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Electroconvulsive therapy
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in anesthetized patients for therapeutic effect. Today, ECT is most often used as a treatment for severe major depression which has not responded to other treatment, and is also used in the treatment of mania (often in bipolar disorder), catatonia, schizophrenia and other disorders. It was first introduced in the 1930s[1] and gained widespread use as a form of treatment in the 1940s and 50s; today, an estimated 1 million people worldwide receive ECT every year,[2] usually in a course of 6-12 treatments administered 2 or 3 times a week. Electroconvulsive therapy can differ in its application in three ways; electrode placement, length of time that the stimulus is given, and the property of the stimulus. The variance of these three forms of application have significant differences in both adverse side effects and positive outcomes. In a study, ECT was shown clinically to be the most effective treatment for severe depression, and to result in improved quality of life in both short- and long-term.[3] After treatment, drug therapy can be continued, and some patients receive continuation/maintenance ECT. Supposed beneficial and detrimental effects include those listed later in this article. The American Psychiatric Association and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have concluded that the procedure does not cause brain damage.[4][5] Certain types of ECT have been shown to cause persistent memory loss,[6] whereas confusion usually clears within hours of treatment[citation needed]. Informed consent is a standard of modern electroconvulsive therapy[citation needed]. Involuntary treatment is uncommon in countries that follow contemporary standards and is typically only used when the use of ECT is considered potentially life saving.[7] Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a humans body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or hair. ... An electroshock weapon is an incapacitant weapon used for subduing a person by administering electric shock aimed at disrupting superficial muscle functions. ... Summary An electroshock gun or stun gun, is a weapon used for subduing a person by administering an electric shock. ... Tasers used as electroshock weapons became part of routine police work in early 1990s, even though electric instruments have already been implicated in torture throughout the world as shown by Amnesty International reports. ... // Taser International, Incorporated is a Scottsdale, Arizona-based corporation that produces Tasers, the most common brand of electroshock gun. ... Wikinews has related news: Video of man tasered at Vancouver airport released Robert DziekaÅ„ski was a Polish immigrant who arrived at the Vancouver International Airport on 14 October 2007 where he died after being tasered at least twice by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). ... Tabatabainejad in handcuffs, being removed from Powell Library by UCPD officers. ... On September 17, 2007, at 12:00 p. ... A pulsed energy weapon is any weapon that:- Uses pulses of electricity to fire a projectile, or Operates by transferring electric current to its target. ... 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It is in various sizes from rifle size upwards, with various ranges. ... Typical view of defibrillation in progress, with the operator at the head, but clear of contact with the patient Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... This is a page about catatonic state. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... 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ECT is used predominantly as a treatment for severe depression. It is generally reserved for use as a second-line treatment for patients who have not responded to drugs. The first-line use of treatment is for situations where immediate clinical intervention is needed or alternative treatments are not advisable. About seventy percent of ECT patients are women.[8]This is largely, but not entirely, due to the fact that women are more likely to receive treatment for depression.[8][9] Older and more affluent patients are also more likely to receive ECT. The use of ECT treatment is "markedly reduced for ethnic minorities."[10][9] ECT is also sometimes used in the treatment of other disorders, for example, schizophrenia, mania, especially in bipolar disorder and catatonia.[8] This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... This is a page about catatonic state. ...

In the US the Surgeon General's report on mental health summarised current psychiatric opinion about the effectiveness of ECT. It stated that both clinical experience and controlled trials had determined ECT to be effective (with an average 60 to 70 percent response rate) in the treatment of severe depression, some acute psychotic states, and mania. Its effectiveness had not been demonstrated in dysthymia, substance abuse, anxiety, or personality disorder. The report stated that ECT does not have a long-term protective effect against suicide and should be regarded as a short-term treatment for an acute episode of illness, to be followed by continuation therapy in the form of drug treatment or further ECT at weekly to monthly intervals.[11] A large multicentre clinical follow-up study of ECT patients in New York found response rates of 30-47 percent (depending on criteria), with 64 percent of those relapsing within six months.[12] A survey of New York psychiatrists found that they thought that 85 percent of their patients benefited from ECT.[13] Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... Dysthymia is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Personality disorder, formerly referred to as a Character Disorder is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of thought and action (Cognitive modules). ...

In the UK in 2003 the UK ECT Review Group, led by Professor Geddes of Oxford University, reviewed the evidence and concluded that ECT had been shown to be an effective short-term treatment for depression (as measured by symptom rating scales) in physically healthy adults, and that it was probably more effective than drug treatment. Bilateral ECT was more effective than unilateral, and high-dose was more effective than low-dose. Their conclusions were qualified: most of the trials were old and conducted on small numbers of patients; some groups (for example, elderly people, women with postpartum depression and people with treatment-resistant depression) were under-represented in the trials even though ECT is believed to be especially effective for them.[14] A Self-report inventory is a type of psychological test in which a patient fills out a survey or questionnaire with or without the help of a mental health professional. ... Postpartum depression (also postnatal depression) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ...


