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Encyclopedia > Electrical engineering
Electrical Engineers design power systems...
Electrical Engineers design power systems...
... and complex electronic circuits.
... and complex electronic circuits.

Electrical engineering — sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering — is an engineering field that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. The field now covers a range of sub-studies including power, electronics, control systems, signal processing and telecommunications. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1578x1536, 1482 KB) Summary Taken by User:Light current summer 2005 near Seaton, Devon using Olympus C745 on auto Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1578x1536, 1482 KB) Summary Taken by User:Light current summer 2005 near Seaton, Devon using Olympus C745 on auto Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 514 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (659 × 768 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hitachi J100 adjustable frequency drive chassis. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 514 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (659 × 768 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hitachi J100 adjustable frequency drive chassis. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... A control system is a device or set of devices that manage the behavior of other devices. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals, and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ...


Electrical engineering may or may not encompass electronic engineering. Where a distinction is made, usually outside of the United States, electrical engineering is considered to deal with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power transmission and motor control, whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and integrated circuits.[1] Another way of looking at the distinction is that electrical engineers are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit energy, while electronic engineers are concerned with using electricity to transmit information. Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Power line redirects here. ... A motor controller is a device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an electric motor. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ...

Contents

History

Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. The first electrical engineer was probably William Gilbert who designed the versorium: a device that detected the presence of statically charged objects. He was also the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity and is credited with establishing the term electricity.[2] In 1775 Alessandro Volta's scientific experimentations devised the electrophorus, a device that produced a static electric charge, and by 1800 Volta developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery.[3] This article details the history of the electrical engineering profession. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... For other persons named William Gilbert, see William Gilbert (disambiguation). ... Versorium (latin turn around) is a device for detecting the presence of static electricity and the first known electrical device. ... For the concept car, see Toyota Alessandro Volta. ...


However, it was not until the 19th century that research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism.[4] {{Infobox Scientist This guy was gay | name = Georg Simon Ohm | image = Ohm3. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... Potential difference is a quantity in physics related to the amount of energy that would be required to move an object from one place to another against various types of force. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... For thermodynamic relations, see Maxwell relations. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ...


During these years, the study of electricity was largely considered to be a subfield of physics. It was not until the late 19th century that universities started to offer degrees in electrical engineering. The Darmstadt University of Technology founded the first chair and the first faculty of electrical engineering worldwide in 1882. In 1883 Darmstadt University of Technology and Cornell University introduced the world's first courses of study in electrical engineering, and in 1885 the University College London founded the first chair of electrical engineering in the United Kingdom.[5] The University of Missouri subsequently established the first department of electrical engineering in the United States in 1886.[6] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... Old main building in the city centre. ... Old main building in the city centre. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... This article is about the university in Columbia. ...

Thomas Edison built the world's first large-scale electrical supply network
Thomas Edison built the world's first large-scale electrical supply network

During this period, the work concerning electrical engineering increased dramatically. In 1882, Edison switched on the world's first large-scale electrical supply network that provided 110 volts direct current to fifty-nine customers in lower Manhattan. In 1887, Nikola Tesla filed a number of patents related to a competing form of power distribution known as alternating current. In the following years a bitter rivalry between Tesla and Edison, known as the "War of Currents", took place over the preferred method of distribution. AC eventually replaced DC for generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range and improving the safety and efficiency of power distribution. Adjusted grayscale tonal values: contrast and brightness. ... Adjusted grayscale tonal values: contrast and brightness. ... Edison redirects here. ... Edison redirects here. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ...

Nikola Tesla made long-distance electrical transmission networks possible.
Nikola Tesla made long-distance electrical transmission networks possible.

The efforts of the two did much to further electrical engineering—Tesla's work on induction motors and polyphase systems influenced the field for years to come, while Edison's work on telegraphy and his development of the stock ticker proved lucrative for his company, which ultimately became General Electric. However, by the end of the 19th century, other key figures in the progress of electrical engineering were beginning to emerge.[7] Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... A polyphase system is a means of distributing alternating current electrical power. ... The board and equipment for Stock Ticker Stock Ticker is a now out of print board game that was popular upon its release and is still played today. ... “GE” redirects here. ...

