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Encyclopedia > Electricity pylon

An electricity pylon or transmission tower is a tall, usually steel lattice structure used to support overhead electricity conductors for electric power transmission. The term pylon usually refers to a truncated pyramid or an object shaped like one. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word support has several specialized meanings: In mathematics, see support (mathematics). ... Power line redirects here. ...

Suspension tower, near Aust, England
Detail of the insulators (the vertical string of insulators) and conductor vibration dampers (the weights attached directly to the conductors) on a 275,000 volt suspension tower near Thornbury, South Gloucestershire, England
A chain of transmission towers carry electricity conductors down the Longdendale Valley to Manchester. The first tower is a tension type. The others are suspension type.

## High voltage AC transmission towers GA_googleFillSlot("encyclopedia_square");

Three-phase electric power systems are used for high and extra-high voltage AC transmission lines (50 kV and above). The towers must be designed to carry three (or multiples of three) conductors. The towers are usually steel lattices or trusses (wooden structures are used in Germany in exceptional cases) and the insulators are either glass or porcelain discs assembled in strings, whose length is dependent on the line voltage and environmental conditions. One or two earth conductors (alternative term: Ground conductors) for lightning protection are often mounted at the top of each tower. Three-phase power transformer which is the sole transfer point for electricity to a suburban shopping mall in Canada. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Look up truss in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ground conductor is an electric conductorable rope on the top of pylons. ...

In some countries, towers for high and extra-high voltage are usually designed to carry two or more electric circuits. For double circuit lines in Germany, the "Danube" towers or more rarely, the "fir tree" towers, are usually used. If a line is constructed using towers designed to carry several circuits, it is not necessary to install all the circuits at the time of construction. FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ...

Some high voltage circuits are often erected on the same tower as 110 kV lines. Paralleling circuits of 380 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV-lines on the same towers is common. Sometimes, especially with 110 kV circuits, a parallel circuit carries traction lines for railway electrification.

## History

Electricity transmision towers have been used since at least the 1910s.

## High voltage DC transmission pylons

HVDC Distance Pylon near the terminus of the Nelson River Bipole adjacent to Dorsey Converter Station near Rosser, Manitoba — August 2005

High voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines are either monopolar or bipolar systems. With bipolar systems a conductor arrangement with one conductor on each side of the tower is used. For single-pole HVDC transmission with ground return, towers with only one conductor can be used. In many cases, however, the towers are designed for later conversion to a two-pole system. In these cases, conductors are installed on both sides of the tower for mechanical reasons. Until the second pole is needed, it is either grounded, or joined in parallel with the pole in use. In the latter case the line from the converter station to the earthing (grounding) electrode is built as underground cable. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 2054 KB) Summary Photo by J. Lindsay, Weaponofmassinstruction 23:30, 6 August 2006 (UTC) Taken north of Rosser, Manitoba Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 2054 KB) Summary Photo by J. Lindsay, Weaponofmassinstruction 23:30, 6 August 2006 (UTC) Taken north of Rosser, Manitoba Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... A 2000A 250kV thyristor valve at Manitoba Hydros Henday converter station, April 2001 The Nelson River Bipole is a system of two HVDC lines in Manitoba, operated by Manitoba Hydro. ... Rosser, Manitoba is a village 26 kilometres north-west of Winnipeg, latitude 49 degrees 59 minutes 26 seconds North, longitude 97 degrees 27 minutes 7 seconds West. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... HVDC or high-voltage, direct current electric power transmission systems contrast with the more common alternating-current systems as a means for the bulk transmission of electrical power. ... HVDC or high-voltage, direct current electric power transmission systems contrast with the more common alternating current systems as a means for the bulk transmission of electrical power. ... HVDC or high-voltage, direct current electric power transmission systems contrast with the more common alternating current systems as a means for the bulk transmission of electrical power. ...

## Railway traction line pylons

Tension tower with phase transposition of a powerline for single phase AC traction current (110 kV, 16.67 Hertz) near Bartholomä in Germany

With limited space conditions, it is possible to arrange the conductors of one traction circuit in two levels. Running a traction power line parallel to a high voltage transmission lines for three-phase AC on a separate crossarm of the same tower is possible. If traction lines are led parallel to 380 kV-lines, the insulation must be designed for 220 kV, because in the event of a fault, dangerous overvoltages to the three-phase alternating current line can occur. Traction lines are usually equipped with one earth conductor. In Austria, on some traction circuits, two earth conductors are used.