Once the decision has been made for a patient to have ECT there is usually a pretreatment evaluation that determines what factors will allow for maximum benefits and minimize risk. Informed consent is also sought before treatment. Patients are informed about the risks and benefits of the procedure. Patients are also made aware of risks and benefits of other treatments and of not having the procedure done at all. Depending on the jurisdiction the need for further inputs from other medical professionals or legal professionals may be required. ECT is usually given on an in-patient basis, although it may also be given on an out-patient basis. Prior to treatment a patient is given a short-acting anesthetic such as methohexital, propofol, etomidate and thiopental,[8] a muscle relaxant such as suxamethonium (succinylcholine), and occasionally atropine to inhibit salivation. Methohexital is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic induction agent, that is, used to commence anaesthesia. ... Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent used for the induction of general anesthesia in adult patients and pediatric patients older than 3 years of age; maintenance of general anesthesia in adult patients and pediatric patients older than 2 months of age; and sedation in medical contexts, such as... Etomidate is a short acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and for sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints and cardioversion. ... Sodium thiopental (also called sodium pentothal (™ of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental (or thiopentone) sodium) is a rapid-onset, short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. ... Suxamethonium chloride (also known as succinylcholine, or scoline) is a white crystalline substance, it is odourless and highly soluble in water. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ...

Electrodes are usually placed one on either side of the patient's head. This is known as bilateral ECT. Less frequently both electrodes are placed on one side of the head. This is known as unilateral ECT. In bifrontal ECT, an uncommon variation, the electrode position is somewhere between bilateral and unilateral. Unilateral is thought to cause fewer cognitive effects than bilateral but is considered less effective.[8] In the USA most patients receive bilateral ECT.[13] In the UK almost all patients receive bilateral ECT.[15] For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ...

The electrodes deliver an electrical stimulus. The stimulus levels recommended for ECT are in excess of an individual's seizure threshold: about one and a half times seizure threshold for bilateral ECT and up to 12 times for unilateral ECT.[8] Below these levels treatment may not be effective in spite of a seizure, while doses massively above threshold level, especially with bilateral ECT, expose patients to the risk of more severe cognitive impairment without additional therapeutic gains.[16] Seizure threshold is determined by trial and error ("dose titration"). Some psychiatrists use dose titration, some still use "fixed dose" (that is, all patients are given the same dose) and others compromise by roughly estimating a patient's threshold according to age and sex.[13] Older men tend to have higher thresholds than younger women, but it is not a hard and fast rule, and other factors, for example drugs, affect seizure threshold. Mental functions and cognitive processes are terms often used interchangeably (although not always correctly so, the term cognitive tends to have specific implications - see cognitive and cognitivism) to mean such functions or processes as perception, introspection, memory, imagination, conception, belief, reasoning, volition, and emotion--in other words, all the different...

ECT machines

Most modern ECT machines deliver a brief-pulse current, which is thought to cause fewer cognitive effects than the sine-wave currents which were originally used in ECT.[8] A small minority of psychiatrists in the USA still use sine-wave stimuli.[13] Sine-wave is no longer used in the UK.[15] Typically, the electrical stimulus used in ECT is about 800 milliamps, and the current flows for between one and 6 seconds.[16] In the USA, ECT machines are manufactured by two companies, Somatics, which is owned by psychiatrists Richard Abrams and Conrad Swartz, and MECTA. The Food and Drug Administration has classified the devices used to administer ECT as Class III medical devices.[17] Class III is the highest-risk class of medical devices. In the UK the market for ECT machines was long monopolised by Ectron Ltd, although in recent years some hospitals have started using American machines. Ectron Ltd was set up by psychiatrist Robert Russell, who together with a colleague from the Three Counties Asylum, Bedfordshire, invented the Page-Russell technique of intensive ECT. FDA redirects here. ... // European Definition COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices defines a ‘medical device’ as: any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application intended by the manufacturer to be used for human...

Variations in international practice

There is wide variation in ECT use between different countries, different hospitals, and different psychiatrists.[8] International practice varies considerably from widespread use of the therapy in many western countries to a small minority of countries that do not use ECT at all, such as Slovenia.[18] Guidelines on the use of ECT are stringent in the USA and the UK. Modern standards are not always followed throughout the world and not all countries that use ECT have written technical standards. The use of both anesthesia and muscle relaxants is universally recommended in the administration of ECT. If anesthesia and muscle relaxants are not used the procedure is called unmodified ECT. In a minority of countries such as Japan,[19] India,[20] and Nigeria,[21] ECT may be used without anesthesia. WHO has called for a world wide ban on unmodified ECT and the topic is currently being debated in countries like India. The practice has been recently abolished in Turkey's largest psychiatric hospitial.[22] A major difficulty for developing countries in eliminating unmodified ECT is a lack of trained anesthetists available to administer the procedure.[23] A small minority of countries never seek consent before administering ECT. This significantly uneven application of ECT around the world continues to make ECT a controversial procedure.

