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Encyclopedia > Electric vehicle
A streetcar drawing current from a single overhead wire, returning current through the rails and ground
A streetcar drawing current from a single overhead wire, returning current through the rails and ground
An electric locomotive, taking power through a pantograph
An electric locomotive, taking power through a pantograph
energy Portal

An electric vehicle, or EV, is a vehicle with one or more electric motors for propulsion. The motion may be provided either by wheels or propellers driven by rotary motors, or in the case of tracked vehicles, by linear motors. For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1131x840, 194 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Tram TW 2000 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1131x840, 194 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Tram TW 2000 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1829 KB)A DC Electric Locomotive used in surface smelter operations at the Hudsons Bay Mining and Smelting Company in Flin Flon, Manitoba. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1829 KB)A DC Electric Locomotive used in surface smelter operations at the Hudsons Bay Mining and Smelting Company in Flin Flon, Manitoba. ... Modern AC locomotive (DBAG Class 152). ... A pantograph is a device that collects electric current from overhead lines for electric trains or trams. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Propulsion may refer to: Look up propulsion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A propeller can be seen as a rotating fin in water or a wing in air. ... A linear motor is essentially a multi-phase alternating current (AC) electric motor that has had its stator unrolled so that instead of producing a torque (rotation) it produces a linear force along its length. ...


The energy used to propel the vehicle may be obtained from several sources, some of them more ecological than others:

Electric vehicles can include electric airplanes, electric boats, and electric motorcycles and scooters. A rechargeable energy storage system or RESS is a system that stores energy for delivery of electric energy and which is rechargeable. ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... A supercapacitor or an ultracapacitor is an electrochemical capacitor that has an unusually large amount of energy storage capability relative to its size when compared to common capacitors. ... A Gyrobus is an electric bus that uses flywheel energy storage, not overhead wires like a trolleybus. ... A GG1, perhaps the best-known electric locomotive ever built. ... Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... The overhead lines of a Swiss Federal Railways track. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in Washington, D.C., electrified to 750 volts. ... Conduit current collection was a system of current collection used by electric trams where the power supply was located in a channel under the roadway, rather than located overhead. ... A rechargeable energy storage system or RESS is a system that stores energy for delivery of electric energy and which is rechargeable. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A solar car is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the surface of the car. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Antares20E An electric airplane an airplane that runs on electric motors rather than internal combustion engines, with electricity coming from fuel cells or batteries. ... While most boats on the water today are powered by diesel engines, and sail power and gasoline engines are also popular, it is perfectly feasible to power boats by electricity too. ... VentureOne computer generated image of 3 wheeler concept vehicle Electric motorcycles and scooters are vehicles with two or three wheels that use electric motors to attain locomotion. ...

Contents

History

Main article: history of the electric vehicle
Edison and a 1914 Detroit Electric, model 47 (courtesy of the National Museum of American History)

Electric motive power started with a small railway operated by a miniature electric motor, built by Thomas Davenport in 1835. In 1838, a Scotsman named Robert Davidson built an electric locomotive that attained a speed of four miles an hour. In England a patent was granted in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, and similar American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in 1847. [1] Electric vehicles were invented in the mid-1800s and held the vehicular land speed record until around 1900. ... Image File history File links Ed_d22m. ... Image File history File links Ed_d22m. ... Edison is the last name of a famous United States inventor: Thomas Edison Other people known by the name Edison: Charles Edison – son of Thomas Edison and Governor of New Jersey Edison Chen – popular Hong Kong teen idol Edison Carter, character in the television show Max Headroom A number of... The National Museum of American History is a museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution and located in Washington, D.C., on the National Mall. ... Thomas Davenport (b. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Davidson of Aberdeen was a Scottish inventor who built the first known electric locomotive in 1837. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargeable Primary cells. [2] This article is about the country. ... A primary cell is any kind of electrolytic cell in which the electrochemical reaction of interest is not reversible. ...


