FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Electricity" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Electricity

Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, "amberlike") is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. This includes many well-known physical phenomena such as lightning, electromagnetic fields and electric currents, and is put to use in industrial applications such as electronics and electric power. These related, but distinct, concepts are better identified by more precise terms: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Lightning over Oradea in Romania For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ... The electromagnetic field is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. ... Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ...

Contents

In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential and voltage (derived from the ampere and watt). ... Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Ampere (disambiguation). ... Electrical energy can refer to several closely related things. ... In science and engineering, conductors, such as a electrical connector, are materials that readily conduct electric current through electrical conduction. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... In physics, mechanical energy describes the potential energy and kinetic energy present in the components of a mechanical system. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... Electromagnetic interaction is a fundamental force of nature and is felt by charged leptons and quarks. ... The electromagnetic field is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... A fundamental interaction or fundamental force is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained in terms of another interaction. ...

History of electricity

Main articles: History of electricity and Etymology of electricity

Static electricity produced by rubbing objects against fur was known to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians, Parthians and Mesopotamians. Some propose that the Parthians and Mesopotamians may have had some knowledge of electroplating, based on the discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, although this is disputed by many scholars. The history of electricity, that is the human understanding thereof, dates back to the ancient Greek and Parthian civilizations, over two thousand years ago. ... In physics the term quantity of electricity refers to the quantity of electric charge. ... Electrostatics (also known as static electricity) is the branch of physics that deals with the phenomena arising from what seem to be stationary electric charges. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... [1] Drawing of the 3 pieces. ... The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge or a porous disk between the individual half-cells. ...


In 1600 the English physician William Gilbert first used the New Latin word electricus ("of amber" or "like amber", from ηλεκτρον [elektron], the Greek word for "amber") to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This soon gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", in Sir Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other persons named William Gilbert, see William Gilbert (disambiguation). ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 - October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ... Sir Thomas Brownes vast work refuting the common errors and superstitions of his age, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, first appeared in 1646 and went through five editions, the last revision occurring in 1672. ...


Further work was conducted by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay. In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity to develop his theories on the relationship between lightning and static electricity. In an experiment of June 1752, he attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flew the kite in a storm-threatened sky.[1] He observed a succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand and had shown that lightning was indeed electrical in nature.[2] This famous experiment sparked the interest of later scientists whose work provided the basis for modern electrical technology. Most notably these include Luigi Galvani (1737–1798), Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), Michael Faraday (1791–1867), André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), and Georg Simon Ohm (1789-1854). Otto von Guericke Otto von Guericke (originally spelled Gericke) [] (November 20, 1602 – May 11, 1686 (Julian calendar); November 30, 1602 – May 21, 1686 (Gregorian calendar)) was a German scientist, inventor, and politician. ... Robert Boyle (Irish: Robaird Ó Bhaoill) (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles François de Cisternay du Fay (Paris, 1698 - 1739) was a French scientist and superintendent of the Jardin du Roi. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Luigi Galvani - Italian physician famous for making frogs legs twitch. ... This article is about the physicist Alessandro Volta. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... André-Marie Ampère (January 20, 1775 – June 10, 1836), was a French physicist who is generally credited as one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism. ... Georg Simon Ohm (March 16, 1789 - July 6, 1854) was a German physicist. ...


The late 19th and early 20th century produced such giants of electrical engineering as Nikola Tesla, Antonio Meucci, Thomas Edison, George Westinghouse, Werner von Siemens, Charles Steinmetz, Alexander Graham Bell and William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin. Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Antonio Meucci. ... “Edison” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ernst Werner von Siemens Ernst Werner von Siemens (December 13, 1816 - December 6, 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist. ... Charles Proteus Steinmetz (April 9, 1865_October 26, 1923) was born in Breslau, Silesia, Germany. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was a Scottish-born American scientist, inventor and innovator. ... For other persons named William Thomson, see William Thomson (disambiguation). ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1501x751, 2933 KB) Summary Notes http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1501x751, 2933 KB) Summary Notes http://www. ... Founded in 1823 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Saint Stephens Church is an Episcopal church erected on the site where Benjamin Franklin flew his famous kite. ...

