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Encyclopedia > Electrical telegraph

The electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electric signals. The electromagnetic telegraph is a device for transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters over wire. Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... In information theory, a signal is the sequence of states of a communications channel that encodes a message. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... In telecommunications, transmission is the act of transmitting electrical messages (and the associated phenomena of radiant energy that passes through media). ... Message in its most general meaning is the object of communication. ...

Contents

History

Early works and messages

"Early Telegraph" historical marker outside Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania
"Early Telegraph" historical marker outside Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania

Electrical phenomena were known from the early history of investigation of electricity to travel with great speed, and many experimenters worked on the problem of applying electricity to communications. All the known effects of electricity - such as sparks, electrostatic attraction, chemical changes, electric shocks, and (later) electromagnetic effects - were applied by various people to the problem of detecting controlled transmission of electricity at a distance. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (479x705, 223 KB) Taken by PennaBoy February 7, 2007 for use on Wikipedia I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (479x705, 223 KB) Taken by PennaBoy February 7, 2007 for use on Wikipedia I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Elizabethtown is a borough located in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 17 miles (27 km) southeast of Harrisburg. ...


In 1746 the French scientist and abbé Jean-Antoine Nollet gathered about two hundred monks into a circle about a mile (a little over a kilometer) in circumference, with pieces of iron wire connecting them and discharged a battery of Leyden jars through them; he observed that each man reacted at substantially the same time to the electric shock, showing the speed of propagation to be very high. [1][2] In 1753 an anonymous writer in the Scots Magazine suggested an electrostatic telegraph, with one wire for each letter of the alphabet - a message could be transmitted by connecting wires in turn to an electrostatic machine, and observing the deflection of pith balls at the far end. [3] While this scheme was eventually demonstrated experimentally in Europe, it was never developed into a useful communication system. Jean-Antoine Nollet (19 November 1700 – 25 April 1770) was a French clergyman and physicist. ... Original capacitor The Leyden jar is a device for storing electric charge invented in 1745 by Pieter van Musschenbroek (1700–1748). ...


Alessandro Volta invented the Voltaic Pile in 1800, allowing a continuous current for experimentation; this was a source of low-voltage current that could be used to produce different effects than the momentary discharge of electrostatic machines which were the only known source of electricity previously known. Samuel Thomas von Soemmering constructed his electrochemical telegraph in 1809. Hans Christian Ørsted discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field which will deflect a compass needle. Also in 1820, Johann Schweigger invented the galvanometer, with a coil of wire around a compass, which could be used as a sensitive indicator for electric current. In 1821, André-Marie Ampère suggested that telegraphy could be done by a system of galvanometers, with one wire per galvanometer to indicate each letter, and said he had experimented successfully with such a system. In 1824, Peter Barlow said that such a system only worked to a distance of about 200 feet (61 m), and so was impractical. William Sturgeon in 1825 invented the electromagnet, with a single winding of uninsulated wire on a piece of varnished iron, which increased the magnetic force produced by electric current. In 1828, Joseph Henry improved the electromagnet by placing on it several windings of insulated wire, creating a much more powerful electromagnet which could operate a telegraph through the high resistance of long telegraph wires. An electromagnetic telegraph was created by Baron Schilling in 1832. Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber built an electromagnetic telegraph in 1833 in Göttingen. In 1835 Joseph Henry invented the relay, by which a weak current over long wires could operate a powerful local electromagnet. [4] [5] For the concept car, see Toyota Alessandro Volta. ... A copper-zinc Voltaic pile A Voltaic pile on display in the Tempio Voltiano The Voltaic pile is the first modern electric battery, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ... Samuel Thomas von Sömmering Samuel Thomas von Soemmering (b. ... “Ørsted” redirects here. ... Wire carrying current to be measured Restoring spring N and S are poles of magnet A galvanometer is a type of ammeter — an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. ... André-Marie Ampère (January 20, 1775 – June 10, 1836), was a French physicist who is generally credited as one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism. ... Peter Barlow Peter Barlow (1776 - March 1, 1862) was an English writer on pure and applied mathematics. ... William Sturgeon (May 22, 1783 - December 4, 1850) was an English physicist and inventor who made the first electromagnets. ... Joseph Henry Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was a Scottish-American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Baron Pavel Lvovitch Schilling (c. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (pronounced ,  ; in German usually Gauß, Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics. ... Wilhelm Eduard Weber (October 24, 1804 - June 23, 1891) was a noted physicist. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Joseph Henry Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was a Scottish-American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. ...