Modern developments

Emergence of radio and electronics

During the development of radio, many scientists and inventors contributed to radio technology and electronics. In his classic UHF experiments of 1888, Heinrich Hertz transmitted (via a spark-gap transmitter) and detected radio waves using electrical equipment. In 1895, Nikola Tesla was able to detect signals from the transmissions of his New York lab at West Point (a distance of 80.4 km).[8] In 1897, Karl Ferdinand Braun introduced the cathode ray tube as part of an oscilloscope, a crucial enabling technology for electronic television.[9] John Fleming invented the first radio tube, the diode, in 1904. Two years later, Robert von Lieben and Lee De Forest independently developed the amplifier tube, called the triode.[10] “In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi succeeded in sending wireless signals over a distance of one and a half miles.” “On an historic day in December 1901, determined to prove that wireless waves were not affected by the curvature of the Earth, Marconi transmitted the first wireless signals across the Atlantic between Poldhu, Cornwall, and St. John's, Newfoundland, a distance of 2100 miles.”[11][12] In 1934 the British military began to make strides towards radar (which also uses the magnetron) under the direction of Dr Wimperis, culminating in the operation of the first radar station at Bawdsey in August 1936.[13] // Within the timeline of radio, many people were involved in the invention of radio transmission of information as we know it today. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radio (disambiguation). ... This article is about the radio frequency. ... Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894) was the German physicist and mechanician for whom the hertz, an SI unit, is named. ... A typical spark transmitter circuit. ... Radio waves are electromagnetic waves occurring on the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Karl Ferdinand Braun (6 June 1850 in Fulda, Germany – 20 April 1918 in New York City, U.S.) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel Prize laureate. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... Illustration showing the interior of a cathode-ray tube for use in an oscilloscope. ... TV redirects here. ... Sir John Ambrose Fleming (November 29, 1849 - April 18, 1945) was an English electrical engineer and physicist. ... Closeup of the image below, showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal various semiconductor diodes, below a bridge rectifier Structure of a vacuum tube diode In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal component, almost always one that has electrical properties which vary depending on the direction of flow of charge... Robert von Lieben (September 5, 1878 in Vienna – February 20, 1913 in Vienna) was a notable Austrian physicist. ... Lee De Forest, (August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor with over 300 patents to his credit. ... Simplified diagram of a triode. ... For the inventor of radio,Marconi see the competing claims in history of radio and the invention of radio. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Bawdsey is a village in Suffolk, England near Felixstowe. ...


In 1941 Konrad Zuse presented the Z3, the world's first fully functional and programmable computer.[14] In 1946 the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) of John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly followed, beginning the computing era. The arithmetic performance of these machines allowed engineers to develop completely new technologies and achieve new objectives, including the Apollo missions and the NASA moon landing.[15] Statue in Bad Hersfeld Konrad Zuse (June 22, 1910 Berlin - December 18, 1995 Hünfeld) was a German engineer and computer pioneer. ... ENIAC ENIAC, short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer,[1] was the first large-scale, electronic, digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems,[2] although earlier computers had been built with some of these properties. ... John Presper Eckert, a computer pioneer, was born April 9, 1919 in Philadelphia and died June 3, 1995 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. ... Eckert and Mauchly examine a printout of ENIAC results in a newsreel from February 1946. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ...


The invention of the transistor in 1947 by William B. Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain opened the door for more compact devices and led to the development of the integrated circuit in 1958 by Jack Kilby and independently in 1959 by Robert Noyce.[16] In 1968 Marcian Hoff invented the first microprocessor at Intel and thus ignited the development of the personal computer. The first realization of the microprocessor was the Intel 4004, a 4-bit processor developed in 1971, but only in 1973 did the Intel 8080, an 8-bit processor, make the building of the first personal computer, the Altair 8800, possible.[17] William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a physicist and co-inventor of the transistor with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. ... John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer. ... Walter Houser Brattain (February 10, 1902 – October 13, 1987) was a physicist who, along with John Bardeen, invented the transistor. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Jack St. ... Robert Noyce Robert Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed the Mayor of Silicon Valley, co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel in 1968. ... Dr. Marcian Edward Ted Hoff Jr. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. ... AMD clone NEC 8080AF (2nd-source). ... Altair 8800 Computer with 8 inch floppy disk system The MITS Altair 8800 was a microcomputer design from 1975, based on the Intel 8080 CPU. Sold as a kit through Popular Electronics magazine, the designers intended to sell only a few hundred to hobbyists, and were surprised when they sold...


Education

Electrical engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in electrical engineering. The length of study for such a degree is usually four or five years and the completed degree may be designated as a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Technology or Bachelor of Applied Science depending upon the university. The degree generally includes units covering physics, mathematics, computer science, project management and specific topics in electrical engineering. Initially such topics cover most, if not all, of the sub-disciplines of electrical engineering. Students then choose to specialize in one or more sub-disciplines towards the end of the degree. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... Bachelor of Engineering (commonly abbreviated as BE or BEng) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at an accredited university in Australia, Canada, China, Finland, Germany, India, Ireland, Korea, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa, Zimbabwe, the United... B.S. redirects here. ... Bachelor of Technology is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after completion of a three or four year program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-level institution. ... A Bachelor of Applied Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course of study that generally lasts three years in the United Kingdom, and four to five years in Canada and the United States. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... This is a listing of electrical engineering and electronic engineering topics and related terms. ...