In the USA, a survey of psychiatric practice in the late 1980s found that an estimated 100,000 people received ECT annually, with wide variation between metropolitan statistical areas.[24] Accurate statistics about the frequency, context and circumstances of ECT in the United States are difficult to obtain because only a few states have reporting laws that require the treating facility to supply state authorities with this information.[25] One state which does report such data is Texas, where in the mid-1990s ECT was used in about one third of psychiatric facilities and given to about 1,650 people annually.[9] Usage of ECT has since declined slightly; in 2000-01 ECT was given to about 1,500 people aged from 16 to 97 (in Texas it is illegal to give ECT to anyone under sixteen).[26] ECT is more commonly used in private psychiatric hospitals than in public hospitals and minority patients are underrepresented in the ECT statistics.[8] In the United States ECT is usually given three times a week; in the UK it is usually given twice a week.[8] Occasionally it is given on a daily basis.[8] A course usually consists of 6-12 treatments, but may be more or fewer. Following a course of ECT some patients may be given continuation or maintenance ECT with further treatments at weekly, fortnightly or monthly intervals.[8] A few psychiatrists in the USA use multiple-monitored ECT (MMECT) where patients receive more than one treatment per anesthetic.[8]

In the United Kingdom in 1980, an estimated 50,000 people received ECT annually, with use declining steadily since then[27][28] to about 12,000 per annum. It is still used in nearly all psychiatric hospitals, with a survey of ECT use from 2002 finding that 71 percent of patients were women and 46 percent were over 65 years of age. Eighty-one percent had a diagnosis of mood disorder; schizophrenia was the next most common diagnosis. Sixteen percent were treated without their consent.[29] In 2003 the National Institute for Clinical Excellence, a government body which was set up to standardize treatment throughout the National Health Service, issued guidance on the use of ECT. Its use was recommended "only to achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms after an adequate trial of treatment options has proven ineffective and/or when the condition is considered to be potentially life-threatening in individuals with severe depressive illness, catatonia or a prolonged manic episode".[30] The guidance got a mixed reception. It was welcomed by an editorial in the British Medical Journal[31] but the Royal College of Psychiatrists launched an unsuccessful appeal.[32] The NICE guidance, as the British Medical Journal editorial points out, is only a policy statement and psychiatrists may deviate from it if they see fit. Adherence to standards has not been universal in the past. A survey of ECT use in 1980 found that more than half of ECT clinics failed to meet minimum standards set by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, with a later survey in 1998 finding that minimum standards were largely adhered to, but that two-thirds of clinics still fell short of current guidelines, particularly in the training and supervision of junior doctors involved in the procedure.[33] A voluntary accreditation scheme, ECTAS, was set up in 2004 by the Royal College, but as of 2006 only a minority of ECT clinics in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic have signed up.[34] The National Institute for Controlling Expenditure or NICE is an agency of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. ...

Adverse effects

The physical risks of ECT are similar to those of brief general anesthesia; the United States' Surgeon General's report says that there are "no absolute health contraindications" to its use.[11] Immediately following treatment the most common adverse effects are confusion and memory loss. The state of confusion usually disappears after an hour. This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ... In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that increases the risk involved in using a particular drug, carrying out a medical procedure or engaging in a particular activity. ...

Effects on cognition and memory

It is the effects of ECT on long-term memory that give rise to much of the concern surrounding its use.[35]The acute effects of ECT include amnesia, both retrograde (for events occurring before the treatment) and anterograde (for events occurring after the treatment).[36] Memory loss and confusion are more pronounced with bilateral electrode placement rather than unilateral, and with sine-wave rather than brief-pulse currents. The vast majority of modern treatment uses brief pulse currents.[36] Retrograde amnesia is most marked for events occurring in the weeks or months before treatment, with one study showing that although some people lose memories from years prior to treatment, recovery of such memories was "virtually complete" by seven months post-treatment, with the only enduring loss being of memories in the weeks prior to the treatment.[37] Later research by the same author suggested memory of events in the months prior to treatment might be lost, as well as suggesting that self-report of memory loss was in fact a problem before treatment which patients associated with it.[38] Further reviews have supported the idea that reports of memory loss are due to somatoform disorders and not to brain damage.[39] Anterograde memory loss is usually limited to the time of treatment itself or shortly afterwards. In the weeks and months following ECT these memory problems gradually improve, but some people have persistent losses, especially with bilateral ECT.[8][36] One review of patient self-reporting found that between 29 percent and 55 percent (depending on the study) of people who had undergone ECT reported persistent memory loss.[40] In 2000 American psychiatrist Sarah Lisanby and colleagues found that bilateral ECT left patients with persistent impairment for memory of public events" as compared to RUL ECT.[35] A large study (250 subjects), published January 2007 by Harold Sackeim and colleagues found that some forms (namely bilateral application and sine wave currents) of ECT "routine[ly]" causes "adverse cognitive effects," including cognitive dysfunction and memory loss, that can persist for an extended period.[6] Formal neuropsychological testing has documented permanent neuropsychological deficits in patients who receive certain types of ECT treatment,[41][42] A recent article by a neuropsychologist and a psychiatrist in Dublin suggests that ECT patients who experience cognitive problems following ECT should be offered some form of cognitive rehabilitation. The authors say that the failure to attempt to rehabilitate patients may be partly responsible for the negative public image of ECT.[43] For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ... Retrograde amnesia is a form of amnesia where someone will be unable to recall events that occurred before the onset of amnesia. ... Anterograde amnesia is a form of amnesia, or memory loss, in which new events are not transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory. ...