Electric potential

Main article: Electric potential

The electric potential difference between two points is defined as the work done (against electrical forces) per unit of charge in moving a positive point charge slowly between two points. If one of the points is taken to be a reference point with zero potential, then the electric potential at any point can be defined in terms of the work done per unit charge in moving a positive point charge from that reference point to the point at which the potential is to be determined. For isolated charges, the reference point is usually taken to be infinity. The potential is measured in volts. (1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb) The electric potential is analogous to temperature: there is a different temperature at every point in space, and the temperature gradient indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind heat flow. Similarly, there is an electric potential at every point in space, and its gradient indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind charge movement. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Potential difference is a quantity in physics related to the amount of energy that would be required to move an object from one place to another against various types of force. ... In physics, mechanical work is the amount of energy transferred by a force. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A reference point is a location that is used in measurement of a huge variety of phenomena. ... For other uses, see Infinity (disambiguation). ... The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential and voltage (derived from the ampere and watt). ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... The coulomb (symbol: C) is the SI unit of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The temperature gradient in a given direction from a given spatial starting point is the rate at which temperature changes relative to distance in that direction from that point. ... This article is in the process of being merged into Heat, and may be outdated. ... For other uses, see Gradient (disambiguation). ...


Electric current

Main article: Current (electricity)

An electric current is a flow of electric charge, and its intensity is measured in amperes. Examples of electric currents include metallic conduction, where electrons flow through a conductor or conductors such as a metal wire, and electrolysis, where ions (charged atoms) flow through liquids. The particles themselves often move quite slowly, while the electric field that drives them propagates at close to the speed of light. See electrical conduction for more information. In electricity, current refers to electric current, which is the flow of electric charge. ... Image File history File links PbsTesla. ... Image File history File links PbsTesla. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... For other uses, see Ampere (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... In science and engineering, conductors, such as a electrical connector, are materials that readily conduct electric current through electrical conduction. ... A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated strand of drawn metal. ... This article is about the chemical process. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... The speed of light in vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ... Conduction is the movement of electrically charged particles through a transmission medium (electrical conductor). ...


Devices that use charge flow principles in materials are called electronic devices. This article is about the engineering discipline. ...


A direct current (DC) is a unidirectional flow, while an alternating current (AC) reverses direction repeatedly. The time average of an alternating current is zero, but its energy capability (RMS value) is not zero. Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... In mathematics, the root mean square or rms is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. ...


Ohm's law is an important relationship describing the behaviour of electric currents, relating them to voltage. A voltage source, V, drives an electric current, I , through resistor, R, the three quantities obeying Ohms law: V = IR Ohms law states that, in an electrical circuit, the current passing through a conductor between two points is proportional to the potential difference (i. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ...


For historical reasons, electric current is said to flow from the most positive part of a circuit to the most negative part. The electric current thus defined is called conventional current. It is now known that, depending on the conditions, an electric current can consist of a flow of charged particles in either direction, or even in both directions at once. The positive-to-negative convention is widely used to simplify this situation. If another definition is used - for example, "electron current" - it should be explicitly stated. In electricity, current refers to electric current, which is the flow of electric charge. ... In electricity, current is the rate of flow of charges, usually through a metal wire or some other electrical conductor. ... In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge. ...


Electric field

Main article: Electric field

The concept of electric fields was introduced by Michael Faraday. The electrical field force acts between two charges, in the same way that the gravitational force acts between two masses. However, the electric field is a little bit different. Gravitational force depends on the masses of two bodies, whereas electric force depends on the electric charges of two bodies. While gravity can only pull masses together, the electric force can be an attractive or repulsive force. If both charges are of same sign (e.g. both positive), there will be a repulsive force between the two. If the charges are opposite, there will be an attractive force between the two bodies. The magnitude of the force varies inversely with the square of the distance between the two bodies, and is also proportional to the product of the unsigned magnitudes of the two charges. In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ... Repulsive force is the temporary name given to the force that seems to tear away the universe. ...