Gauss-Weber telegraph and Carl Steinheil

Carl Friedrich Gauss, one of the most influential mathematicians of the early 19th century, developed a new theory of the Earth's magnetism in 1831, together with the physics professor Wilhelm Weber in Göttingen. Among the most important inventions of the time was the unifilar and bifilar magnetometer, enabling them to measure even the smallest deflections of the needle. They installed a 1000 m long wire above the town's roofs, which they were given permission for on 6 May 1833. Gauss combined the Poggendorff-Schweigger multiplicator with his magnetometer to build a more sensitive device, the galvanometer. To change the direction of the electric current, he constructed a commutator of his own. As a result, he was able to make the distant needle move in the direction set by the commutator on the other end of the line. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (pronounced ,  ; in German usually Gauß, Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics. ... Wilhelm Eduard Weber (October 24, 1804 - June 23, 1891) was a noted physicist. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... Wire carrying current to be measured Restoring spring N and S are poles of magnet A galvanometer is a type of ammeter — an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. ... In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative. ...


At first, they used the telegraph to coordinate time, but soon they developed other signals; finally, their own alphabet. It was not binary, but based on four amplitudes of the needle. Gauss was convinced that this communication would be a help to his kingdom's towns. It has been suggested that pulse amplitude be merged into this article or section. ...


Later the same year, instead of a Voltaic pile, Gauss used an induction pulse, enabling him to transmit seven letters a minute instead of two. The inventors and university were too poor to develop the telegraph on their own, but received funding from Alexander von Humboldt. Carl August Steinheil in Munich was able to build a telegraph network within the city in 1835-6, and installed a telegraph line along the first German railroad in 1835. He discovered that the ground conducts electricity, so that costs were reduced by half. King Ludwig I. of Bavaria was amazed: "You are lucky to live in our days. 200 years ago, you would have been burned for performing witchcraft." The Adome bridge crosses the Volta river south of the Akosombo Dam Volta is a river in central and western Africa that drains into the Gulf of Guinea. ... Look up induction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Carl August von Steinheil was a French physicist who is known for several different inventions. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Ludwig I (or Louis I, which is the French form of his name, his godfather was Louis XVI of France) (Strasbourg, August 25, 1786 – February 29, 1868 in Nice) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states. ...


Schilling telegraph

The telegraph invented by Baron Schilling von Canstatt in 1832 had a transmitting device which consisted of a keyboard with 16 black-and-white keys. These served for closing the electric current. Receiving instrument consisted of 6 galvanometers with the magnetic needles, suspended from the silk threads to the copper counters. Both stations of Shilling's telegraph were connected by eight wires and six from them were connected with the galvanometers, one served for the return current and one - for the draftable apparatus (electric bell). When at the starting station the operator pressed key and released electric current, the corresponding pointer was slanted at the receiving station. Different positions of black and white flags on different disks gave the conditional combinations, which corresponded to the letters of alphabet or to numbers. Later Pavel Shilling improved its apparatus. He reduced amount of connecting cables from 8 to 2 wires only. Baron Pavel Lvovitch Schilling (c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A key is a small rectangular button on a musical instrument that is depressed to cause the instrument to create a sound of a particular pitch. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... Wire carrying current to be measured Restoring spring N and S are poles of magnet A galvanometer is a type of ammeter — an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. ... Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax contemplating measuring instruments in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea In physics and engineering, measurement is the activity of comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... In general, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal. ... A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated strand of drawn metal. ... Wire carrying current to be measured Restoring spring N and S are poles of magnet A galvanometer is a type of ammeter — an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. ... An apparatus (plural apparatus, apparatuses) may be one of the following: A machine. ... In mathematics, an operator is a function that performs some sort of operation on a number, variable, or function. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Letter (disambiguation). ... ABCs redirects here. ... An apparatus (plural apparatus, apparatuses) may be one of the following: A machine. ... For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ...