Effects on brain structure

A number of national mental health institutions have concluded that there is no evidence that ECT causes structural brain damage[4][5]. A report by the United States Surgeon General states, "The fears that ECT causes gross structural brain pathology have not been supported by decades of methodologically sound research in both humans and animals".[7] All of the recent scientific reviews on this topic which reviewed the body of ECT research using autopsies, brain imaging, and animal studies of electroconvulsive therapy, have also concluded that there is no evidence that ECT causes brain damage.[8][44] Current research is examining the possibility that, "...rather than cause brain damage, there is evidence that ECT may reverse some of the damaging effects of serious psychiatric illness"[45]

Effects in pregnancy

ECT is generally accepted to be relatively safe during all trimesters of pregnancy, particularly when compared to pharmacological treatments[46][47][48]. Much of the medical literature is composed of case studies of single or twin pregnancies, and although some have reported serious complications[49][50], the majority have found ECT to be safe[51].

Mechanism of action

The aim of ECT is to induce a therapeutic clonic seizure (a seizure where the person loses consciousness and has convulsions) lasting for at least 15 seconds. Although a large amount of research has been carried out, the exact mechanism of action of ECT remains elusive. The main reasons for this are the difficulty of isolating the therapeutic effect from the plethora of effects that accompany the anesthetic, electric shock and seizure; the differences between the brains of humans and those of other animals; and the lack of satisfactory animal models of mental illness.[8] This article is about epileptic seizures. ...

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in drug resistant depressed patients.[52] Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is exactly as it states; a neurotrophic factor usually derived in the brain. ...

Legal status

Informed consent

It is widely acknowledged internationally that written informed consent is as important in ECT as other medical treatments. The World Health Organization, in its 2005 publication "Human Rights and Legislation WHO Resource Book on Mental Health," specifically states, "ECT should be administered only after obtaining informed consent."[53] Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... WHO redirects here. ...

In the US, this doctrine places a legal obligation on a doctor to make a patient aware of: the reason for treatment, the risks and benefits of a proposed treatment, the risks and benefits of alternative treatment, and the risks and benefits of receiving no treatment. The patient is then given the opportunity to accept or reject the treatment. The form states how many treatments are recommended and also makes the patient aware that the treatment may be revoked at anytime during a course of ECT.[11] The Surgeon General's report on mental health said that patients should be warned that the benefits of ECT are short-lived without active continuation treatment in the form of drugs or further ECT and that there may be some risk of permanent severe memory loss after ECT.[11] The report advised psychiatrists to involve patients in discussion, possibly with the aid of leaflets or videos, both before and during a course of ECT.

To demonstrate what would be required to fully satisfy the legal obligation for 'informed consent', one psychiatrist, working for an antipsychiatry organisation, has formulated his own 'consent form'[54] using the Texas Legislature as a model.[55] It should be noted that printed or videotaped materials regarding ECT might be commissioned by the manufacturers of the equipment used, and so the possibility of this information leaning towards confirmation bias should be considered. Some question the effects of drugs on the ability to give informed consent. It has been suggested that Myside bias be merged into this article or section. ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ...

In the UK in order for consent to be valid it requires an explanation in "broad terms" of the nature of the procedure and its likely effects.[56] One review from 2005 found that only about half of patients felt they were given sufficient information about ECT and its adverse effects,[57] and another survey found that about fifty percent of psychiatrists and nurses agreed with them.[58]

Involuntary ECT

Procedures for involuntary ECT vary from country to country depending on local mental health laws. Legal proceedings are required in some countries, while in others ECT is seen as another form of treatment that may be given involuntarily as long as legal conditions are observed. Mental health law is that area of law that deals with mental conditions. ...

In the USA, the Surgeon General's report on mental health requires a judicial proceeding, at which patients may be represented by legal counsel, prior to initiation of involuntary ECT, stating: "As a rule, the law requires that such petitions are granted only where the prompt institution of ECT is regarded as potentially lifesaving, as in the case of a person in grave danger because of lack of food or fluid intake caused by catatonia."[11] This is a page about catatonic state. ...

