 This article does not cite any references or sources. (January 2007) Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed.  A simple electric circuit made up of a voltage source and a resistor. An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, transmission lines, voltage sources, current sources, and switches. Image File history File links Question_book3. ...
Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ...
Image File history File links Solenoid. ...
Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...
For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ...
Electrostatics (also known as static electricity) is the branch of physics that deals with the phenomena arising from what seem to be stationary electric charges. ...
This box: Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ...
This box: Coulombs torsion balance Coulombs law, developed in the 1780s by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb, may be stated in scalar form as follows: The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two point electric charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of each...
In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a timevarying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ...
In physics, Gausss law gives the relation between the electric flux flowing out a closed surface and the charge enclosed in the surface. ...
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...
This article is about the electromagnetic phenomenon. ...
Magnetostatics is the study of static magnetic fields. ...
An electric current produces a magnetic field. ...
This box: Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ...
Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings Magnetostatics Electrodynamics Electrical Network Tensors in Relativity This box: In physics, the magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which exerts a magnetic force on moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles. ...
Magnetic flux, represented by the Greek letter Î¦ (phi), is a measure of quantity of magnetism, taking account of the strength and the extent of a magnetic field. ...
The BiotSavart law is a physical law with applications in both electromagnetics and fluid dynamics. ...
A bar magnet. ...
Classical electrodynamics (or classical electromagnetism) is a theory of electromagnetism that was developed over the course of the 19th century, most prominently by James Clerk Maxwell. ...
In physics, free space is a concept of electromagnetic theory, corresponding roughly to the vacuum, the baseline state of the electromagnetic field, or the replacement for the electromagnetic aether. ...
Lorentz force. ...
Electromotive force (emf) is the amount of energy gained per unit charge that passes through a device in the opposite direction to the electric field existing across that device. ...
For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ...
Faradays law of induction (more generally, the law of electromagnetic induction) states that the induced emf (electromotive force) in a closed loop equals the negative of the time rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. ...
Displacement current is a quantity related to changing electric field. ...
For thermodynamic relations, see Maxwell relations. ...
The electromagnetic field is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. ...
This box: Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a selfpropagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ...
As the circular plate moves down through a small region of constant magnetic field directed into the page, eddy currents are induced in the plate. ...
In physics, the Maxwell stress tensor is the stress tensor of an electromagnetic field. ...
Twodimensional analogy of spacetime curvature described in General Relativity. ...
The LiÃ©nardWiechert potential describes the electromagnetic effect of a moving charge. ...
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In physics, the electromagnetic stressenergy tensor is the portion of the stressenergy tensor due to the electromagnetic field. ...
Charles Augustin de Coulomb (born June 14, 1736, AngoulÃªme, France  died August 23, 1806, Paris, France) was a French physicist. ...
AndrÃ©Marie AmpÃ¨re (January 20, 1775 â€“ June 10, 1836), was a French physicist who is generally credited as one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism. ...
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 â€“ 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ...
11kV/400V230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ...
It has been suggested that Electrical component be merged into this article or section. ...
Resistor symbols (American) Resistor symbols (Europe, IEC) Axiallead resistors on tape. ...
An inductor is a passive electrical device employed in electrical circuits for its property of inductance. ...
See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ...
A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves, as well as electric power transmission. ...
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Current source. ...
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Voltage source. ...
Electrical switches. ...
An electrical circuit is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path for the current. A network is a connection of two or more components, and may not necessarily be a circuit. Electrical networks that consist only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed elements (transmission lines) can be analyzed by algebraic and transform methods to determine DC response, AC response, and transient response. Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ...
City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ...
In electrical engineering, a transient response or natural response is the electrical reponse of a system to a change from equillibrium. ...
A network that also contains active electronic components is known as an electronic circuit. Such networks are generally nonlinear and require more complex design and analysis tools. In electronics, an active component is one that has gain or depends on the direction of the current. ...
This article is about the engineering discipline. ...
An electronic circuit is an electrical circuit that also contains active electronic devices such as transistors or vacuum tubes. ...
Design methods
To design any electrical circuit, either analog or digital, electrical engineers need to be able to predict the voltages and currents at all places within the circuit. Linear circuits, that is, circuits with the same input and output frequency, can be analyzed by hand using complex number theory. Other circuits can only be analyzed with specialized software programs or estimation techniques. Analog electronics (or analogue, see analog) are those electronic systems with a continuously variable signal. ...
Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ...
Electrical Engineers design power systemsâ€¦ â€¦ and complex electronic circuits. ...
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...
In mathematics, a complex number is a number which is often formally defined to consist of an ordered pair of real numbers , often written: In mathematics, the adjective complex means that the underlying number field is complex numbers, for example complex analysis, complex matrix, complex polynomial and complex Lie algebra. ...
A computer program (often simply called a program) is an example of computer software that prescribes the actions (computations) that are to be carried out by a computer. ...
Circuit simulation software, such as VHDL and HSPICE, allows engineers to design circuits without the time, cost and risk of error involved in building circuit prototypes. VHDL, or VHSIC Hardware Description Language, is commonly used as a designentry language for fieldprogrammable gate arrays and applicationspecific integrated circuits in electronic design automation of digital circuits. ...
Electrical laws A number of electrical laws apply to all electrical networks. These include  Kirchhoff's current law: The sum of all currents entering a node is equal to the sum of all currents leaving the node.
 Kirchhoff's voltage law: The directed sum of the electrical potential differences around a loop must be zero.
 Ohm's law: The voltage across a resistor is equal to the product of the resistance and the current flowing through it (at constant temperature).
 Norton's theorem: Any network of voltage and/or current sources and resistors is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source in parallel with a single resistor.