On October 21, 1832, Schilling managed a short-distance transmission of signals by positioning two telegraphs in two different rooms of his apartment. In 1836 the Schilling's telegraph underwent successful tests on experimental underground - underwater cable line, with the extent about 5 kilometers, laid around the building of the main Admiralty in Saint Petersburg, and was approved for the relation between Peterhof and Kronshtadt. Schilling also was one of the first to put into practice the idea of the binary system of signal transmission. William Fothergill Cooke studied in Heidelberg in 1834-6 anatomy, where the physics professor introduced them to the Schilling von Canstedt's telegraph in 1836. He perfected a system and patented it with Charles Wheatstone in 1837. Cooke installed the system in short lengths on a number of railways over the next few years including the London & Birmingham, the Great Western, London & Blackwall, London & South Western, and London & South Eastern. In 1845 a consortium of business men purchased the patents from Cooke. is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... In the fields of communications, signal processing, and in electrical engineering more generally, a signal is any time-varying quantity. ... This article is about the structure. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ... Look up line in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: Кронштадт; also Kronshtadt, Cronstadt) is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at 59°5930 N and 29°4630 E. It lies 20 miles west of Saint Petersburg, of which... Binary coding is the term used to describe how information, normally numbers, are stored in binary, radix-2 form. ... In telecommunication, signalling (or signaling) has the following meanings: The use of signals for controlling communications. ... William Fothergill Cooke (Ealing 1806- Farnham, Surrey 25 June 1879) was, with Charles Wheatstone, the co-inventor of the Cooke-Wheatstone electrical telegraph, which was patented in May 1837. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ...


Alter and the Elderton Telegraph

Across the Atlantic 1836, an American scientist, Dr. David Alter, invented the first known American electric telegraph in Elderton, Pennsylvania, one year before the much more popular Morse telegraph was invented. David demonstrated it to witnesses. He was interviewed later for the book, Biographical and Historical Cyclopedia of Indiana and Armstrong Counties and said: "I may say that there is no connection at all between the telegraph of Morse and others and that of myself...Professor Morse most probably never heard of me or my Elderton telegraph." David Alter (born December 3, 1807 - died September 18, 1881) was a very prominent scientist of the 19th century. ...


Commercialization

The first commercial electrical telegraph was constructed by Sir William Fothergill Cooke. Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented it in May 1837 as an alarm system. It was first successfully demonstrated by Cooke and Wheatstone on 25 July 1837 between Euston and Camden Town in London. [6] It entered commercial use on the Great Western Railway over the 13 miles (21 km) from Paddington station to West Drayton on April 9, 1839. In early 1845, John Tawell was apprehended following the use of a needle telegraph message from Slough to Paddington on January 1, 1845. This is thought to be the first use of the telegraph to catch a murderer. The message was: William Fothergill Cooke (Ealing 1806- Farnham, Surrey 25 June 1879) was, with Charles Wheatstone, the co-inventor of the Cooke-Wheatstone electrical telegraph, which was patented in May 1837. ... Charles Wheatstone Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) He was a major figure in the development of... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Facade of Euston Station, London Euston Arch: the original Euston Station, as enlarged, ca 1851 Euston station concourse Euston station (also known as London Euston), is a large railway station in Central London. ... For other uses of Camden, see Camden. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ... Paddington Station, March 2005 during rush hour Paddington station or London Paddington station is a major National Rail and London Underground station complex in the Paddington area of London. ... , West Drayton is an area of West London in the London Borough of Hillingdon. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... John Tawell (1784-1845) was a British Quaker and convicted murderer. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in England. ... For other places with the same name, see Paddington (disambiguation). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

A murder has just been committed at Salt Hill and the suspected murderer was seen to take a first class ticket to London by the train that left Slough at 7.42pm. He is in the garb of a Kwaker with a brown great coat on which reaches his feet. He is in the last compartment of the second first-class carriage

The reason for the misspelling of 'Quaker' was that the British system did not support the letter Q.


An electrical telegraph was independently developed in the United States by Dr. David Alter in 1836, and developed and patented in the United States in 1837 by Samuel Morse. David Alter (born December 3, 1807 - died September 18, 1881) was a very prominent scientist of the 19th century. ... Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code. ...