## Assembly

Lattice towers can be assembled horizontally on the ground and erected by push-pull cable, but this method is rarely used because of the large assembly area needed. Lattice towers are more usually erected using a crane or, in inaccessible areas, a helicopter.

## Testing of mechanical properties

There are tower testing stations for testing the mechanical properties of towers. A tower testing station is a special plant for testing various design for towers for transmission lines and similar uses. ...

## Sign markings

Tower Identification Tag on HVDC anchor pylon at Dorsey Converter Station near Rosser, Manitoba — August 2005
One of the Pylons of Cádiz

In some countries, electricity towers of lattice steel have to be equipped with a barbed wire barrier approximately 3 metres above ground in order to deter unauthorized climbing. Such barriers can often be found on towers close to roads or other areas with easy public access, even where there is not such a requirement. Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ...

## Special designs

Antennas for low power FM radio, television, and mobile phone services are sometimes erected on pylons, especially on the steel masts carrying high voltage cables. In biology, antenna (plural: antennae) refers to the sensing organs of several arthropods. ... FM radio is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ...

To build branches, quite impressive constructions must occasionally be used. This also applies occasionally to twisting masts that divert three-level conductor cables.

Sometimes (in particular on steel framework pylons for the highest voltage levels) transmitting plants are installed. Usually these installations are for mobile phone services or the operating radio of the power supply firm, but occasionally also for other radio services, like directional radio. Thus transmitting antennas for low-power FM radio and television transmitters were already installed on pylons. On the carrying pylon of the Elbe Crossing 1 there is a radar facility belonging to the Hamburg water and navigation office. The northern carrying pylons of Elbe Crossing 2 (foreground) and 1 (background) Elbe Crossing 1 is a group of masts providing an overhead crossing of 220kV three phase AC current line across the River Elbe. ...

For crossing broad valleys, a large distance between the conductor cables must be maintained to avoid short-circuits caused by conductor cables colliding during storms. Sometimes a separate pylon is used for each conductor. For crossing wide rivers and straits with flat coastlines very high pylons must be built, because a large height clearance is needed for navigation. Such masts must be equipped with flight safety lamps.

Two well-known crossings of wide rivers are the Elbe Crossing 1 and Elbe Crossing 2. The latter has the highest overhead line masts in Europe (height: 227 meters). The pylons of the overhead line crossing of the bay of Cádiz, Spain have a particularly interesting construction. They consist of 158-meter-high carrying pylons with one cross beam atop a frustum framework construction. The largest spans of overhead lines are the crossing of the Norwegian Sognefjord (span between two masts of 4,597 meters) and the Ameralik span in Greenland (span width: 5,376 meters). In Germany the overhead line of the EnBW AG crossing of the Eyachtal has the largest span in the country, a width of 1,444 meters. The northern carrying pylons of Elbe Crossing 2 (foreground) and 1 (background) Elbe Crossing 1 is a group of masts providing an overhead crossing of 220kV three phase AC current line across the River Elbe. ... The two main pylons of Elbe Crossing 2 Elbe Crossing 2 is a group of pylons providing overhead lines for four 380kV three phase AC current circuits across the River Elbe. ... The Pylons of Cadiz are two pylons for a 132kV-powerline crossing the bay of Cadiz in Spain. ...

In order to drop overhead lines into steep, deep valleys, inclined pylons are occasionally used. An example of this type of pylon is located at the Hoover dam in the USA. In Switzerland a NOK pylon inclined around 20 degrees to the vertical is located near Sargans. Highly sloping masts are used on two 380 kV pylons in Switzerland, the top 32 meters of one of them being bent by 18 degrees to the vertical. For the dam near Westerville, Ohio, see Hoover Dam (Ohio). ...

Power station chimneys are sometimes equipped with crossbars for fixing conductors of the outgoing lines. Because of possible problems with corrosion by the flue gases, such constructions are very rare.

## Types of pylons

### Specific functions

This article needs cleanup. ... In science and engineering, conductors are materials that contain movable charges of electricity. ... Three phase systems have 3 waveforms (usually carrying power) that are 2/3&#960; radians (120 degrees,1/3 of a cycle) offset in time. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... In electricity, current refers to electric current, which is the flow of electric charge. ... In science and engineering, conductors are materials that contain movable charges of electricity. ... A long distance anchor pylon is an anchor pylon at the end of a line section with a long span. ... A branch pylon is a pylon for the realization of a line branch. ... An anchor portal is a support structure for power lines in the form of a portal for the installation of overhead lines in a switchyard. ... A termination pylon between Yorkshire and Cheshire A termination pylon is a pylon at which an overhead line ends. ...