By the 20th century, electric cars and rail transport were commonplace, with commercial electric automobiles having the majority of the market. Over time their general-purpose commercial use reduced to specialist roles, as platform trucks, forklift trucks, tow tractors and urban delivery vehicles, such as the iconic British milk float. Electric platform trucks are electric powered trucks with a large flat surface for holding objects to be transported. ... Pallet truck redirects here. ... A milk float in Liverpool city centre, June 2005 A milk float is a small battery electric vehicle (BEV), specifically designed for the delivery of fresh milk. ...


Electrified trains were used for coal transport as the motors did not use precious oxygen in the mines. Switzerland's lack of natural fossil resources forced the rapid electrification of their rail network. One of the earliest rechargeable batteries - the Nickel-iron battery - was favored by Edison for use in electric cars. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The railroads of Switzerland include standard gauge (1. ... Rechargeable batteries are batteries that can be restored to full charge by the application of electrical energy. ... The nickel-iron battery is a storage battery having a nickel oxide cathode and an iron anode, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. ... Edison is the last name of a famous United States inventor: Thomas Edison Other people known by the name Edison: Charles Edison – son of Thomas Edison and Governor of New Jersey Edison Chen – popular Hong Kong teen idol Edison Carter, character in the television show Max Headroom A number of... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ...


Electric vehicles were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early 1900s. They were produced by Baker Electric, Columbia Electric, Detroit Electric, and others and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles. An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ... Baker Motor Vehicle Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era electric automobiles in Cleveland, Ohio from 1899 to 1914. ... Columbia Automobile Company was a leading early US manufacturer of electric automobiles. ... 1915 Detroit Electric Brougham Detroit Electric (1907 - 1939) was an automobile brand produced by the Anderson Electric Car Company in Detroit Michigan. ...


In the 1930s, National City Lines, which was a partnership of General Motors, Firestone, and Standard Oil of California purchased many electric tram networks across the country to dismantle them and replace them with GM buses. The partnership was convicted for this conspiracy, but the ruling was overturned in a higher court. Electric tram line technologies could be used to recharge BEVs and PHEVs on the highway while the user drives, providing virtually unrestricted driving range. The technology is old and well established (see : Conduit current collection, Nickel-iron battery). The infrastructure has not been built. Between 1936 and 1950, National City Lines (NCL), a holding company sponsored and funded by General Motors, Firestone Tire, Standard Oil of California and Phillips Petroleum, bought out more than 100 electric surface-traction (streetcar) systems in 45 cities (including New York, Philadelphia, St. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, an American multinational corporation, is the worlds largest auto company by production volume for the first 9 months of 2007, and by sales volume for 76 consecutive years. ... The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company was founded by Harvey Firestone in 1900 to supply pneumatic tires for wagons, buggies, and other forms of wheeled transportation common in the era. ... Chevron was founded after an 1879 oil discovery in Pico Canyon, near the Santa Susana Mountains north of Los Angeles, California as the Pacific Coast Oil Co. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... The General Motors streetcar conspiracy refers to a contention that General Motors (GM), acting in conjunction with several other companies and through the National City Lines (NCL) holding company, illegally acquired many streetcar systems in various cities around the United States, dismantled and replaced them with buses for the express... Bev may refer to: The first name Beverly or Beverley can be contracted to the more informal Bev. Well-known Bevs include: Beverley Knight, a female R&B/soul singer from the UK Bev Bighead, a fictional frog in Rockos Modern Life Bevs, UK-slang for beverages, generally implying... A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle or gas-electric hybrid fueled vehicle is a hybrid which has additional battery capacity and the ability to be recharged from an external electrical outlet. ... Conduit current collection was a system of current collection used by electric trams where the power supply was located in a channel under the roadway, rather than located overhead. ... The nickel-iron battery is a storage battery having a nickel oxide cathode and an iron anode, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. ...



In January of 1990, General Motors' President introduced its EV concept two-seater, the "Impact," at the Los Angeles Auto Show. That September, the California Air Resources Board mandated major-automaker sales of EVs, in phases starting in 1998. From 1996 to 1998 GM produced 1117 EV1s, 800 of which were made available through 3-year leases.