Some electrical engineers also choose to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering/Master of Science (MEng/MSc), a Master of Engineering Management, a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Engineering, an Engineering Doctorate (EngD), or an Engineer's degree. The Master and Engineer's degree may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy and Engineering Doctorate degrees consist of a significant research component and are often viewed as the entry point to academia. In the United Kingdom and various other European countries, the Master of Engineering is often considered an undergraduate degree of slightly longer duration than the Bachelor of Engineering.[18] A Master of Engineering (M.Eng. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... Engineering management is a field that bridges the gap between engineering and management. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... An Engineering Doctorate (EngD) is a postgraduate degree awarded by twenty universities[1] in the United Kingdom. ... The term engineers degree may be used to represent a graduate academic degree intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate (U.S.), or it may also represent a higher (in total, 6-year) degree equivalent to or slightly more extensive than a masters degree... This article is about the concept. ... Coursework refers to work carried out by students while they are studying a course at university or school that contributes towards their overall grade, but which is assessed separately from their final exams. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... A Master of Engineering (M.Eng. ... Bachelor of Engineering (commonly abbreviated as BE or BEng) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at an accredited university in Australia, Canada, China, Finland, Germany, India, Ireland, Korea, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa, Zimbabwe, the United...


Practicing engineers

In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards professional certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body. After completing a certified degree program the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience requirements) before being certified. Once certified the engineer is designated the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States, Canada and South Africa ), Chartered Engineer (in India, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (in much of the European Union). A professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation (often called simply certification or qualification) is a designation earned by a person to assure that he/she is qualified to perform a job or task. ... A professional body or professional organization is an organisation, usually non-profit, that exists to further a particular profession, to protect both the public interest and the interests of professionals. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... In the United Kingdom, a chartered engineer is a professional engineer registered with Engineering Council UK (the British regulatory body for engineers). ... Chartered engineer is a professional qualification in Engineering (not a degree) offered by professional associations with a Royal Charter from the British monarchy similar to the Professional Engineer in other countries. ... European Engineer (Eur Ing) is an international professional qualification title for engineers used in many European countries. ...


The advantages of certification vary depending upon location. For example, in the United States and Canada "only a licensed engineer may seal engineering work for public and private clients".[19] This requirement is enforced by state and provincial legislation such as Quebec's Engineers Act.[20] In other countries, such as Australia, no such legislation exists. Practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.[21] In this way these organizations play an important role in maintaining ethical standards for the profession. Even in jurisdictions where certification has little or no legal bearing on work, engineers are subject to contract law. In cases where an engineer's work fails he or she may be subject to the tort of negligence and, in extreme cases, the charge of criminal negligence. An engineer's work must also comply with numerous other rules and regulations such as building codes and legislation pertaining to environmental law. This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about a Christian Rock band. ... A contract is any promise or set of promises made by one party to another for the breach of which the law provides a remedy. ... Negligence is a legal concept usually used to achieve compensation for injuries (not accidents). ... Criminal negligence, in the realm of criminal common law, is a legal term of art for a state of mind which is careless, inattentive, neglectful, willfully blind, or reckless; it is the mens rea part of a crime which, if occurring simultaneously with the actus reus, gives rise to criminal... A building code is a set of laws that specify how buildings should be constructed. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ...


Professional bodies of note for electrical engineers include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (which was formed by the merging of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) and the Institution of Incorporated Engineers (IIE). The IEEE claims to produce 30% of the world's literature in electrical engineering, has over 360,000 members worldwide and holds over 3,000 conferences annually.[22] The IET publishes 21 journals, has a worldwide membership of over 150,000, and claims to be the largest professional engineering society in Europe.[23][24] Obsolescence of technical skills is a serious concern for electrical engineers. Membership and participation in technical societies, regular reviews of periodicals in the field and a habit of continued learning are therefore essential to maintaining proficiency.[25] Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... IET logo The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is the professional institution for engineering and technology in the United Kingdom. ... Not to be confused with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, I-triple-E). ... For other uses of the three-letter acronym IIE, see IIE. // Abstract From the IIE website: History The Institution was formed in April 1998 by the merger of The Institution of Electronic and Electrical Incorporated Engineers (IEEIE), The Institution of Mechanical Incorporated Engineers (IMechIE), and The Institute of Engineers and...


In countries such as Australia, Canada and the United States electrical engineers make up around 0.25% of the labor force (see note). Outside of these countries, it is difficult to gauge the demographics of the profession due to less meticulous reporting on labour statistics. However, in terms of electrical engineering graduates per-capita, electrical engineering graduates would probably be most numerous in countries such as Taiwan, Japan, India and South Korea.[26]


Tools and work

From the Global Positioning System to electric power generation, electrical engineers have contributed to the development of a wide range of technologies. They design, develop, test and supervise the deployment of electrical systems and electronic devices. For example, they may work on the design of telecommunication systems, the operation of electric power stations, the lighting and wiring of buildings, the design of household appliances or the electrical control of industrial machinery.[27] GPS redirects here. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... For other uses, see Power station (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with lightning. ... Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity, and associated devices. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... The word appliance has several different areas of meaning, all usually referring to a device with a narrow function: One class of objects includes items that are custom-fitted to an individual for the purpose of correction of a physical or dental problem, such as prosthetic, orthotic appliances and dental... For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ...