In England and Wales the Mental Health Act 1983 currently allows the use of ECT on detained patients (with and without capacity) if the treatment is likely to alleviate or prevent deterioration in a condition and is authorized by a psychiatrist from the Mental Health Act Commission's panel. However, proposed amendments to the Mental Health Act (clause 30) will introduce a capacity-threshold for the imposition of ECT. This in effect will mean that ECT may not be given to a patient who has capactity to refuse to consent to it, irrespective of his or her detention under the Act (the treatment may still be given in an emergency under s62).[59] If the treating psychiatrist thinks the need for treatment is urgent they may start a course of ECT before authorization.[60] About 2,000 people a year in England and Wales are treated without their consent under the Mental Health Act,[61] with a small number of informal patients treated in this way under common law. In Scotland the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 gives patients with capacity the right to refuse ECT.[62] The Mental Health Act 1983 (1983 c. ... The capacity of both natural and artificial persons determines whether they may make binding amendments to their rights, duties and obligations, such as getting married or merging, entering into contracts, making gifts, or writing a valid will. ...

Duress in involuntary ECT makes reports about its effects, by patients while under duress, uncertain in their validity. Megara Sanderson, Events & Culture Editor of newspaper "The Flying Horse" reports, "Some speculate that patients may pretend that they are cured of their mental illness so that they no longer have to endure the electro-convulsive treatment."[63][64]

Involuntary electroshock contravenes the principle of autonomy in medical ethics. The maxim of autonomy is "Voluntas aegroti suprema lex." This rule states that the will of the patient is supreme. It implies that a patient has the right to refuse a medical treatment, such as ECT. Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ...


As early as the 16th century, agents to produce seizures were used to treat psychiatric conditions. In 1785 the therapeutic use of seizure induction was documented in the London Medical Journal.[8] Convulsive therapy was introduced in 1934 by Hungarian neuropsychiatrist Ladislas J. Meduna who, believing mistakenly that schizophrenia and epilepsy were antagonistic disorders, induced seizures with first camphor and then metrazol (cardiazol). Within three years metrazol convulsive therapy was being used worldwide.[65] In 1937, the first international meeting on convulsive therapy was held in Switzerland by the Swiss psychiatrist Muller. The proceedings were published in the American Journal of Psychiatry and, within three years, cardiazol convulsive therapy was being used worldwide.[65] Italian Professor of neuropsychiatry Ugo Cerletti, who had been using electric shocks to produce seizures in animal experiments, and his colleague Lucio Bini developed the idea of using electricity as a substitute for metrazol in convulsive therapy and, in 1937, experimented for the first time on a person. ECT soon replaced metrazol therapy all over the world because it was cheaper, less frightening and more convenient.[66] Cerletti and Bini were nominated for a Nobel Prize but didn't get one. By 1940, the procedure was introduced to both England and the US. Through the 40's and 50's the use of ECT became widespread. ECT is the only form of shock treatment still performed by modern medicine. Ladislas Joseph Meduna (1896-1964) was a Hungarian neurologist who discovered the first effective drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Metrazol is the commercial trademark of pentetrazol, pentamethylenetetrazol, or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a drug used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant (another commercial name is Cardiazol). ... Ugo Cerletti (September 26, 1877 - July 25, 1963) was an Italian neurologist. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This article is about the 1981 musical comedy film. ...

In the early 1940s, in an attempt to reduce the memory disturbance and confusion associated with treatment, two modifications were introduced: the use of unilateral electrode placement and the replacement of sinusoidal current with brief pulse. It took many years for brief-pulse equipment to be widely adopted[67] Unilateral ECT has never been popular with psychiatrists and is still only given to a minority of ECT patients.[8] In the 1940s and early 1950s ECT was usually given in "unmodified" form, without muscle relaxants, and the seizure resulted in a full-scale convulsion. A rare but serious complication of unmodified ECT was fracture or dislocation of the long bones. In the 1940s psychiatrists began to experiment with curare, the muscle-paralysing South American poison, in order to modify the convulsions. The introduction of suxamethonium (succinylcholine), a safer synthetic alternative to curare, in 1951 led to the more widespread use of "modified" ECT. A short-acting anesthetic was usually given in addition to the muscle relaxant in order to spare patients the terrifying feeling of suffocation that can be experienced with muscle relaxants.[67] Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 This page is about the plant toxins. ... Suxamethonium chloride (also known as succinylcholine, or scoline) is a white crystalline substance, it is odourless and highly soluble in water. ...

