding interactions it has with other atoms. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ...


Electron configuration in molecules

In molecules, the situation becomes more complex, as each molecule has a different orbital structure. See the molecular orbital article and the linear combination of atomic orbitals method for an introduction and the computational chemistry article for more advanced discussions. In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a region in which an electron may be found in a molecule. ... The linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital method (usually called the LCAO MO method) is a technique for calculating molecular orbitals in quantum chemistry. ... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to complement the information obtained by actual chemical experiments, predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, and solve related problems. ...


Electron configuration in solids

In a solid, the electron states become very numerous. They cease to be discrete, and effectively blend together into continuous ranges of possible states (an electron band). The notion of electron configuration ceases to be relevant, and yields to band theory. For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... In solid-state physics, an energy band is a continuous range of values of energy that an electron may or may not have. ... In solid state physics, band theory is the theory of the behavior of the electrons in solids. ...


See also

This is a table of electron configurations of atoms. ... electron numbers indicate subshells that are filled to their maximum. ... In chemistry, an atomic orbital is the region in which an electron may be found around a single atom. ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... In molecular physics, the molecular term symbol is a shorthand expression of the group representation and angular momenta that characterize the state of a molecule, i. ... HOMO and LUMO are acronyms for highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, respectively. ... PWPAW A Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) code for electronic structure calculation. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ...

Notes


  Results from FactBites:
 
Electron Configuration (812 words)
The electron configuration of an atom is the particular distribution of electrons among available shells.
The number of electrons in an atom of an element is given by the atomic number of that element.
With increasing atomic number, the electron configuration of the atoms display a periodic variation.
How do I read an electron configuration table? (493 words)
An electron configuration table is a type of code that describes how many electrons are in each energy level of an atom and how the electrons are arranged within each energy level.
The total number of electrons in an energy level is the sum of the electrons in each sub-shell of that energy level.
Use the electron configuration to find that atom's highest energy level and then add up the numbers in superscript to find the number of electrons that are in it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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