Chrysler, Ford, GM, Honda, Nissan and Toyota also produced limited numbers of EVs for California drivers. In 2003, upon the expiration of EV1 leases, GM crushed them. The crushing has variously been attributed to 1) the auto industry's successful Federal Court challenge to California's Zero-emissions vehicle mandate, 2) a federal regulation requiring GM to produce and maintain spare parts for the few thousands EV1s and 3) the success of the Oil and Auto industries' media campaign to reduce public acceptance of electric vehicles. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... EV1 redirects here. ... General Motors EV1 A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV will produce no emissions or pollution from the vehicle when stationary or operating. ...


A movie made on the subject in 2005-2006 was titled Who Killed the Electric Car? and released theatrically by Sony Pictures Classics in 2006. The film explores the roles of automobile manufacturers, oil industry, the US government, batteries, hydrogen vehicles, and consumers, and each of their roles in limiting the deployment and adoption of this technology. Who Killed the Electric Car? is a 2006 documentary film that explores the birth, limited commercialization, and subsequent death of the battery electric vehicle in the United States, specifically the General Motors EV1 of the 1990s. ... Sony Pictures Classics is the specialty films division of Sony Pictures. ... Automakers are companies that produce automobiles. ... The Oil industry brings to market what is currently considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry, if not industrialized civilization itself. ... ... A battery is of one or more electrochemical cells, which store chemical energy and make it available in an electrical form. ... A hydrogen car is an automobile which uses hydrogen (usually obtained from decomposition of methane, and sometimes from water using electrolysis) as its primary source of power for locomotion. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ...


Honda, Nissan and Toyota also repossessed and crushed most of their EVs, which, like the GM EV1s, had been available only by closed-end lease. After public protests, Toyota sold 200 of its RAV EVs to eager buyers; they now sell, five years later, at over their original forty-thousand-dollar price.


Energy sources

A passenger railroad, taking power through a third rail with return through the traction rails
A passenger railroad, taking power through a third rail with return through the traction rails

Chemical energy is a common independent energy source. Chemical energy is converted to electrical energy, which is then regulated and fed to the drive motors. Chemical energy is usually in the form of diesel or petrol (gasoline). The liquid fuels are usually converted into electricity by an electrical generator powered by an internal combustion engine or other heat engine. This approach is known as diesel-electric or gasoline-electric hybrid locomotion. These engines still produce greenhouse gases, though typically less than conventional petroleum vehicles[3][4], and can be combined with regenerative braking systems for more efficiency. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 625 KB)BR Class 442, no. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 625 KB)BR Class 442, no. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in Washington, D.C., electrified to 750 volts. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. ... A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ...


Nowadays batteries, ultracapacitors and flywheel energy storage are on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). By avoiding an intermediate mechanical step, the energy conversion efficiency is dramatically improved over the chemical-thermal-mechanical-electrical-mechanical process already discussed. This is due to the higher carnot efficiency through directly oxidizing the fuel and by avoiding several unnecessary energy conversions. Furthermore, electro-chemical batteries conversions are easy to reverse, allowing electrical energy to be stored in chemical form. A battery is of one or more electrochemical cells, which store chemical energy and make it available in an electrical form. ... An Ultracapacitor is a capacitor that has an unusually large amount of energy storage capability relative to its size when compared to common capacitors. ... NASA G2 flywheel Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) works by accelerating a rotor (flywheel) to a very high speed and maintaining the energy in the system as rotational energy. ... A rechargeable energy storage system or RESS is a system that stores energy for delivery of electric energy and which is rechargeable. ... Energy conversion efficiency is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms. ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ...


Another form of chemical to electrical conversion is fuel cells, projected for future use. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


For especially large electric vehicles, such as submarines, the chemical energy of the diesel-electric can be replaced by a nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor usually provides heat, which drives a steam turbine, which drives a generator, which is then fed to the propulsion. This energy produces nuclear waste and nuclear risk. For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ...