According to a Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission heritage marker installed along Pennsylvania Route 230 near Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania in 1947 (see image at right), the first commercial telegraph line in the United States ran along a railroad right-of-way (currently part of Amtrak's Keystone Corridor) between Lancaster, Pennsylvania and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1845. The first message, received on January 8, 1846, was "Why don't you write, you rascals?"[3][4] Pennsylvania Route 230 is a state route in central Pennsylvania. ... Elizabethtown is a borough located in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 17 miles (27 km) southeast of Harrisburg. ... The high-speed Acela Express in West Windsor, New Jersey. ... For details about the Amtrak-owned piece, see Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line. ... , Official name: City of Lancaster Nickname: The Red Rose City Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Location Penn Square  - coordinates , Highest point  - elevation 368 ft (112 m) Area 7. ... This article is about the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ...


Transatlantic era

On October 24, 1861, the first transcontinental telegraph system was established. Spanning North America, an existing network in the eastern United States was connected to the small network in California by a link between Omaha and Carson City via Salt Lake City. The slower Pony Express system ceased operation two days later. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The First Transcontinental Telegraph was a milestone in the formation of the United States. ... Omaha redirects here. ... Motto: Proud of its Past. ... For ships of the United States Navy of the same name, see USS Salt Lake City. ... Frank E. Webner, pony express rider c. ...

The first telegraph links in Europe
The first telegraph links in Europe

The first successful transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on July 27, 1866, allowing transatlantic telegraph communications for the first time. Earlier submarine transatlantic cables installed in 1857 and 1858 only operated for a few days or weeks before they failed. The study of underwater telegraph cables accelerated interest in mathematical analysis of these transmission lines. Image File history File links Porthcurno_cables. ... Image File history File links Porthcurno_cables. ... The first transatlantic telegraph cable crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Foilhommerum, Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Hearts Content, in eastern Newfoundland. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The multitude of layers in a submarine communications cable is revealed by its Cross section. ... A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves, as well as electric power transmission. ...


In 1867, David Brooks (while working for the Central Pacific Railroad) was awarded U.S. Patent 63,206  (March 26) and U.S. Patent 69,622  (October 9) for his improvements to telegraph insulators. He was also awarded reissue number 2,717 on August 6, 1867, for U.S. Patent 45,221 , which was originally awarded to him on November 29, 1864, for his insulator design. Brooks' patents allowed the Central Pacific to more easily communicate with construction crews building the First Transcontinental Railroad in America; the completion of the railroad was broadcast by telegraph on May 10, 1869, with the telegrapher striking his key in unison with the strikes on the Golden Spike during the completion ceremony. David Brooks was an Philadelphia, Pennsylvania inventor, remembered for an innovative insulator for telegraph lines in 1864 and 1867. ... The Gov. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Ex-Virginia and Truckee Railroad No. ...

This telegram was sent by Orville Wright in December 1903 from Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, following the first successful aeroplane flight.
This telegram was sent by Orville Wright in December 1903 from Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, following the first successful aeroplane flight.

Another advancement in telegraph technology occurred on August 9, 1892, when Thomas Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph (U.S. Patent 0,480,567 , "Duplex Telegraph") . On January 27, 2006, Western Union discontinued all telegram and commercial messaging services, though it still offered its money transfer services. Image File history File links Orville_Wright_telegram. ... Image File history File links Orville_Wright_telegram. ... Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948), the younger of the Wright brothers, seen as one of the fathers of heavier-than-air flight. ... Kitty Hawk is a town located in Dare County, North Carolina. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Edison redirects here. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Western Union (NYSE: WU) is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. ...


Global communication

Within 29 years of its first installation at Euston Station, the telegraph network crossed the oceans to every continent, making instant global communication possible for the first time. Its development allowed newspapers to cover significant world events in near real-time, revolutionized business, particularly trading businesses, and allowed huge fortunes to be won and lost in a flurry of investment in research and infrastructure building later echoed in the 1990s dot-com bubble. For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... The dot-com bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 during which stock markets in Western nations saw their value increase rapidly from growth in the new Internet sector and related fields. ...


