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Encyclopedia > Electric chair
This article is part of the
Capital punishment series
Issues

Capital punishment debate
Religion and capital punishment
Wrongful execution Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is often the subject of controversy. ... Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of capital punishment. ... Capital punishment Wrongful execution is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. The possibility of wrongful executions is one of the arguments presented by the opponents of capital punishment; other arguments include failing to deter crime more than...

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More... The only countries in Europe that havent abolished the death penalty yet is Albania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Russia. ...

Methods

Decapitation
Electrocution
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Lethal injection
More... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... The Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ...

The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. This execution method has been used only in the United States and for a period of several decades [1] in the Philippines (its first use there in 1924). Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a human or animal body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or nerves. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ...


The electric chair has become a symbol of the death penalty. However, its use is on a decline, with Nebraska being the last state that uses it as a sole method of execution. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ...

Contents

Contemporary use

An early electric chair, circa 1910
An early electric chair, circa 1910

In the United States, most death sentences handed down are the result of persons being convicted of a statutory capital offense (i.e., an offense violating the laws of a particular U.S. state and punishable in that state by death). For such statutory capital offenses, state legislatures are the authorizing bodies for death penalty allowance and any approved death penalty methods. Image File history File links Electric_chair. ... Image File history File links Electric_chair. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the...


Electrocution is currently an optional form of execution in the U.S. states of Alabama, Florida, South Carolina and Virginia, and the sole method of execution in Nebraska (the former four states allow the prisoner to choose lethal injection as an alternative method). In the states of Kentucky and Tennessee, the electric chair has been retired except for those whose capital crimes were committed prior to legislated dates in 1998.. [Kentucky 31 March 1998, Tennessee 31 December 1998] and choose electrocution. In both states, inmates who do not choose electrocution or inmates who committed their crimes after the designated date are put to death by lethal injection. The electric chair is an alternate form of execution approved for potential use in Illinois and Oklahoma if other forms of execution are found unconstitutional in the state at the time of execution. In Florida, the condemned may choose death by electrocution, but the default is lethal injection. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...


Historically, once the person was attached to the chair, various cycles (differing in voltage and duration) of A.C. current would be passed through the condemned's body, in order to fatally damage the internal organs (including the brain). For other uses of chair, see chair (disambiguation). ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ...


The electric chair was first used in 1890. It was used by more than 25 states throughout the 20th century, acquiring nicknames such as Sizzlin' Sally, Old Smokey, Old Sparky, Yellow Mama, and Gruesome Gertie. From 1924 to 1976, the electric chair was used as method of capital punishment in the Philippines. In the late 20th century, the electric chair was removed as a form of execution in many U.S. states, and its use in the 21st century is very infrequent. Old Sparky is the (A familiar name for a person (often a shortened version of a persons given name)) nickname of (A state in southeastern United States between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War) Floridas (An instrument... Old Sparky. ... Yellow Mama is the nickname given to U.S. state of Alabamas electric chair. ... Until 1991, the State of Louisiana used the electric chair as its sole method of execution. ...


History

Electric chair history and laws in the United StatesColor key:      Only electric chair      Secondary method only      Has previously used electric chair, but does not today      Has never used electric chair
Electric chair history and laws in the United States
Color key:      Only electric chair      Secondary method only      Has previously used electric chair, but does not today      Has never used electric chair

Alfred P. Southwick developed the idea of using electric current as a method of execution when he saw an intoxicated man die after touching an exposed terminal on a live generator.[1] As Southwick was a dentist accustomed to performing procedures on subjects in chairs, his electrical device appeared in the form of a chair. Image File history File links Map_of_US_electric_chair_usage. ... Image File history File links Map_of_US_electric_chair_usage. ... Dr. Alfred P. Southwick (1826 - 1898), was a dentist from Buffalo, New York. ... Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ...


The first electric chair was made by Harold P. Brown. Brown was an employee of Thomas Edison, hired for the purpose of researching electrocution and for the development of the electric chair. [citation needed] Since Brown worked for Edison, and Edison promoted Brown's work, the development of the electric chair is often erroneously credited to Edison himself. Brown's design was based on use of Nikola Tesla's alternating current (AC), which was marketed by George Westinghouse and was then just emerging as the rival to Edison's less transport-efficient direct current (DC), which was further along in commercial development. The decision to use AC was partly driven by Edison's claims that AC was more lethal than DC, however at the very high currents used for the device, which could be as high as ten amperes, the difference in lethality between the two types of currents was approximately a factor of two, which was marginal. The term "electrocution" originally referred only to electrical execution (from which it is a portmanteau word), and not to accidental electrical deaths. However, since no English word was available for the latter process, with the new rise of commercial electricity, the word "electrocution" eventually took over as a description of all circumstances of electrical death. Harold P. Brown first invented the electric chair. ... “Edison” redirects here. ... Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a human or animal body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or nerves. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... In physics, the ampere (symbol: A, often informally abbreviated to amp) is the SI base unit used to measure electrical currents. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ...