Electric motor

The power of a vehicle electric motor, as in other vehicles, is measured in kW. 100 kW is roughly equivalent to 134 horsepower. For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... Kwai Lo is Chinese slang for foreigner or ghost person. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ...


Large-scale electric transport: energy and motors

A trolleybus uses two overhead wires to provide electrical current supply and return to the power source
A trolleybus uses two overhead wires to provide electrical current supply and return to the power source

Most large electric transport systems are powered by stationary sources of electricity that are directly connected to the vehicles through wires. Due to the extra infrastructure and difficulty in handling arbitrary travel, most directly connected vehicles are owned publicly or by large companies. These forms of transportation are covered in more detail in metros, trams, electric locomotives, and trolleybuses. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1456 KB) From Swedish Wikipedia, {{}} Original description: Landskrona är en av de få städer i Europa som har trådbussar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1456 KB) From Swedish Wikipedia, {{}} Original description: Landskrona är en av de få städer i Europa som har trådbussar. ... Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Modern AC locomotive (DBAG Class 152). ... Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ...


In the systems above motion is provided by a rotary electric motor. However, it is possible to "unroll" the motor to drive directly against a special matched track. These linear motors are used in maglev trains which float above the rails supported by magnetic levitation. This allows for almost no rolling resistance of the vehicle and no mechanical wear and tear of the train or track. Levitation and forward motion are two independent effects; the forward motive force normally requires external power, although some types, such as Inductrack, achieve levitation at low speeds without any. In addition to the high-performance control systems needed, switching and curving of the tracks becomes difficult with linear motors, which to date has restricted their operations to high-speed point to point services. See: Rotary engine Rotary International Rotary milking shed rotary intersections This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... A linear motor is essentially a multi-phase alternating current (AC) electric motor that has had its stator unrolled so that instead of producing a torque (rotation) it produces a linear force along its length. ... Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train stopping at terminus Longyang Road station Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev VIP section Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles (especially trains) using electromagnetic force. ... This article is about magnetic levitation. ... Inductrack is a completely passive, fail-safe magnetic levitation system, using only unpowered loops of wire in the track and permanent magnets (arranged into Halbach arrays) on the vehicle to achieve magnetic levitation. ... A railroad switch is a mechanical installation enabling trains to be guided from one set of rail tracks (or tramway tracks) to another. ...


Advantages of electric vehicles

Electric motors are mechanically very simple, and release almost no air pollutants at the place where they are operated.


Electric motors often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency [5]over the full range of speeds and power output and can be precisely controlled. They can also be combining with regenerative braking systems that have the ability to convert movement energy back into stored electricity. This can be used to reduce the wear on brake systems (and consequent brake pad dust) and reduce the total energy requirement of a trip, especially effective for start-and-stop city use. Energy conversion efficiency is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms. ... Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ...


They can be finely controlled and provide high torque from rest, unlike internal combustion engines, and do not need gears to match power curves. This removes the need for gearboxes and torque converters. A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ... ZF torque converter A cut-away model of a torque converter A torque converter is a modified form of a hydrodynamic fluid coupling, and like the fluid coupling, is used to transfer rotating power from a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine or electric motor, to a rotating...


Another advantage is that electric vehicles typically have less vibration and noise pollution than a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, whether it is at rest or in motion. Look up vibration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...


Issues regarding electric vehicles

Although electric vehicles have few direct emissions, all rely on energy created through electricity generation which will emit pollution unless it is from a renewable source. If a large proportion of private vehicles were to convert to plug-in electricity, the existing powerplant infrastructure would be nearly sufficient, but there would still be a significant need for additional resources (and emissions) in generation and transmission, assuming most charging occurred overnight using the most efficient off-peak base load sources[6]. World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... A base load power plant is one that provides a steady flow of power reguardless of total power demand by the grid. ...