Morse telegraphs

The full potential of the telegraph in America was realized the next year by Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail. Samuel F. B. Morse independently developed an electrical telegraph in 1837, an alternative design that was capable of transmitting over long distances using poor quality wire. His assistant, Alfred Vail developed the Morse code signalling alphabet with Morse. The Morse code alphabet commonly used on the device was also named after Morse. Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code. ... Alfred Lewis Vail (September 25, 1807 - January 18, 1859) was a machinist and inventor. ... Alfred Lewis Vail (September 25, 1807 - January 18, 1859) was a machinist and inventor. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... ABCs redirects here. ...


On January 6, 1838 Morse first successfully tested the device at the Speedwell Ironworks near Morristown, New Jersey, and on February 8 he publicly demonstrated it to a scientific committee at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Factory House, birthplace of the electric telegraph Speedwell Ironworks was an ironworks just north of Morristown, New Jersey on Speedwell Avenue, part of U.S. Route 202. ... Nickname: Location of Morris County in New Jersey; Inset: Location of Morristown in Morris County Coordinates: , Country State County Morris Founded 1715 Incorporated April 6, 1865 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Donald Cresitello (D; term ends December 31, 2009. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Franklin Institute Front steps as seen from the adjacent Moore College This article is about the science museum in Philadelphia. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ...


In 1843 the U.S. Congress appropriated $30,000 to fund an experimental telegraph line from Washington D.C. to Baltimore. By May 1, 1844 the line had been completed from the U.S. Capitol to Annapolis Junction in Maryland. That day the Whig Party nominated Henry Clay at its national convention in Baltimore. News of the nomination was hand carried by railroad to Annapolis Junction where Vail wired it to Morse in the Capitol.[7] On May 24, 1844, after the line was completed, Morse made the first public demonstration of his telegraph by sending a message from the Supreme Court Chamber in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. to the B&O Railroad "outer depot" (now the B&O Railroad Museum) in Baltimore. The famous message was: What hath God wrought (from the Biblical book of Numbers 23:23: Surely there is no enchantment against Jacob, neither is there any divination against Israel: according to this time it shall be said of Jacob and of Israel, What hath God wrought!). The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... ... Baltimore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ...

The Americas' first telegram, transmitted via a repeater: "What hath God wrought" sent by Samuel F.B. Morse in 1844.
The Americas' first telegram, transmitted via a repeater: "What hath God wrought" sent by Samuel F.B. Morse in 1844.

The Morse/Vail telegraph was quickly deployed in the following two decades. Morse failed to properly credit Vail for the powerful electromagnets used in his telegraph. The original Morse design, without the relay or the "intensity" and "quantity" electromagnets invented by Vail only worked to a distance of 40 feet (12 m). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3860x190, 93 KB) Summary Source: http://rs6. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3860x190, 93 KB) Summary Source: http://rs6. ...

The electrical telegraph owned and built by Samuel F. B. Morse
The electrical telegraph owned and built by Samuel F. B. Morse

This was a practical electrical telegraph system, and subsequently electrical telegraph came to refer to a signaling telegram - a system where an operator makes and breaks an electrical contact with a telegraph key which results in an audible signal at the other end produced by a telegraph sounder which is interpreted and transcribed by a human. Morse and Vail's first telegraphs used a pen and paper system to record the marks of the Morse Code, and interpreted the marks visually however, operators soon realized that they could "read" the clicking of the receiver directly by ear. Systems which automatically read the signals and print formed characters are generally called teletype rather than telegraph systems. Some electrical telegraphs used indicators which were read visually rather than by ear. The most notable of these was the early transatlantic telegraph cable. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 92 KB) Summary This is the Electrical telegraph owned and built by Samuel Morse. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 92 KB) Summary This is the Electrical telegraph owned and built by Samuel Morse. ... Telegraph key Telegraph key (also known as the Morse key) is a generic term for any switching device used primarily to send Morse code. ... A Telegraph Sounder is a device which produces an audible sound when connected to an operating electrical telegraph. ... A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... The first transatlantic telegraph cable crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Foilhommerum, Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Hearts Content, in eastern Newfoundland. ...