Satellite communications is one of many projects an electrical engineer might work on
Satellite communications is one of many projects an electrical engineer might work on

Fundamental to the discipline are the sciences of physics and mathematics as these help to obtain both a qualitative and quantitative description of how such systems will work. Today most engineering work involves the use of computers and it is commonplace to use computer-aided design programs when designing electrical systems. Nevertheless, the ability to sketch ideas is still invaluable for quickly communicating with others. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1618, 1733 KB)Donald Rouse and Air Force Airman John Yorde make early morning security rounds by the radomes at the Cryptologic Operations Center, Misawa, Japan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1618, 1733 KB)Donald Rouse and Air Force Airman John Yorde make early morning security rounds by the radomes at the Cryptologic Operations Center, Misawa, Japan. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Qualitative is an important qualifier in the following subject titles: Qualitative identity Qualitative marketing research Qualitative method Qualitative research THE BIG J This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... CADD and CAD redirect here. ...


Although most electrical engineers will understand basic circuit theory (that is the interactions of elements such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors and inductors in a circuit), the theories employed by engineers generally depend upon the work they do. For example, quantum mechanics and solid state physics might be relevant to an engineer working on VLSI (the design of integrated circuits), but are largely irrelevant to engineers working with macroscopic electrical systems. Even circuit theory may not be relevant to a person designing telecommunication systems that use off-the-shelf components. Perhaps the most important technical skills for electrical engineers are reflected in university programs, which emphasize strong numerical skills, computer literacy and the ability to understand the technical language and concepts that relate to electrical engineering. An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ... An ideal resistor is a component with an electrical resistance that remains constant regardless of the applied voltage or current flowing through the device. ... Various types of capacitors A capacitor is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductors on which equal but opposite electric charges have been placed. ... Types of diodes A diode functions as the electronic version of a one-way valve. ... Photo of transistor types (tape measure marked in centimeters) Transistor in the SMD form factor The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device used for amplification and switching. ... An inductor is a passive electrical device that stores energy in a magnetic field, typically by combining the effects of many loops of electric current. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... VLSI may refer to: Very-large-scale integration, a process for the creation of electronic integrated circuits VLSI Technology (1979–1999), a former American integrated circuit manufacturer, now a part of Philips Electronics VLSI Solution, a Finnish integrated circuit manufacturer Category: ... An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ... Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) is a term for software or hardware products that are ready-made and available for sale to the general public. ... Numeracy is a term that emerged in the United Kingdom as a contraction of numerical literacy. In the United States, it is familiar to math educators and intellectuals but not in the common usage. ... For information on the Silicon Valley retailer, see Computer Literacy Bookstore. ... Technical terminology is the specialised vocabulary of a profession or of some other activity to which a group of people dedicate significant parts of their lives (for instance, hobbies or a particular segment of industry). ...


For many engineers, technical work accounts for only a fraction of the work they do. A lot of time may also be spent on tasks such as discussing proposals with clients, preparing budgets and determining project schedules.[28] Many senior engineers manage a team of technicians or other engineers and for this reason project management skills are important. Most engineering projects involve some form of documentation and strong written communication skills are therefore very important. For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... In project management, a schedule consists of a list of a projects terminal elements with intended start and finish dates. ... A technician is generally someone in a technological field who has a relatively practical understanding of the general theoretical principles of that field, e. ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... Technical writing, a subset of technical communication, is used in fields as diverse as computer hardware and software, chemistry, the aerospace industry, robotics, finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. ...


The workplaces of electrical engineers are just as varied as the types of work they do. Electrical engineers may be found in the pristine lab environment of a fabrication plant, the offices of a consulting firm or on site at a mine. During their working life, electrical engineers may find themselves supervising a wide range of individuals including scientists, electricians, computer programmers and other engineers. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... It has been suggested that Fab (semiconductors) be merged into this article or section. ... Management consulting (sometimes also called strategy consulting) refers to both the practice of helping companies to improve performance through analysis of existing business problems and development of future plans, as well as to the firms that specialize in this sort of consulting. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... This article is about the profession. ... TVA electricians, Tennessee, 1942. ... In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. ...


Sub-disciplines

Electrical engineering has many sub-disciplines, the most popular of which are listed below. Although there are electrical engineers who focus exclusively on one of these sub-disciplines, many deal with a combination of them. Sometimes certain fields, such as electronic engineering and computer engineering, are considered separate disciplines in their own right.


Power

Main article: Power engineering

Power engineering deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as the design of a range of related devices. These include transformers, electric generators, electric motors, high voltage engineering and power electronics. In many regions of the world, governments maintain an electrical network called a power grid that connects a variety of generators together with users of their energy. Users purchase electrical energy from the grid, avoiding the costly exercise of having to generate their own. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid as well as the power systems that connect to it. Such systems are called on-grid power systems and may supply the grid with additional power, draw power from the grid or do both. Power engineers may also work on systems that do not connect to the grid, called off-grid power systems, which in some cases are preferable to on-grid systems. The future includes Satellite controlled power systems, with feedback in real time to prevent power surges and prevent blackouts. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 251 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... Power line redirects here. ... 11kV/400V-230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Transformer (disambiguation). ... Generator redirects here. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Power electronics is the technology associated with the efficient conversion, control and conditioning of electric power by static means from its available input form into the desired electrical output form. ... Transmission towers Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power transmission, or more accurately Electrical energy transmission, is the second process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ...