Electromagnetic radiation from high performance electrical motors has been claimed to be associated with some human ailments[citation needed]. Electric motors can be shielded within a metallic Faraday's cage, but this adds weight to the vehicle and it is not conclusive that all electromagnetic radiation can be contained. This box:      Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... Entrance to a Faraday room A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure formed by conducting material, or by a mesh of such material. ...


Issues with batteries

Banks of conventional lead-acid car batteries are needed for EV propulsion
Banks of conventional lead-acid car batteries are needed for EV propulsion
75 watt-hour/kilogram lithium ion polymer battery prototypes. Newer Li-poly cells provide up to 130 Wh/kg and last through thousands of charging cycles.
75 watt-hour/kilogram lithium ion polymer battery prototypes. Newer Li-poly cells provide up to 130 Wh/kg and last through thousands of charging cycles.

Most types of batteries have lower energy density than liquid fuels. However, if an average vehicle travels only about 20 km (32 miles) per day, then it is possible for this energy to be stored in a battery pack using an affordable battery chemistry such as NiMH. The current price-performance of affordable battery technology is best suited to short-range EVs. On an energy basis, the cost of electricity is several times less expensive than liquid fuel. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1585x1515, 184 KB) Summary Description: Car battery Author, date of creation: selfmade by Shaddack, 6 November 2005 Source: self-made Copyright: Public Domain (PD) Comments: Lead-acid battery for car, side-top view Licensing File links The following pages link to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1585x1515, 184 KB) Summary Description: Car battery Author, date of creation: selfmade by Shaddack, 6 November 2005 Source: self-made Copyright: Public Domain (PD) Comments: Lead-acid battery for car, side-top view Licensing File links The following pages link to... Image File history File links NASA_Lithium_Ion_Polymer_Battery. ... Image File history File links NASA_Lithium_Ion_Polymer_Battery. ... Lithium ion polymer batteries, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (Abbreviated Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... NIMH or NiMH may refer to: National Institute of Mental Health, a part of the United States National Institutes of Health. ...


Many types of EV use batteries, which have an environmental impact through their construction, use, disposal or recycling. Common batteries are expensive and have a shorter life than the vehicle itself, typically needing replacement every 3 years.


Despite the higher energy efficiency, electro-chemical vehicles have been beset by a technical issue which has prevented them from replacing the more cumbersome heat engines: energy storage. Fuel cells are fragile, sensitive to contamination, and require external reactants such as hydrogen. Batteries currently used are either not mass-produced, leading to high per-unit prices, or end up being a significant (25%-50%) portion of the final vehicle mass, in the case of conventional lead-acid technology. Both have lower energy and power density than petroleum fuels. tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... In engineering, specific power (sometimes also power per unit mass or power density) refers to the amount of power delivered by an energy source, divided by some measure of the sources size or mass. ...


The efficiency and storage capacity of the current generation of common deep cycle lead acid batteries decreases with lower temperates, and diverting power to run a heating coil reduces efficiency and range by up to 40%[citation needed]. Recent advances in battery efficiency, capacity, materials, safety, toxicity and durability are likely to allow these superior characteristics to be applied in car-sized EVs.


Charging and operation of batteries typically results in the emission of hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur, which are naturally occurring and normally harmless. Early Citicar owners discovered that, if not vented properly, unpleasant sulfur smells would leak into the cabin immediately after charging. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The Citicar was produced between 1975 and 1980 by a U.S. company called Sebring Vanguard, based in Florida. ...


Incentives

USA

Qualifying electric vehicles purchased new are eligible for a one-time federal tax credit that equals 10% of the cost of the vehicle up to $4,000, provided under Section 179A of the Energy Policy Act of 1992; it was extended through 2007 by the Working Families Tax Relief Act of 2004. The Energy Policy Act is a United States government act. ...


A tax deduction of up to $100,000 per location is available for qualified electric vehicle recharging property used in a trade or business. A tax deduction or a tax-deductible expense represents an expense incurred by a taxpayer that is subtracted from gross income and results in a lower overall taxable income. ...