Detail

In 1886, after a particularly gruesome and bloody hanging was reported, New York State established a committee to determine a new, more humane system of execution to replace hanging. Neither Edison nor Tesla as part of the War of Currents wanted their electrical system to be chosen because they feared that consumers would not want in their homes the same type of electricity used to kill criminals. Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ...


In order to prove that AC electricity was dangerous and therefore better for executions, Brown and Edison, who promoted DC electricity, publicly killed many animals with AC. They killed animals with electric current for the press in order to ensure that AC current was associated with electrical death. It was at these events that the term "electrocution" was coined. Edison tried to introduce the verb "to Westinghouse" for denoting the art of executing persons with AC current. Most of their experiments were conducted at Edison's West Orange, New Jersey, laboratory in 1888. Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ...


The demonstrations apparently had their intended effects, and the AC electric chair was adopted by the committee in 1889.[2]


When it came to building the actual state execution device, the Westinghouse company refused to sell an AC generator for the purpose, so Edison and Brown used subterfuge in order to acquire the AC generator. They pretended that the Westinghouse AC generator was for use in a university, and had it dropshipped to New York through a country in South America.


The first person to be executed via the electric chair was William Kemmler in New York's Auburn Prison on August 6, 1890; the 'state electrician' was Edwin Davis. The first 17-second passage of current though Kemmler caused unconsciousness, but failed to stop his heart and breathing. The attending physicians, Dr. Edward Charles Spitzka and Dr. Charles F. Macdonald, came forward to examine Kemmler. After confirming Kemmler was still alive, Spitzka reportedly called out, "Have the current turned on again, quick — no delay." William Kemmler William Kemmler (May 9, 1860– August 6, 1890) of Buffalo, New York was the first person to be executed via electric chair. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... This article is not about Edwin Davis, discoverer in 1846 of the Serpent Mound Edwin F. Davis was the first state electrician for the State of New York and finalised many features of the electric chair. ...


In the second attempt, Kemmler was shocked with 2,000 volts. Blood vessels under the skin ruptured and bled and his body caught fire.


In all, the entire execution took approximately eight minutes. Westinghouse later commented: "They would have done better using an axe." A reporter who witnessed it also said it was "an awful spectacle, far worse than hanging."


The first woman to be executed in the electric chair was Martha M. Place, executed at Sing Sing Prison on March 20, 1899. It was adopted by Ohio (1897), Massachusetts (1900), New Jersey (1906) and Virginia (1908), and soon became the prevalent method of execution in the U.S., replacing hanging (although it saw very little use in the Western states, with the gas chamber the more popular alternative to hanging there). It remained so until the mid-1980s, when lethal injection became widely accepted as an easier method for conducting judicial executions. Martha M. Place ( 1855?? - April 8, 1899) was the first of 26 women (including one juvenile) to die in the electric chair when she was executed on April 8, 1899 at Sing Sing prison. ... Alternative meaning: Sing Sing (band) Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a prison in Ossining, New York. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... For other uses, see Gas chamber (disambiguation). ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...


In 1900, Charles Justice was a prison inmate at the Ohio State Penitentiary in Columbus. While performing cleaning detail duties in the death chamber, he devised an idea to improve the efficiency of the restraints on the electric chair. Justice designed metal clamps to replace the leather straps, thus allowing for the inmate to be secured more tautly and minimize the problem of burnt flesh. These revisions were incorporated into the chair and Justice was subsequently paroled from prison. Ironically, he was convicted in a robbery/murder and returned to prison 11 years later under a death sentence. On November 9, 1911, he died in the same electric chair that he had helped to improve.[3] is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


A record was set on July 13, 1928 when seven men were executed, one after another, in the electric chair at Kentucky State Penitentiary in Eddyville. In 1942, six Germans convicted of espionage in the Quirin Case were put to death in one day in the District of Columbia jail electric chair. is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Holding The Court upheld the jurisdiction of a United States military tribunal over the trial of several German saboteurs in the United States. ... ...