Control

Main article: Control engineering

Control engineering focuses on the modeling of a diverse range of dynamic systems and the design of controllers that will cause these systems to behave in the desired manner. To implement such controllers electrical engineers may use electrical circuits, digital signal processors, microcontrollers and PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers). Control engineering has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airliners to the cruise control present in many modern automobiles. It also plays an important role in industrial automation. Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on the mathematical modelling systems of a diverse nature, analysing their dynamic behaviour, and using control theory to make a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x813, 126 KB) A launch of the NASA Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-1 in April 1981. ... Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on the mathematical modelling systems of a diverse nature, analysing their dynamic behaviour, and using control theory to make a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner. ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... In engineering and mathematics, a dynamical system is a deterministic process in which a functions value changes over time according to a rule that is defined in terms of the functions current value. ... Basic Principles A controller is the brain component of a system that monitors certain input variables and adjusts other output variables to achieve the desired operation. ... An electronic circuit is an electrical circuit that also contains active electronic devices such as transistors or vacuum tubes. ... Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... PLC & input/output arrangements A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of industrial processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. ... Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on the mathematical modelling systems of a diverse nature, analysing their dynamic behaviour, and using control theory to make a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or Autocruise) is a system to automatically control the speed of an automobile. ... Car redirects here. ... Automation (ancient Greek: = self dictated) or Industrial Automation is the use of computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. ...


Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems. For example, in an automobile with cruise control the vehicle's speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the motor's power output accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback. For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ... A control system is a device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behaviour of other devices or systems. ... Car redirects here. ... Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or Autocruise) is a system to automatically control the speed of an automobile. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ...


Electronics

Electronic engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the properties of components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality. The tuned circuit, which allows the user of a radio to filter out all but a single station, is just one example of such a circuit. Another example (of a pneumatic signal conditioner) is shown in the adjacent photograph. Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Image File history File links PExdcr01CJC.jpg Summary Pneumatic to electrical signal transducer circuit Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... An electronic circuit is an electrical circuit that also contains active electronic devices such as transistors or vacuum tubes. ... It has been suggested that Electrical component be merged into this article or section. ... Resistor symbols (American) Resistor symbols (Europe, IEC) Axial-lead resistors on tape. ... See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ... An inductor is a passive electrical device employed in electrical circuits for its property of inductance. ... Closeup of the image below, showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal various semiconductor diodes, below a bridge rectifier Structure of a vacuum tube diode In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal component, almost always one that has electrical properties which vary depending on the direction of flow of charge... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... An RLC circuit (sometimes known as resonant or tuned circuit) is an electrical circuit comprising a resistor (R), an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C), connected in series or in parallel. ... Television signal splitter consisting of a hi-pass filter (left) and a low-pass filter (right). ...


Prior to the second world war, the subject was commonly known as radio engineering and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and radar, commercial radio and early television. Later, in post war years, as consumer devices began to be developed, the field grew to include modern television, audio systems, computers and microprocessors. In the mid to late 1950s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name electronic engineering. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radio (disambiguation). ... TV redirects here. ... This article is about the machine. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is an electronic computer central processing unit (CPU) made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). ...


Before the invention of the integrated circuit in 1959, electronic circuits were constructed from discrete components that could be manipulated by humans. These discrete circuits consumed much space and power and were limited in speed, although they are still common in some applications. By contrast, integrated circuits packed a large number—often millions—of tiny electrical components, mainly transistors, into a small chip around the size of a coin. This allowed for the powerful computers and other electronic devices we see today. Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... This article is about the machine. ...


Microelectronics

Main article: Microelectronics

Microelectronics engineering deals with the design of very small electronic circuit components for use in an integrated circuit or sometimes for use on their own as a general electronic component. The most common microelectronic components are semiconductor transistors, although all main electronic components (resistors, capacitors, inductors) can be created at a microscopic level. Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1341x1002, 803 KB) Summary Macro shot of an Intel 80486DX2 die in its packaging. ... Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Photo of transistor types (tape measure marked in centimeters) Transistor in the SMD form factor The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device used for amplification and switching. ... An ideal resistor is a component with an electrical resistance that remains constant regardless of the applied voltage or current flowing through the device. ... Various types of capacitors A capacitor is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductors on which equal but opposite electric charges have been placed. ... An inductor is a passive electrical device that stores energy in a magnetic field, typically by combining the effects of many loops of electric current. ...


Microelectronic components are created by chemically fabricating wafers of semiconductors such as silicon (at higher frequencies, compound semiconductors like gallium arsenide and indium phosphide) to obtain the desired transport of electronic charge and control of current. The field of microelectronics involves a significant amount of chemistry and material science and requires the electronic engineer working in the field to have a very good working knowledge of the effects of quantum mechanics. A Compound semiconductor is composed of elements from two or more different groups of the chemical periodic table, e. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ...