Other incentives: http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/laws/incen_laws.html#fed


European Union

Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services includes measures to promote efficient vehicles. Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. ...


AVERE has a a table summarizing the taxation and incentives for these vehicles in the different European countries, related to state subsidies, reduction of VAT and other taxes, insurance facilities, parking and charging facilities (including free recharging on street or in the parkings), EV imposed by law and banned circulation for petroleum cars, permission to use bus lanes and toll free on highways, between others. [7] In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... vat can be a type of barrel used for storage. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The word lane has two meanings: a portion of a paved roadway which is intended for a single line of vehicles and is marked by white or yellow lines. ... A toll-free telephone number (or Freephone number in the UK) is a special telephone number, in which the calling party is not charged for the call by the telephone operator. ... For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ...


Estimated number of electric vehicles

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that were 55,852 Full-Electric Vehicles (FEV) in 2004, with an annual growth rate of 39.1 % (excluding in this estimation electric hybrids). [8] The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ... A Chevy Volt, one example of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, expected to set a new benchmark. ...


Future

Eliica Battery Electric Car with 370 km/h top speed and 200 km range
Eliica Battery Electric Car with 370 km/h top speed and 200 km range
The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006.
The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006.

Several start-up companies, like Tesla Motors and Phoenix Motorcars, will have powerful battery-electric vehicles available to the public in 2008. Battery and energy storage technology is advancing rapidly. Electric cars are perfectly useful as second household vehicle for usual short and medium distance trips of 100 to 250 miles per charge. The range issue will be improved by technologies such as Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles which are capable of using traditional fuels for unlimited range. For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (890x353, 80 KB) Summary promotional photo of the Eliica concept car, taken from http://www. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (890x353, 80 KB) Summary promotional photo of the Eliica concept car, taken from http://www. ... The Eliica (or the Electric Lithium-Ion battery Car) is an electric car prototype, or concept car designed by a team at Keio University in Tokyo, led by Professor Hiroshi Shimizu. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006. ... Tesla Motors, Inc. ... Phoenix Motorcars is a California-based company that focuses on developing electric vehicles. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ...


General Motors is working on a concept car, the plug-in hybrid Chevrolet Volt that uses a small internal combustion engine hooked to an electrical generator to resupply the batteries. They call it an electric vehicle with a "range extender" that can extend the range up to 640 miles. General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, an American multinational corporation, is the worlds largest auto company by production volume for the first 9 months of 2007, and by sales volume for 76 consecutive years. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid concept car created by General Motors. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... A battery is of one or more electrochemical cells, which store chemical energy and make it available in an electrical form. ...


Improved long term energy storage and nano batteries

There have been several developments which could bring electric vehicles outside their current fields of application, as scooters, golf cars, neighborhood vehicles, in industrial operational yards and indoor operation. First, advances in lithium-based battery technology, in large part driven by the consumer electronics industry, allow full-sized, highway-capable electric vehicles to be propelled as far on a single charge as conventional cars go on a single tank of gasoline. Lithium batteries have been made safe, can be recharged in minutes instead of hours, and now last longer than the typical vehicle. The production cost of these lighter, higher-capacity lithium batteries is gradually decreasing as the technology matures and production volumes increase. Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion or Li-On) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ...


Introduction of Battery Management and Intermediate Storage

Another improvement was to decouple the electric motor from the battery through electronic control while employing ultra-capacitors to buffer large but short power demands and regenerative braking energy. The development of new cell types combined with intelligent cell management improved both weak points mentioned above. The cell management involves not only monitoring the health of the cells but also a redundant cell configuration (one more cell than needed). With sophisticated switched wiring it is possible to condition one cell while the rest are on duty. An Ultracapacitor is a capacitor that has an unusually large amount of energy storage capability relative to its size when compared to common capacitors. ... Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ...


Electric Vehicle Organizations

Worldwide

The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA), chairman Hisashi Ishitani, formed by: A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ...

EDTA is EDTA, a popular acronym for the chemical compound ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. ...