### Materials used

A wood pylon is a pylon made of wood. ... A concrete pylon is an electricity pylon made from reinforced concrete. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A lattice steel pylon is a pylon consisting of a steel framework construction. ... Stobie poles beside the Flinders Highway, South Australia A Stobie pole is a telegraph pole made of two long pieces of steel held together by a slab of concrete in the middle. ...

### Conductor arrangements

The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... single-level pylon A single-level pylon is an electricity pylon for an arrangement of all conductor cables on a pylon in one level. ... A two-level pylon is a pylon at which the circuits are arranged in two levels on two crossbars. ... A three level pylon is a pylon for the arrangement of the conductor cables on three crossbars in three levels. ... A barrel pylon is a pylon for the arrangement of two three-phase circuits in three levels, at which the lowest cross beam possesses a smaller span than the middle crossbar and thus a larger span than the highest crossbar. ...

### Specific locations

A roof stand is a small pylon on the building roof. ... A crossing pylon is an electricity pylon for the realization of an overhead line crossing of a river, a strait or a valley. ... StorstrÃ¸m Bridge viewed from MasnedÃ¸ StorstrÃ¸m Bridge (Danish, StorstrÃ¸msbroen) is a road and railway arch bridge that crosses StorstrÃ¸mmen between the islands of Falster and MasnedÃ¸ in Denmark. ...

### Specific purposes

This article needs to be wikified. ... A hybrid pylon is a pylon, which carries electric circuits for different types of current. ... A telegraph post, telegraph pole or telephone pole is a post or pole upon which telephone network equipment is situated. ...

## Pylons in art and culture

Pylon decorated with balls in Ruhr-Park Bochum

For the movie Among Giants a pylon, the meanwhile dismantled Pink Pylon, was coloured in pink. In Ruhrpark, a big mall in Bochum, Germany, there is a pylon decorated with balls. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 Ã— 600 pixelsFull resolution (2136 Ã— 2848 pixel, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Anlage 2610, Mast 69 in Ruhr-Park, Bochum, source: http://de. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 Ã— 600 pixelsFull resolution (2136 Ã— 2848 pixel, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Anlage 2610, Mast 69 in Ruhr-Park, Bochum, source: http://de. ... The Pink Pylon is pylon ZP226, located in the Ashworth Valley, near Rochdale, England. ...

The North Korean official emblem has a pylon and a dam on it. North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chos&#335;n Minjuju&#365;i Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: &#51312;&#49440;&#48124;&#51452;&#51452;&#51032;&#51064;&#48124;&#44277;&#54868;&#44397;; Hanja: &#26397;&#39854;&#27665;&#20027;&#20027;&#32681;&#20154;&#27665;&#20849;&#21644;&#22283;), is a country in eastern Asia... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ...