The steady growth of antidepressant use along with negative depictions of ECT in the mass media led to a marked decline in the use of ECT during the 50's to the 70's. The Surgeon General stated there were problems with electroshock therapy in the initial years before anesthesia was routinely given and, these now antiquated practices contributed to the negative portrayal of ECT in the popular media.[68] The New York Times described the public's negative perception of ECT as being caused mainly by one movie,"For Big Nurse in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, it was a tool of terror, and in the public mind shock therapy has retained the tarnished image given it by Ken Kesey's novel: dangerous, inhumane and overused".[69]

In 1976 Dr. Blatchley demonstrated the effectiveness of his constant current, brief pulse device ECT. This device eventually largely replaced earlier devices because of the reduction in cognitive side effects, although some ECT clinics in the US still use sine-wave devices.[13] The 1970s saw the publication of the first American Psychiatric Association task force report on electroconvulsive therapy (to be followed by further reports in 1990 and 2001). The report endorsed the use of ECT in the treatment of depression. The decade also saw criticism of ECT.[70] Specifically critics pointed to shortcomings such as noted side effects, the procedure being used as a form of abuse, and uneven application of ECT. The use of ECT declined until the 1980's, "when use began to increase amid growing awareness of its benefits and cost-effectiveness for treating severe depression".[68] In 1985 the National Institute of Mental Health and National Institutes of Health convened a consensus development conference on ECT and concluded that, whilst ECT was the most controversial treatment in psychiatry and had significant side-effects, it had been shown to be effective for a narrow range of severe psychiatric disorders.[71] The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the federal government of the United States and the largest research organization in the world specializing in mental illness. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ...

Due to the backlash noted previously, national institutions reviewed past practices and set new standards. In 1978 The American Psychiatric Association released its first task force report in which new standards for consent were introduced and the use of unilateral electrode placement was recommended. The 1985 NIMH Consensus Conference confirmed the therapeutic role of ECT in certain circumstances. The American Psychiatric Association released its second task force report in 1990 where specific details on the delivery, education, and training of ECT were documented. Finally in 2001 the American Psychiatric Association released its latest task force report. This report emphasizes the importance of informed consent, and the expanded role that the procedure has in modern medicine.

Role in mass media

Fictional and semi-fictional depictions of ECT

Main article: Fictional and semi-fictional depictions of ECT

Electroconvulsive therapy has been depicted in several fictional and semi-fictional films, books, and songs, almost always in an extremely negative light, such as in "Requiem for a Dream" and "One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest". Electroconvulsive therapy has been depicted in several fictional and semi-fictional films, books, and songs, almost always in an extremely negative light. ...

Positive nonfictional depictions of ECT

Some positive effects of ECT have been reported or alleged. As in most medical treatments, placebo effect is possible. For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ...

Kitty Dukakis, wife of politician Michael Dukakis, reports in a Newsweek article mostly positive effects from electroconvulsive therapy, and regards memory loss as an acceptable price to pay for relief from depression. Katharine Dickson Dukakis (born December 26, 1936), known as Kitty Dukakis, is the wife of former Massachusetts governor and presidential candidate Michael Dukakis. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...

"[For me,] the memory issues are real but manageable. Things I lose generally come back. Other memories I prefer to lose, including those about the depression I was suffering. But there are some memories—of meetings I have attended, people's homes I have visited—that I don't want to lose but I can't help it. They generally involve things I did two weeks before and two weeks after ECT. Often they are just wiped out....I have learned ways to partly compensate for whatever loss I still experience. I call my sister Jinny, Michael and my kids, asking what my niece Betsy's phone number is, what we did yesterday and what we are planning to do tomorrow. I apologize prior to asking. I wonder when they are going to run out of patience with "Kitty being Kitty." I hate losing memories, which means losing control over my past and my mind, but the control ECT gives me over my disabling depression is worth this relatively minor cost. It just is.[72]

American psychotherapist Martha Manning's autobiographical Undercurrents[73] acknowledges the downside of treatment: "I felt like I'd been hit by a truck for a while, but that was, comparatively speaking, not so bad," as well as the upside: "Afterwards, I thought, do regular people feel this way all the time? It's like you've not been in on a great joke for the whole of your life."

In his autobiographical book Electroboy, American writer Andy Behrman describes undergoing ECT as a treatment for bipolar disorder while under house-arrest: "I wake up thirty minutes later and think I am in a hotel in Acapulco. My head feels as if I have just downed a frozen margarita too quickly. My jaws and limbs ache. But I am elated."[74] Andy Behrman is an American writer of non-fiction. ...

Negative nonfictional depictions of ECT

Some negative effects of ECT have been reported or alleged. As in most medical treatments, nocebo effect is possible. // In its original application, nocebo had a very specific meaning in the medical domains of pharmacology, and nosology, and aetiology. ...

Registered nurse Barbara C. Cody reports in a letter to the Washington Post that her life was forever changed by 13 outpatient ECTs she received in 1983. "Shock 'therapy' totally and permanently disabled me. EEGs [electroencephalograms] verify the extensive damage shock did to my brain. Fifteen to 20 years of my life were simply erased; only small bits and pieces have returned. I was also left with short-term memory impairment and serious cognitive deficits. [deletion] Shock "therapy" took my past, my college education, my musical abilities, even the knowledge that my children were, in fact, my children. I call ECT a rape of the soul."[75] ...