Signal processing

A Bayer filter on a CCD requires signal processing to get a red, green, and blue value at each pixel
A Bayer filter on a CCD requires signal processing to get a red, green, and blue value at each pixel
Main article: Signal processing

Signal processing deals with the analysis and manipulations of signals. Signals can be either analog, in which case the signal varies continuously according to the information, or digital, in which case the signal varies according to a series of discrete values representing the information. For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications. For digital signals, signal processing may involve the compression, error detection and error correction of digitally sampled signals. Image File history File links Bayer_pattern_on_sensor. ... Image File history File links Bayer_pattern_on_sensor. ... The Bayer arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of an image sensor Front page of Dr. Bryce Bayers 1976 patent on the Bayer pattern filter mosaic, showing his terminology of luminance-sensitive and chrominance-sensitive elements A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals, and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals, and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ... In information theory, a signal is the sequence of states of a communications channel that encodes a message. ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... The term digital signal is used to refer to more than one concept. ... For the British rock band of the same name, see Amplifier (band). ... Television signal splitter consisting of a hi-pass filter (left) and a low-pass filter (right). ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Demodulation is the act of removing the modulation from an analog signal. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Source coding redirects here. ... In computer science and information theory, error correction consists of using methods to detect and/or correct errors in the transmission or storage of data by the use of some amount of redundant data and (in the case of transmission) the selective retransmission of incorrect segments of the data. ... In computer science and information theory, error correction consists of using methods to detect and/or correct errors in the transmission or storage of data by the use of some amount of redundant data and (in the case of transmission) the selective retransmission of incorrect segments of the data. ...


Telecommunications

Telecommunications engineering focuses on the transmission of information across a channel such as a coax cable, optical fibre or free space. Transmissions across free space require information to be encoded in a carrier wave in order to shift the information to a carrier frequency suitable for transmission, this is known as modulation. Popular analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. The choice of modulation affects the cost and performance of a system and these two factors must be balanced carefully by the engineer. Telecommunications engineering focuses on the transmission of information across a channel such as a coax cable, optical fibre or free space. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Communications satellite Military Strategic and Tactical Relay satellite Categories: United States government images ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... In telecommunications, transmission is the act of transmitting electrical messages (and the associated phenomena of radiant energy that passes through media). ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Channel, in communications (sometimes called communications channel), refers to the medium used to convey information from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver. ... Coaxial cable is an electrical cable consisting of a round, insulated conducting wire, surrounded by an insulating spacer, surrounded by a cylindrical conducting sheath, usually surrounded by a final insulating layer. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... In physics, free space is a concept of electromagnetic theory, corresponding roughly to the vacuum, the baseline state of the electromagnetic field, or the replacement for the electromagnetic aether. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Carrier frequency is the fundamental frequency used in both amplitude modulation and frequency modulation i. ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. ... In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. ...


Once the transmission characteristics of a system are determined, telecommunication engineers design the transmitters and receivers needed for such systems. These two are sometimes combined to form a two-way communication device known as a transceiver. A key consideration in the design of transmitters is their power consumption as this is closely related to their signal strength. If the signal strength of a transmitter is insufficient the signal's information will be corrupted by noise. Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter is an electronic device which, usually with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... In radio terminology, a receiver is an electronic circuit that receives a radio signal from an antenna and decodes the signal for use as sound, pictures, navigational-position information, etc. ... A transceiver is a device that has both a transmitter and a receiver which are combined in to one. ... In electrical engineering, power consumption refers to the electrical energy over time that must be supplied to an electrical device to maintain its operation. ... In telecommunications, and particularly in radio, signal strength transmitted signal is being received, measured, or predicted, at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. ... In science, and especially in physics and telecommunication, noise is fluctuations in and the addition of external factors to the stream of target information (signal) being received at a detector. ...


Instrumentation engineering

Instrumentation engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure, flow and temperature. The design of such instrumentation requires a good understanding of physics that often extends beyond electromagnetic theory. For example, radar guns use the Doppler effect to measure the speed of oncoming vehicles. Similarly, thermocouples use the Peltier-Seebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points. k ... U.S. Army Sgt. ... k ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Look up flow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... U.S. Army soldier uses a radar gun to catch speeding violators at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. ... A source of waves moving to the left. ... In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used as a means to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference. ... The Peltier-Seebeck effect, or thermoelectric effect, is the direct conversion of heat differentials to electric voltage and vice versa. ...


Often instrumentation is not used by itself, but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems. For example, a thermocouple might be used to help ensure a furnace's temperature remains constant. For this reason, instrumentation engineering is often viewed as the counterpart of control engineering. Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ...


Computers

Main article: Computer engineering

Computer engineering deals with the design of computers and computer systems. This may involve the design of new hardware, the design of PDAs or the use of computers to control an industrial plant. Computer engineers may also work on a system's software. However, the design of complex software systems is often the domain of software engineering, which is usually considered a separate discipline. Desktop computers represent a tiny fraction of the devices a computer engineer might work on, as computer-like architectures are now found in a range of devices including video game consoles and DVD players. Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... Image File history File links Palm IIIxe PDA. blabla File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... This article is about the machine. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Bold text Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a gay electronic machine computer which convert raw data into meaningful information, made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such... Game console redirects here. ... The inside of a DVD player A DVD player is a device not only playing discs produced under the DVD Video standard but also playing discs under the standard of DVD Audio. ...