See also

The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake Aurora Borealis as seen over Canada at 11,000m (36,000 feet) Red and green Aurora in Fairbanks, Alaska Aurora Borealis redirects here. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), affecting the normal operation of long technological conductor systems, are a manifestation at ground level of space weather. ... The acronym GIC can refer to : Guaranteed Investment Certificate, a financial instrument Guaranteed Investment Contract, an Insurance contract Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, a government investment vehicle of Singapore glass ionomer cement, a material used in dentistry General Insurance Corporation, Indias NationalRe. ... The multitude of layers in a submarine communications cable is revealed by its Cross section. ...

References

  1. ^ [1] Tom Standage, The Victorian Internet, Walker Publishing, New York, 1998 ISBN 0-8027-1342-4, pp. 1-2
  2. ^ [2] John Joseph Fahey, A history of electric telegraphy, to the year 1837, Spon, London, 1884, p59
  3. ^ E. A. Marland, Early Electrical Communication, Abelard-Schuman Ltd, London 1964, no ISBN, Library of Congress 64-20875, pages 17-19
  4. ^ Joseph Henry: Inventor of the Telegraph? Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
  5. ^ Thomas Coulson (1950). Joseph Henry: His Life and Work. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 
  6. ^ The electric telegraph, forerunner of the internet, celebrates 170 years BT Group Connected Earth Online Museum. Accessed July 2007
  7. ^ The History of the Telegraph and Telegraphy at About.com
  • Biographical and Historical Cyclopedia of Indiana and Armstrong Counties, by Wiley, Samuel T., editor, John M. Gresham and Co., Philadelphia PA, 1891, pages 475-476.
  • W.F. Cooke, The Electric Telegraph, Was it invented by Prof. Wheatstone?, London 1856.
  • C.A. Steinheil, Ueber Telegraphie, München 1838.
  • C.F. Gauß, Works, Göttingen 1863-1933.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Morse Telegraph Club, Inc. (The Morse Telegraph Club is an international non-profit organization dedicated to the perpetuation of the knowledge and traditions of telegraphy.)
  • http://collections.ic.gc.ca/canso/index.htm
  • Shilling's telegraph- an exhibit of A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications
  • History of electromagnetic telegraph
  • The first electric telegraphs
  • The Dawn of Telegraphy- in Russian
  • Pavel Shilling and his telegraph- article in PCWeek, Russian edition.
  • Distant Writing - The History of the Telegraph Companies in Britain between 1838 and 1868
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... On-off keying (OOK) is a type of modulation that represents digital data as the presence or absence of a carrier wave. ... A continuous wave (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency. ... Modulated continuous wave is defined by the Federal Communications Commission in 47 CFR §97. ... Signaling with heliograph, 1910 A heliograph uses a mirror to reflect sunlight to a distant observer. ... Signal lamp training during World War II. Signal lamp, also called Aldis lamp, is a visual signaling device for optical communication (typically using Morse code) – essentially a focused lamp which can produce a pulse of light. ... For other uses, see SOS (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Due to the fact that associating letters and numbers with audible dits and dahs can be dificult, many people have developed mnemonics to help remember the morse code equivalent of characters. ... Prosigns or procedural signals are dot/dash sequences that have a special meaning in Morse Code transmissions. ... Abbreviations differ from prosigns for Morse Code in that they observe normal interletter spacing; that is, they are not run together the way prosigns are. ... The Q code is a standardized collection of three-letter message encodings, all starting with the letter Q, initially developed for commercial radiotelegraph communication, and later adopted by other radio services, especially amateur radio. ... For the virtual machine language introduced by Infocom, see the article under Z-machine. ... 1911 Chart of the Standard American Morse Characters (now obsolete) American Morse Code — also known as Railroad Morse — is is the latter-day name for the now-obsolete version of the Morse Code specification originally developed in the mid-1840s, by Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail for their electric telegraph. ... This is a summary of the use of Morse code to represent alphabets other than Latin. ... This is a summary of the use of Morse code to represent alphabets other than Latin. ... This is a summary of the use of Morse code to represent alphabets other than Latin. ... This is a summary of the use of Morse code to represent alphabets other than Latin. ... Wabun Code is a form of Morse Code used to send Japanese language text. ... The Chinese telegraph code ( / Zhōngwén diànmǎ or / Zhōngwén diànbàomǎ[1]) is a four-digit decimal code for electrically telegraphing messages written with Chinese characters. ...

 
 

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