On August 26, 2007, a person pretended to be an academic administrator at Judge Rotenberg Educational Center, a special education school in Massachusetts. The pretender instructed by telephone the electroshock of two allegedly emotionally disturbed students, 16 and 19 years of age[76]. "Unaware that the phone call was a prank, school officials reportedly woke the two students up and delivered 77 shocks to one student and 29 to another -- informing both that it was punishment for misbehavior earlier in the day"[76]. "A third person was also reportedly shocked, according to Nancy Alterio, the executive director of Massachusetts's Disabled Persons Protection Committee"[76]. Judge Rotenberg Educational Center is the only school in the United States of America that performs electroshock, which is administered through a device called a graduated electronic decelerator, or a GED[76]. "The state of Massachusetts has tried and failed to close the institution twice before because of its use of the electric shock treatment, according to The Associated Press, and in 2006 New York's Board of Regents said that it would not permit students from its state to receive shock therapy after 2009, except in very rare cases" [76]. "Autism experts also argue against the school's claim that this type of treatment has no negative effect on the children it is used on, and say while no physical harm may result, psychological effects are almost certain"[76]. Barry Pizant, adjunct professor at Brown University's Center for the Study of Human Development states, "It interferes with their ability [to] trust people who are with them and these are people who already have trouble understanding people"[76]. The Judge Rotenberg Educational Center (JRC, formerly known as the Behavior Research Institute) is a special needs school serving children and young adults with autistic-like behaviors, conduct, emotional, and/or psychiatric problems located in Canton, Massachusetts. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ...

In 2007, a judge canceled a two year old court order that allowed the involuntary electroshock of Simone D., a psychiatric patient at Creedmoor Psychiatric Center in the state of New York[77]. Although Simone spoke only Spanish, she rarely received access to staff fluent in her language[77][78]. Simone previously had 200 electroshocks[77][78]. However, she communicated that she did not want more electroshock[77][78]. Simone stated, "Electroshock causes more pain. I suffer more from shock treatment![77]" Creedmoor Psychiatric Center in Queens Village, Queens, New York, provides inpatient, outpatient and residential services for severely mentally ill patients. ...

In 2008, David Tarloff, a psychiatric patient who had received electroshock, assaulted two therapists in the city of New York[79]. Tarloff injured one therapist and murdered the other. One of the therapists was Kent Shinbach, a psychiatrist who had an interest in electroconvulsive therapy. "It is not clear whether Dr. Shinbach played any role in Mr. Tarloff's shock therapy"[79]. However, Tarloff told investigators that Shinbach had given Tarloff psychiatric treatment at a psychiatric facility initially in 1991[80].

In an interview with "Houston Chronicle" reporter John Makeig in 1996, Melissa Holliday, a former extra on "Baywatch" and model for "Playboy" said electroshock she received in 1995 'ruined' her life[81]. Holliday stated, "I've been through a rape, and electroshock therapy is worse. [deletion] If you haven't gone through it, I can't explain it"[81]. The Houston Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States. ... Melissa Holliday (born October 30, 1969 in Greenwood, South Carolina) was Playboy magazines Playmate of the Month for January 1995. ...

Neurologist John Friedberg gave testimony before the Mental Health Committee of the New York State Assembly in 2001. Friedberg stated, "And with regard to shock treatment, proponents tirelessly repeat it is safe and effective but I doubt very many psychiatrists actually believe that. Their own polls and papers belie the propaganda. [deletion] We have had 60 years of poignant testimony from eloquent victims of electroshock. Ernest Hemingway complained it ruined his memory and put him out of business. He killed himself within weeks of concluding a second course of ECT. George Orwell ends 1984 with his protagonist, Winston, being forced to love Big Brother on an electroshock table. I urge you to declare a moratorium on electroconvulsive therapy until it can be proven safe by evidence, not proclamation. I urge you to declare a moratorium on electroconvulsive therapy until patients can be guaranteed free and informed choice"[82]. George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ...