Related disciplines

Mechatronics is an engineering discipline which deals with the convergence of electrical and mechanical systems. Such combined systems are known as electromechanical systems and have widespread adoption. Examples include automated manufacturing systems, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems and various subsystems of aircraft and automobiles. Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... In engineering, electromechanics combines electromagnetism and mechanics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... Flying machine redirects here. ... Car redirects here. ...


The term mechatronics is typically used to refer to macroscopic systems but futurists have predicted the emergence of very small electromechanical devices. Already such small devices, known as micro electromechanical systems (MEMS), are used in automobiles to tell airbags when to deploy, in digital projectors to create sharper images and in inkjet printers to create nozzles for high definition printing. In the future it is hoped the devices will help build tiny implantable medical devices and improve optical communication.[29] Macroscopic is commonly used to describe physical objects that are measurable and observable by the naked eye. ... Future studies reflects on how today’s changes (or the lack thereof) become tomorrow’s reality. ... A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS. Courtesy Sandia National Laboratories, SUMMiTTM Technologies, www. ... For the Mozilla crash reporting software previously called Airbag, see Breakpad. ... A digital projector is an electro-optical machine which converts image data from a computer or video source to a bright image which is then imaged on a distant wall or screen using a lens system. ... An Epson inkjet printer Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ... Optical communication is any form of telecommunication that uses light as the transmission medium. ...


Biomedical engineering is another related discipline, concerned with the design of medical equipment. This includes fixed equipment such as ventilators, MRI scanners and electrocardiograph monitors as well as mobile equipment such as cochlear implants, artificial pacemakers and artificial hearts. The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... ECG may also refer to the East Coast Greenway Lead II An Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG, abbreviated from the German Elektrokardiogramm) is a graphic produced by an electrocardiograph, which records the electrical voltage in the heart in the form of a continuous strip graph. ... Illustration of the internal parts of a cochlear implant. ... A pacemaker, scale in centimeters A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device which uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. ... An artificial heart is a device that is implanted into the body to replace the original biological heart. ...


See also

Electronics Portal
Engineering Portal

Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_ksim. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Analog signal processing is any signal processing conducted on analog signals by analog means. ... This charger charges the battery until it reaches a specific voltage and then it trickle charges the battery until it is removed. ... Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... PCB Layout Program Electronic design automation (EDA) is the category of tools for designing and producing electronic systems ranging from printed circuit boards (PCBs) to integrated circuits. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... For battery powered passenger automobiles, see battery electric vehicle. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... IET logo The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is the professional institution for engineering and technology in the United Kingdom. ... This page aims to list, alphabetically, all articles related to the specific discipline of electrical and electronics engineering. ... This is a listing of electrical engineering and electronic engineering topics and related terms. ... This is a list of electrical engineers, people who made contributions to electrical engineering or computer engineering. ... Net metering is a electricity policy for consumers who own, generally small, renewable energy facilities, such as wind or solar power, or uses vehicle-to-grid systems. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology is a bi-directional grid interface for gridable Electric vehicles such as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). ...