Electric charge

Main article: Electric charge

Electric charge is a property of certain subatomic particles (e.g., electrons and protons) which interacts with electromagnetic fields and causes attractive and repulsive forces between them. Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of matter and can be precisely quantified. It couples to the electromagnetic field, one of the four fundamental forces of nature. Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... The electromagnetic field (EMF) is composed of two related vectorial fields, the electric field and the magnetic field. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... The electromagnetic field is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. ... A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ...


In this sense, the phrase "quantity of electricity" is used interchangeably with the phrases "charge of electricity" and "quantity of charge". There is fundamentally only one type of electric charge, and only one variable is needed to keep track of the amount of charge.[3] The amount of charge may be positive or negative. Through experimentation, we find that like-charged objects repel and opposite-charged objects attract one another. The magnitude of the force of attraction or repulsion is given by Coulomb's law. In physics the term quantity of electricity refers to the quantity of electric charge. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Coulombs torsion balance In physics, Coulombs law is an inverse-square law indicating the magnitude and direction of electrostatic force that one stationary, electrically charged object of small dimensions (ideally, a point source) exerts on another. ...


References

  1. ^ Socket to me! How electricity came to be. (2007). IEEE Virtual History Museum.
  2. ^ Uman, Martin (1987). All About Lightning. Dover Publications. ISBN 048625237X. 
  3. ^ One Kind of Charge [1]

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... Dr. Martin A. Uman has been acknowledged by the American Geophysical Union as one of the worlds leading authorities on lightning. ...

See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ... 11kV/400V-230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ... Typical US domestic electricity meter An electric meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electrical energy supplied to a residence or business. ... Electrical phenomena are commonplace and unusual events that can be observed which illuminate the principles of the physics of electricity and are explained by them. ... Electrostatics (also known as static electricity) is the branch of physics that deals with the phenomena arising from what seem to be stationary electric charges. ...

Safety

Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a human or animal body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or nerves. ... In electrical engineering High voltage refers to a voltage which is high. ... The Electrical Safety Foundation International (ESFI — formerly the National Electrical Safety Foundation) is a nonprofit organization based in Rosslyn, Virginia, U.S.A. which promotes electrical safety. ...

Electrical phenomena in nature

This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Properties For other meanings of Atom, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Lightning over Oradea in Romania For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ... The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind. ... A Solar Flare and CME, courtesy NASA A solar flare is a violent explosion in the Suns atmosphere with an energy equivalent to a billion megatons, traveling normally at about 1 million km per hour (about 0. ... Voltage spikes are fast, short duration surges in the electric potential in a given circuit. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric potential[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ... The triboelectric effect is a type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into contact with another different material and are then separated (such as through rubbing). ... Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Families Apteronotidae (ghost knifefishes) Eigenmanniidae (obsolete?) Gymnotidae (naked-back knifefishes and electric eels) Hypopomidae Rhamphichthyidae Sternopygidae The gymnotiforms are an order (Gymnotiformes) of knifefishes that have organs adapted to the exploitation of bioelectricity. ... This article is about the animal. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... The Human Nervous System. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reduce Your electric rate by as much as 20-30% per year (714 words)
When negotiating commercial electricity with a Retail Electric Provider such as TXU Electric through a power broker a commercial business must see a substantial savings difference then if they were to negotiate the same contract on their own.
Retail Electric Providers like TXU Electric or Reliant Energy many times choose electricity brokers because they offer them the potential to win new business as long as they are able to bid competitively and beat out the other Retail Providers bidding on the same account.
When commercial electricity is negotiated through electricity brokers Texas companies stay one step ahead of the game.
Electricity - Electrical Energy Matters (499 words)
It is manufactured in electric generators, and then transmitted by copper wire long or short distances to where that electric power is utililzed.
The Electricity Forum is dedicated to the exchange of policy and technical information in common to electric utilities and large industrial, commercial and institutional power consumers.
Electrical Grounding is such a HOT subject that we are running another series across Canada, with one of NOrth America's leading experts on electrical grounding.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m