Famous people who have undergone ECT

Antonin Artaud Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (born September 4, 1896, in Marseille; died March 4, 1948 in Paris) was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. ... Katharine Dickson Dukakis (born December 26, 1936), known as Kitty Dukakis, is the wife of former Massachusetts governor and presidential candidate Michael Dukakis. ... Thomas Eagleton and George McGovern on July 24, 1972 cover of Time magazine after his nomination for vice president on the Democratic ticket Thomas Eagleton on August 7, 1972 cover of Time Magazine after his withdrawal for vice president on the Democratic ticket. ... Harold Gimblett born October 19, 1914, Bicknoller, Somerset, died March 30, 1978, Dewlands Park, Verwood, Dorset was a brilliant strokeplayer who played cricket for Somerset and England. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Frances Elena Farmer (September 19, 1913 – August 1, 1970) was an American film, television and theater actress. ... Roky Erickson (born Roger Kynard Erickson on July 15, 1947) is an American singer, songwriter, harmonica player and guitarist from Texas. ... Sherwin Nuland (born December 1930) is an American surgeon who teaches bioethics and medicine at the Yale University School of Medicine, where he obtained his M.D. degree. ... Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer. ... Lou Reed (born March 2, 1942) is an influential American rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... David Helfgott (born May 19, 1947) is an Australian pianist, born in Melbourne to Polish-Jewish parents, whose life inspired Australian director Scott Hicks Oscar-winning film Shine. ... Townes Van Zandt (March 7, 1944 – January 1, 1997) was a country-folk music singer-songwriter, performer, and poet. ... Michael Moriarty (born April 5, 1941) is a Tony-winning and Emmy-winning American actor. ... Romulus, My Father is a biographical memoir, first published in 1998, by Australian philosopher Raimond Gaita, which details the life of his father, Romulus Gaita. ... Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent (born August 1, 1936 in Oran, Algeria), is a French fashion designer, considered among the greatest of the 20th century. ... Janet Paterson Frame, ONZ, CBE (August 28, 1924 - January 29, 2004), a New Zealand author, published eleven novels in her lifetime, together with three collections of short stories, a book of poetry, an edition of juvenile fiction, and three volumes of autobiography. ... Marya Hornbacher (1976 - ) is an American author & freelance journalist. ...

See also

  • DSM-IV Codes
  • Harold A. Sackeim

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR is a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and includes all currently recognized mental health disorders. ...


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  83. ^ Barber, Stephen (February 2005). The Screaming Body: Antonin Artaud - Film Projects, Drawings and Sound Recordings. Creation Books. ISBN 978-1840680911. 
  84. ^ Dukakis, Kitty; Tye, Larry (September 2006). Shock: The Healing Power of Electroconvulsive Therapy. Avery. ISBN 978-1583332658. 
  85. ^ The White House losers. The Guardian (2008-03-29). Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  86. ^ Tale of a tormented genius. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  87. ^ A. E. Hotchner, Papa Hemingway: A Personal Memoir, ISBN 0786705922; pg 280
  88. ^ Dallas - Music - Roky Erickson</ref
    • Peter Green, English blues guitarist, founding member of Fleetwood Mac<ref>[http://www.fmlegacy.com/Bios/biopeter.html Peter Green Biography]</li>
    <li id="cite_note-88">'''[[#cite_ref-88|^]]''' Sherwin Nuland (2001) [http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/189 My history of electroshock therapy], TED lecture</li> <li id="cite_note-89">'''[[#cite_ref-89|^]]''' [http://www.sylviaplath.de/ Sylvia Plath Homepage<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-90">'''[[#cite_ref-90|^]]''' [http://www.electroboy.com/electroshock-therapy.shtml Electroshock Therapy Treatment - ECT and how it works<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-91">'''[[#cite_ref-91|^]]''' [http://www.denisdutton.com/helfgott.htm Denis Dutton on David Helfgott]</li> <li id="cite_note-92">'''[[#cite_ref-92|^]]''' See the biographical film, [[Be Here to Love Me]].</li> <li id="cite_note-93">'''[[#cite_ref-93|^]]''' [http://www.mmuuuhp.com/demons050720.htm Moriarty tames his demons<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-94">'''[[#cite_ref-94|^]]''' [http://www.thebiographychannel.co.uk/biography_story/931:1087/1/Yves_Saint_Laurent.htm The Biography Channel - Yves Saint Laurent Biography]</li> <li id="cite_note-95">'''[[#cite_ref-95|^]]''' Frame, J. ''An Angel at My Table'', London, Virago, 2008 (autobiography)</li> <li id="cite_note-96">'''[[#cite_ref-96|^]]''' Hornbacher, Marya. ''Madness: A Bipolar Life'', New York, 2008 (autobiography)</li></ol></ref>

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External links

  • American Psychiatric Association on ECT - brief article from the American Psychiatric Association.
  • MIND on ECT - information on ECT from MIND (leading mental health charity in England and Wales).
  • About to have ECT? ... - Psychiatric Times article on the portrayal of ECT by Hollywood
  • TED talk on ECT - 30-year-practicing surgeon and successful writer Sherwin B. Nuland on the history of ECT and his personal experience with it.

  Results from FactBites:
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Program: Electroconvulsive Therapy (5003 words)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment for severe mental illness in which a brief application of electric stimulus is used to produce a generalized seizure.
As often occurs with new therapies, ECT was used for a variety of disorders, frequently in high doses and for long periods.
Electroconvulsive therapy is the most controversial treatment in psychiatry.
  More results at FactBites »



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