 Thévenin's theorem: Any network of voltage and/or current sources and resistors is electrically equivalent to a single voltage source in series with a single resistor.
Other more complex laws may be needed if the network contains nonlinear or reactive components. Nonlinear selfregenerative heterodyning systems can be approximated. Applying these laws results in a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved either by hand or by a computer. Not to be confused with Kerckhoffs principle. ...
Not to be confused with Kerckhoffs principle. ...
A voltage source, V, drives an electric current, I , through resistor, R, the three quantities obeying Ohms law: V = IR Ohms law states that, in an electrical circuit, the current passing through a conductor between two points is proportional to the potential difference (i. ...
Nortons theorem for electrical networks states that any collection of voltage sources and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source, I, in parallel with a single resistor, R. For singlefrequency AC systems the theorem can also be applied to general impedances, not just...
In electrical circuit theory, ThÃ©venins theorem for linear electrical networks states that any combination of voltage sources, current sources and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent to a single voltage source V and a single series resistor R. For single frequency AC systems the theorem can also...
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Circuit analysis. ...
It has been suggested that Electric reactance be merged into this article or section. ...
In telecommunications, to heterodyne is to generate new frequencies by mixing two or more signals in a nonlinear device such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or diode mixer. ...
In Mathematics simultaneous equations are a set of equations containing multiple variables. ...
Network simulation software More complex circuits can be analyzed numerically with software such as SPICE or symbolically using software such as SapWin. For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ...
SAPWIN is a symbolic circuit simulator written in C++ for the Windows (95/98/ME/NT/2000) environment. ...
Linearization around operating point When faced with a new circuit, the software first tries to find a steady state solution, that is, one where all nodes conform to Kirchhoff's Current Law and the voltages across and through each element of the circuit conform to the voltage/current equations governing that element. HELLO EVERYONE!! Steady state is a more general situation than Dynamic equilibrium. ...
Once the steady state solution is found, the operating points of each element in the circuit are known. For a small signal analysis, every nonlinear element can be linearized around its operation point to obtain the smallsignal estimate of the voltages and currents. This is an application of Ohm's Law. The resulting linear circuit matrix can be solved with Gaussian elimination. In linear algebra, Gaussian elimination is an algorithm that can be used to determine the solutions of a system of linear equations, to find the rank of a matrix, and to calculate the inverse of an invertible square matrix. ...
Piecewiselinear approximation Software such as the PLECS interface to Simulink uses piecewiselinear approximation of the equations governing the elements of a circuit. The circuit is treated as a completely linear network of ideal diodes. Every time a diode switches from on to off or vice versa, the configuration of the linear network changes. Adding more detail to the approximation of equations increases the accuracy of the simulation, but also increases its running time. PLECS (Piecewise Linear Electrical Circuit Simulation) is a Simulink toolbox for systemlevel simulations of electrical circuits. ...
Simulink, running a simulation of a thermostatcontrolled heating system SimulinkÂ® is a block library tool for modeling, simulating and analyzing dynamic systems. ...
In mathematics, a piecewise linear function , where V is a vector space and is a subset of a vector space, is any function with the property that can be decomposed into finitely many convex polytopes, such that f is equal to a linear function on each of these polytopes. ...
See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: electric circuits Image File history File links Commonslogo. ...
Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_ksim. ...
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Webbased project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Circuit analysis. ...
City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ...
In telecommunication, the term balancing network has the following meanings: 1. ...
A bridge circuit is a type of electrical circuit in which the current in a conductor splits into two parallel paths and then recombines into a single conductor, thereby enclosing a loop. ...
Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ...
The circuit diagram for a 4 bit TTL counter, a type of state machine A circuit diagram (also known as an electrical diagram, elementary diagram, or electronic schematic) is a simplified conventional pictorial representation of an electrical circuit. ...
An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ...
Three bridge rectifiers. ...
Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ...
Quiescent current is the current that flows in an electrical circuit when no load is present. ...
It has been suggested that Ground conductor be merged into this article or section. ...
Since electric current is invisible and the processes at play in electronics are often difficult to understand in an intuitive way, it is common to teach electronics using analogies to more common sense objects and processes. ...
Electrical impedance, or simply impedance, is a measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating electric current. ...
If an electric circuit has a welldefined output terminal, the circuit connected to this terminal (or its input impedance) is the load. ...
// Mathematical methods in electronics Mathematical methods are integral to the study of electronics. ...
The word netlist can be used in several different domains, but perhaps the most popular is in the electronic design domain. ...
A network analyzer is an instrument used to analyze the properties of electrical networks, especially those properties associated with reflection and transmission of electrical signals known as sparameters. ...
resistorcapacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is one of the simplest analogue electronic filters. ...
An LC circuit consists of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C. When connected together, an electrical current can alternate between them at an angular frequency of where L is the inductance in henries, and C is the capacitance in farads. ...
An RLC circuit (also known as a resonant circuit or a tuned circuit) is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R), an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C), connected in series or in parallel. ...
The lumped element model of electronic circuits makes the simplifying assumption that each element is an infinitesimal point in space, and that the wires connecting elements are perfect conductors. ...
The distributed element model or transmission line model of electronic circuits assumes that each circuit element is finite, as opposed to infinitesimal, and that the wires connecting elements are not perfect conductors  that is, they have impedance. ...
In electronics, a voltage divider or resistor divider is a design technique used to create a voltage (Vout) which is proportional to another voltage (Vin). ...
A schematic of the Washington Metro. ...
Electrical circuit components can be connected together in one of two ways: series or parallel. ...
For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ...
In electronics, a continuity test is the checking of an electric circuit to see if current flows (that it is in fact a complete circuit). ...
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...