North America

The Electric Auto Association is a non-profit educational organization that promotes the advancement and widespread adoption of Electric Vehicles. ... Chapter has multiple meanings. ... Plug In America (also known as PIA) is a non-profit educational organization that promotes and advocates the use of plug-in cars, trucks and SUVs powered by domestic electricity which it claims will help reduce dependence on fossil fuels and improve the global environment. ...

Europe

  • The Campaign for Battery Electric Vehicles (UK based)
  • The Battery Vehicle Society (UK)

Patents

  • U.S. Patent 1,017,198 , E. W. Bender, Electric Motor vehicle

See also

Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicle to battery electric propulsion, creating a battery electric vehicle. ... This article will outline current projects, plans, productions for meeting ever increasing demand for electric vehilces. ... Small electric vehicle in Ostend train station, Belgium Electrocar, Electrocart (Russian: ) is an electric vehicle, typically a small cart with an electrical driving gear and a storage battery. ... Green tuned cars are cars that have been tuned to use initial or deeper alternative propulsion. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. ... A motorized bicycle is a bicycle with an attached motor used to assist with pedalling. ... The number of US survey respondents willing to pay $4,000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006. ... A tribrid vehicle is a third generation in alternative propulsion vehicles, that is, a bivalent hybrid vehicle with turbine (second generation), that also obtains energy from the ambient environment (solar panel, windmill or sail). ... The World Car of the Year (WCOTY) (French: Prix mondial de la Voiture de l’année) is an automobile award selected by a jury of 48 international automotive journalists from 22 countries. ...

References

  1. ^ History of Railway Electric Traction
  2. ^ Inventors - Electric Cars (1890 - 1930)
  3. ^ Current UK vehicle CO2 output comparison
  4. ^ USA EPA Green Vehicle Guide
  5. ^ http://www.projectbetterplace.com/images/resources/factsheet_projectbetterplace.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.pnl.gov/news/release.asp?id=204
  7. ^ http://www.avere.org/state_subsidies.pdf
  8. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/datatables/aft1-13_03.html

External links

  • 2007 – Year of the electric car: nanotechnology batteries.
  • DOE Alternative Fuels Data Center - Electricity
  • Electric Car Society
  • The PBS newsmagazine NOW takes a closer look at the life and death of the electric vehicle, including interviews with "Who killed the electric car?" director Chris Paine, and Baywatch actress/EC Enthusiast Alexandra Paul
  • EVProduction wiki: open source electric vehicles.
  • The EV Photo Album - Photos and information of many types and styles of EVs and EV conversions
  • New Scientific American article
  • EV World - News about Electric Cars, Plug-in Hybrids, Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles and All Forms of Alternative Modes of Transportation
  • Electrifying Times - The International Magazine of Electric Vehicles, Hybrids, Fuel Cells, Batteries, Alternative Fuels, Electric Car Racing & Exhibition
  • The History of Electric Vehicles.
  • EVCanada - Campaign to promote the uptake of Electric Vehicles in Canada

  Results from FactBites:
 
Electric vehicle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1827 words)
For especially large electric vehicles, namely submarines and aircraft carriers, the chemical energy of the diesel-electric can be replaced by a nuclear reactor.
Electric motive power started with a small railway operated by a miniature electric motor, built by Thomas Davenport in 1835.
Electric vehicles were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early 1900s.
Electric vehicle - definition of Electric vehicle in Encyclopedia (2066 words)
Battery electric vehicles also have an advantage over fuel cell electric vehicles because they do not need expensive membranes made of platinum and other rare metals in which to develop their energy, although batteries have a relatively high life–cycle cost and most have environmental disposal issues.
Unlike the converted golf carts used for neighborhood electric vehicles these may be operated on typical suburban throughways (40 to 45 MPH speed limits are typical) and can keep up with traffic typical to these roads and to the short on and off segments of freeways that are common in suburban areas.
Electric vehicles were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of internal combustion vehicles, electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early 1900s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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