## Pylons of special interest

Pylon Year Country Town Pinnacle height Remarks
Yangtze River Crossing 2003 China Jiangyin 346.5m Tallest pylons in the world
Yangtze River Crossing Nanjing 1992 China Nanjing 257 m Tallest pylons in the world, built of reinforced concrete
Pylons of Pearl River Crossing 1987 China 253 m + 240 m 830 ft + 787 ft
Orinoco River Crossing ? Venezuela  ? 240 m Tallest electricity pylons in South America
Pylons of Messina 1957 Italy Messina 232 m ( 224 m without basement) not used as pylons any more
Yangtze River Crossing Wuhu 2003 China  ? 229 m Tallest electricity pylons used for HVDC
Elbe Crossing 2 1976-1978 Germany Stade 227 m tallest electricity pylons in Europe
Chusi-Crossing ? Japan Chusi 226 m Tallest electricity pylons in Japan
Daqi-Channel-Crossing 1997 Japan  ? 223 m
Overhead line crossing Suez Canal 1998 Egypt 221 m
LingBei-Channel-Crossing 1993 Japan  ? 214.5 m
Kerinchi Pylon 1999 Malaysia Kerinchi near Kuala Lumpur 210 m Tallest pylon in Southeast Asia
Luohe-Crossing 1989 China  ? 202.5 m pylons of reinforced concrete
380kV Thames Crossing 1965 UK West Thurrock 190m
Elbe Crossing 1 1958-1962 Germany Stade 189 m
Bosporus overhead line crossing III 1999 Turkey Istanbul 160 m
Aust Severn Powerline Crossing ? UK Aust 148.75 m
132kV Thames Crossing 1932 UK West Thurrock 148.4 m demolished in 1987
Karmsundet Powerline Crossing ? Norway Karmsundet 143.5 m
Limfjorden Overhead powerline crossing 2 ? Denmark Raerup 141.7 m
Pylons of Voerde 1926 Germany Voerde 138 m
Köhlbrand Powerline Crossing ? Germany Hamburg 138 m
Bremen-Farge Weser Powerline Crossing  ? Germany Bremen 135 m
Pylons of Ghesm Crossing 1984 Iran Strait of Ghesm 130 m One pylon standing on a caisson in the sea
Shukhov tower on the Oka River 1929 Russia Dzerzhinsk 128 m Hyperboloid structure
Enerhodar Dnipro Powerline Crossing 2 1984 Ukraine Enerhodar 126 m Pylons on caissons
Bosporus overhead line crossing I 1957 Turkey Istanbul  ?
Bosporus overhead line crossing II 1983 Turkey Istanbul  ?
Little Belt Overhead powerline crossing 2 ? Denmark Middelfart 125.3 m + 119.2 m
Duisburg-Wanheim Powerline Rhine Crossing  ? Germany Duisburg 122 m
Little Belt Overhead powerline crossing 1 ? Denmark Middelfart 119.5 m + 113.1 m
Pylons of Duisburg-Rheinhausen 1926 Germany Duisburg-Rheinhausen 118.8 m
Bullenhausen Elbe Powerline Crossing ? Germany Bullenhausen 117 m
Bremen-Industriehafen Weser Powerline Crossing  ? Germany Bremen 111 m two parallel running powerlines
Daugava Powerline Crossing 1975 Latvia Riga 110 m
Orsoy Rhine Crossing ? Germany Orsoy 105 m
Limfjorden Overhead powerline crossing 1 ? Denmark Raerup 101.2 m
Enerhodar Dnipro Powerline Crossing 1 1977 Ukraine Enerhodar 100 m Pylons on caissons
380kV-Ems-Overhead Powerline Crossing  ? Germany Mark (south of Weener) 84 m
Pylon in the artificial lake of Santa Maria 1959 Switzerland Lake of Santa Maria 75 m Pylon in an artificial lake
Eyachtal Span 1992 Germany Höfen 70 m Longest span of Germany ( 1444 metres)
Anlage 2610, Mast 69  ? Germany Bochum 47 m Pylon of 220kV-powerline decorated with balls in Ruhr-Park mall.
Colossus of Eislingen 1980 Germany Eislingen/Fils 47 m Pylon standing over a little river
Huddersfield Narrow Canal Pylon  ? UK Stalybridge  ? Pylon standing over Huddersfield Narrow Canal, perhaps only pylon under whose legs you can pass by boat

## Alternatives to pylons

Pylons and the cables that they support are generally regarded to be unattractive. An alternative to pylons is underground cables. This is a more expensive solution than cables that are supported by pylons but have aesthetic advantages. There are schemes in various countries to improve the appearance of the environment by removing the pylons and undergrounding the cables. Undergrounding refers to the replacement of aerial cables providing electrical power or telecommunications, with underground cables. ...

An architectural structure is a free-standing or guy anchored manmade outdoor construction for permanent use. ... The Eiffel Tower is a famous example of a lattice tower A lattice tower is a freestanding steel framework tower. ... An incomplete list of remarkable spans, either used for powerline crossings of rivers, sea straits or valleys, as antenna or for aerial tramways. ... Pole carrying telephone, electricity and Cable TV equipment. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Electricity pylon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1436 words) The towers are usually steel lattices or trusses (wooden structures are used in Germany in exceptional cases) and the insulators are generally glass discs assembled in strings whose length is dependent on the line voltage and environmental conditions. Pylons used for single phase AC railway traction lines are similar in construction to pylons used for 110 kV-three phase lines. anchor pylons (or strainer pylons) utilize horizontal insulators and occur at the endpoints of conductors.
 electricity: Definition and Much More From Answers.com (6698 words) An electric cell, a battery of cells, and a generator are all sources of electromotive force; any such source with an external conductor connected from one of the source's two terminals to the other constitutes an electric circuit. Electricity is responsible for many well-known physical phenomena such as lightning, electric fields and electric currents, and is put to use in industrial applications such as electronics and electric power. Electric charge is a property of certain subatomic particles (e.g., electrons and protons) which interacts with electromagnetic fields and causes attractive and repulsive forces between them.
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