References

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  4. ^ ""Ohm, Georg Simon", "Faraday, Michael" and "Maxwell, James Clerk"". Encyclopedia Britannica (11). (1911). 
  5. ^ Welcome to ECE!. Cornell University - School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Retrieved on December 29, 2005.
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  7. ^ History. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Retrieved on January 19, 2006. (published 1996 in the NFPA Journal)
  8. ^ Leland Anderson, "Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power", Sun Publishing Company, LC 92-60482, ISBN 0-9632652-0-2 (ed. excerpts available online)
  9. ^ Karl Ferdinand Braun. Retrieved on September 10, 2006.
  10. ^ History of Amateur Radio. What is Amateur Radio?. Retrieved on January 18, 2006.
  11. ^ Template:Http://nobelprize.org/nobel prizes/physics/laureates/1909/marconi-bio.html In 1920 Albert Hull developed the magnetron which would eventually lead to the development of the microwave oven in 1946 by Percy Spencer.<ref>{{cite web | title = Albert W. Hull (1880–1966) | work = IEEE History Center | url = http://www.ieee.org/organizations/history_center/legacies/hull.html | accessmonthday = January 22 | accessyear = 2006 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-11">'''[[#cite_ref-11|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Who Invented Microwaves? | url = http://www.gallawa.com/microtech/history.html | accessmonthday = January 22 | accessyear = 2006 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-12">'''[[#cite_ref-12|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Early Radar History | work = Peneley Radar Archives | url = http://www.penleyradararchives.org.uk/history/introduction.htm | accessmonthday = January 22 | accessyear = 2006 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-13">'''[[#cite_ref-13|^]]''' {{cite web | title = The Z3 | url = http://irb.cs.tu-berlin.de/~zuse/Konrad_Zuse/en/Rechner_Z3.html | accessmonthday = January 18 | accessyear = 2006 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-14">'''[[#cite_ref-14|^]]''' {{cite web | title = The ENIAC Museum Online | url = http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~museum/guys.html | accessmonthday = January 18 | accessyear = 2006 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-15">'''[[#cite_ref-15|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Electronics Timeline | work = Greatest Engineering Achievements of the Twentieth Century | url = http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=3956 | accessmonthday = January 18 | accessyear = 2006 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-16">'''[[#cite_ref-16|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Computing History (1971–1975) | url = http://mbinfo.mbdesign.net/1971-75.htm | accessmonthday = January 18 | accessyear = 2006 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-17">'''[[#cite_ref-17|^]]''' Various including graduate degree requirements [http://www.eecs.mit.edu/grad/degrees.html at MIT], study guide [http://www.ecm.uwa.edu.au/study_guides/2007/be_bcompsc/ee at UWA], the curriculum [http://www.queensu.ca/calendars/appsci/pg174.html at Queen's] and unit tables [http://www.abdn.ac.uk/registry/calendar/requirements/07H50116.doc at Aberdeen]</li> <li id="cite_note-18">'''[[#cite_ref-18|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Why Should You Get Licensed? | work = National Society of Professional Engineers | url = http://www.nspe.org/lc1-why.asp | accessmonthday = July 11 | accessyear = 2005 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-19">'''[[#cite_ref-19|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Engineers Act | work = Quebec Statutes and Regulations (CanLII) | url = http://www.canlii.org/qc/laws/sta/i-9/20050616/whole.html | accessmonthday = July 24 | accessyear = 2005 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-20">'''[[#cite_ref-20|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Codes of Ethics and Conduct | work = Online Ethics Center | url = http://onlineethics.org/CMS/profpractice/ethcodes.aspx | accessmonthday = July 24 | accessyear = 2005 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-21">'''[[#cite_ref-21|^]]''' {{cite web | title = About the IEEE | work = IEEE | url = http://www.ieee.org/about/ | accessmonthday = July 11 | accessyear = 2005 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-22">'''[[#cite_ref-22|^]]''' {{cite web | title = About the IET | work = The IET | url = http://www.theiet.org/about/ | accessmonthday = July 11 | accessyear = 2005 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-23">'''[[#cite_ref-23|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Journal and Magazines | work = The IET | url = http://www.theiet.org/publishing/journals/ | accessmonthday = July 11 | accessyear = 2005 }}</li> <li id="cite_note-24">'''[[#cite_ref-24|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Electrical and Electronics Engineers, except Computer | work = Occupational Outlook Handbook | url = http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos031.htm | accessmonthday = July 16 | accessyear = 2005 }} (see [[work of the United States Government|here]] regarding copyright)</li> <li id="cite_note-25">'''[[#cite_ref-25|^]]''' {{cite web | publisher = National Science Foundation | date = 2004 | url = http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind04/append/c2/at02-33.pdf | title = Science and Engineering Indicators 2004, Appendix 2-33 | format = PDF }}</li> <li id="cite_note-26">'''[[#cite_ref-26|^]]''' {{cite web | title = Electrical and Electronics Engineers, except Computer | work = Occupational Outlook Handbook | url = http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos031.htm | accessmonthday = July 16 | accessyear = 2005 }} (see [http://web.archive.org/web/www.bls.gov/oco/ocos031.htm Internet Archive])</li> <li id="cite_note-27">'''[[#cite_ref-27|^]]''' Trevelyan, James; (2005). ''What Do Engineers Really Do?''. University of Western Australia. (seminar with [http://www.mech.uwa.edu.au/jpt/Engineering%20Roles%20050503.pdf slides])</li> <li id="cite_note-28">'''[[#cite_ref-28|^]]''' {{cite web | title = MEMS the world! | work = IntelliSense Software Corporation | url = http://www.intellisensesoftware.com/Technology.html | accessmonthday = July 17 | accessyear = 2005 }}</li></ol></ref>

Notes Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Albert W. Hull (19 April 1880 – 22 January 1966) is most remembered for his early invention of the magnetron. ... A cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates coherent microwaves. ... Microwave oven A microwave oven, or microwave, is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. ... Percy Lebaron Spencer (July 9, 1894 - September 8, 1970), an American, was the inventor of the microwave oven. ...

Note I - There are around 366,000 people working as electrical engineers in the United States constituting 0.25% of the labour force (2002).[1] In Australia, there are around 24,000 constituting 0.23% of the labour force (2005) and in Canada, there are around 34,600 constituting 0.21% of the labour force (2001). Australia and Canada also report that 96% and 89% of their electrical engineers respectively are male.[2][3]

2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous...

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Electrical engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3493 words)
Electrical engineering (sometimes referred to as electrical and electronics engineering) is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism.
Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the 17th century, but it was not until the 19th century that research into the subject started to intensify.
Electrical engineers may be found in the pristine lab environment of a fabrication plant, the offices of a consulting firm or on site at a mine.
Electrical engineering - definition of Electrical engineering in Encyclopedia (1364 words)
Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism.
In the subfield of electronics, electrical engineers design and test electrical networks (more commonly known as circuits) that take advantage of electromagnetic properties of electrical components or discretes/elements (such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, transistors, diodes, semiconductors) to achieve the desired functionality.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE) are prominent non-profit organizations for electrical engineers that publish standards, publications and periodicals and organise conferences and workshops.
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