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Encyclopedia > Electrical network
A simple electric circuit made up of a voltage source and a resistor.
Electromagnetism
Electricity · Magnetism
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An electrical circuit is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path for the current. A network is a connection of two or more components, and may not necessarily be a circuit.

Electrical networks that consist only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed elements (transmission lines) can be analyzed by algebraic and transform methods to determine DC response, AC response, and transient response. Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... In electrical engineering, a transient response or natural response is the electrical reponse of a system to a change from equillibrium. ...

A network that also contains active electronic components is known as an electronic circuit. Such networks are generally nonlinear and require more complex design and analysis tools. In electronics, an active component is one that has gain or depends on the direction of the current. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... An electronic circuit is an electrical circuit that also contains active electronic devices such as transistors or vacuum tubes. ...

## Contents

To design any electrical circuit, either analog or digital, electrical engineers need to be able to predict the voltages and currents at all places within the circuit. Linear circuits, that is, circuits with the same input and output frequency, can be analyzed by hand using complex number theory. Other circuits can only be analyzed with specialized software programs or estimation techniques. Analog electronics (or analogue, see analog) are those electronic systems with a continuously variable signal. ... Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ... Electrical Engineers design power systemsâ€¦ â€¦ and complex electronic circuits. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In mathematics, a complex number is a number which is often formally defined to consist of an ordered pair of real numbers , often written: In mathematics, the adjective complex means that the underlying number field is complex numbers, for example complex analysis, complex matrix, complex polynomial and complex Lie algebra. ... A computer program (often simply called a program) is an example of computer software that prescribes the actions (computations) that are to be carried out by a computer. ...

Circuit simulation software, such as VHDL and HSPICE, allows engineers to design circuits without the time, cost and risk of error involved in building circuit prototypes. VHDL, or VHSIC Hardware Description Language, is commonly used as a design-entry language for field-programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits in electronic design automation of digital circuits. ...

### Electrical laws

A number of electrical laws apply to all electrical networks. These include

• Kirchhoff's current law: The sum of all currents entering a node is equal to the sum of all currents leaving the node.
• Kirchhoff's voltage law: The directed sum of the electrical potential differences around a loop must be zero.
• Ohm's law: The voltage across a resistor is equal to the product of the resistance and the current flowing through it (at constant temperature).
• Norton's theorem: Any network of voltage and/or current sources and resistors is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source in parallel with a single resistor.
• Thévenin's theorem: Any network of voltage and/or current sources and resistors is electrically equivalent to a single voltage source in series with a single resistor.

Other more complex laws may be needed if the network contains nonlinear or reactive components. Non-linear self-regenerative heterodyning systems can be approximated. Applying these laws results in a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved either by hand or by a computer. Not to be confused with Kerckhoffs principle. ... Not to be confused with Kerckhoffs principle. ... A voltage source, V, drives an electric current, I , through resistor, R, the three quantities obeying Ohms law: V = IR Ohms law states that, in an electrical circuit, the current passing through a conductor between two points is proportional to the potential difference (i. ... Nortons theorem for electrical networks states that any collection of voltage sources and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source, I, in parallel with a single resistor, R. For single-frequency AC systems the theorem can also be applied to general impedances, not just... In electrical circuit theory, ThÃ©venins theorem for linear electrical networks states that any combination of voltage sources, current sources and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent to a single voltage source V and a single series resistor R. For single frequency AC systems the theorem can also... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Circuit analysis. ... It has been suggested that Electric reactance be merged into this article or section. ... In telecommunications, to heterodyne is to generate new frequencies by mixing two or more signals in a nonlinear device such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or diode mixer. ... In Mathematics simultaneous equations are a set of equations containing multiple variables. ...

### Network simulation software

More complex circuits can be analyzed numerically with software such as SPICE or symbolically using software such as SapWin. For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... SAPWIN is a symbolic circuit simulator written in C++ for the Windows (95/98/ME/NT/2000) environment. ...

#### Linearization around operating point

When faced with a new circuit, the software first tries to find a steady state solution, that is, one where all nodes conform to Kirchhoff's Current Law and the voltages across and through each element of the circuit conform to the voltage/current equations governing that element. HELLO EVERYONE!! Steady state is a more general situation than Dynamic equilibrium. ...

Once the steady state solution is found, the operating points of each element in the circuit are known. For a small signal analysis, every non-linear element can be linearized around its operation point to obtain the small-signal estimate of the voltages and currents. This is an application of Ohm's Law. The resulting linear circuit matrix can be solved with Gaussian elimination. In linear algebra, Gaussian elimination is an algorithm that can be used to determine the solutions of a system of linear equations, to find the rank of a matrix, and to calculate the inverse of an invertible square matrix. ...

#### Piecewise-linear approximation

Software such as the PLECS interface to Simulink uses piecewise-linear approximation of the equations governing the elements of a circuit. The circuit is treated as a completely linear network of ideal diodes. Every time a diode switches from on to off or vice versa, the configuration of the linear network changes. Adding more detail to the approximation of equations increases the accuracy of the simulation, but also increases its running time. PLECS (Piece-wise Linear Electrical Circuit Simulation) is a Simulink toolbox for system-level simulations of electrical circuits. ... Simulink, running a simulation of a thermostat-controlled heating system SimulinkÂ® is a block library tool for modeling, simulating and analyzing dynamic systems. ... In mathematics, a piecewise linear function , where V is a vector space and is a subset of a vector space, is any function with the property that can be decomposed into finitely many convex polytopes, such that f is equal to a linear function on each of these polytopes. ...

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Results from FactBites:

 Electrical network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (778 words) An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. The goal when designing electrical networks for signal processing is to apply a predefined operation on potential differences (measured in volts) or currents (measured in amperes). Typical functions for these electrical networks are amplification, oscillation and analog linear algorithmic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, differentiation and integration.
 Electrical network Info - Encyclopedia WikiWhat.com (691 words) An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. A network is a connection of 2 or more simple circuit elements, and may not be a circuit. The goal when designing electrical networks for signal processing is to apply a predefined operation on potential differences (measured in volts) or currentss (measured in amperes).
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