Notable deaths by electric chair include Leon Czolgosz, Giuseppe Zangara, Sacco and Vanzetti, Bruno Hauptmann, Lepke Buchalter, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Charles Starkweather, and (post-'Furman') Ted Bundy. Leon Frank Czolgosz (choll-gosh), (1873 – October 29, 1901) (often anglicized to , also used his mothers maiden name Nieman and variations thereof[1]) was the assassin of U.S. President William McKinley. ... Giuseppe Zangara (September 7, 1900 – March 20, 1933) attempted to kill United States President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933. ... Bartolomeo Vanzetti (left) and Nicola Sacco in handcuffs. ... Bruno Hauptmann Bruno Richard Hauptmann (November 26, 1899 – April 3, 1936) was a German carpenter and former criminal, sentenced to death and executed for the abduction and murder of Charles Augustus Lindbergh II, the 20-month old son of famous pilot Charles Lindbergh. ... Louis Lepke Buchalter (6 February 1897 - 4 March 1944) was a Jewish American mobster who was the notorious head of Murder, Inc. ... Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 28, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were American Communists who received international attention when they were executed for passing nuclear weapons secrets to the Soviet Union. ... Charles Starkweather (November 24, 1938 – June 25, 1959) was a spree killer who murdered 11 victims in Nebraska and Wyoming during a road trip with his underage girlfriend Caril Ann Fugate. ... Theodore Robert Ted Bundy (November 24, 1946 – January 24, 1989) was an American serial killer. ...


After 1966 electrocutions ceased for a time in the USA, but the method continued in the Philippines [2]. A well-publicized triple execution took place in May 1972, when Jaime Jose, Basilio Pineda and Edgardo Aquino were electrocuted for the 1967 abduction, and gang-rape of the young actress Maggie dela Riva. Magdalena T. de la Riva (Maggie dela Riva) b. ...


On May 25, 1979, John Arthur Spenkelink became the first electrocuted person after the Gregg v. Georgia decision by the Supreme Court of the United States in U.S. in 1976. He was the first person to be executed in the USA in this manner since 1966. is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... John Arthur Spenkelink (born March 29, 1949 San Diego, California - died May 25, 1979 Raiford, Florida) was the first man to be executed in the electric chair after the reintroduction of the death penalty in the United States in 1976 (last before that was carried out in 1966 in Oklahoma). ... Holding The imposition of the death penalty does not, automatically, violate the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendment. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...


However, the last person to be involuntarily executed via the electric chair was Lynda Lyon Block on May 10, 2002 in Alabama. Lynda Cheryl Lyon Block (February 8, 1948 in Orlando, Florida – May 10, 2002 in Atmore, Alabama) was a convicted murderer executed for the October 4, 1993 killing of Opelika, Alabama Police Sergeant Roger Motley, Jr. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


A number of states still allow the condemned person to choose between electrocution and lethal injection. In all, eight inmates nationwide, four in Virginia, two in South Carolina and one in both Arkansas and Tennessee have opted for electrocution over lethal injection. The last use of the chair (as of September 2007) was on September 12, 2007, when Daryl Holton was electrocuted in Tennessee. He elected this method. Before that, it had not been used since July 2006, when Brandon Hedrick was electrocuted in Virginia. He also elected for execution by electric chair. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Daryl Keith Holton (ca. ... Brandon Wayne Hedrick (February 23, 1979 – July 20, 2006) was an American convicted murderer who was executed by electric chair by the U.S. state of Virginia. ...


Other countries appear to have contemplated using the method, sometimes for special reasons. Minutes of the British War Cabinet released in 2006 show that in December 1942, Winston Churchill proposed that Adolf Hitler — if caught — should be summarily executed in an electric chair, obtained from the USA. 'This man is the mainspring of evil. Instrument — electric chair, for gangsters, no doubt available on lease-lend'.[4] Churchill redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gangster (disambiguation). ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ...


Method

The head and legs of the condemned person are shaved and the prisoner is strapped into the chair. A moist sponge is placed on the head to aid conductivity. One electrode is attached to the head and a second attached to the leg to provide a closed circuit. At least two jolts of an electrical current are applied with the time and current depending on the physical state of the condemned person. Typically an initial voltage of around 2,000 volts is applied for up to 15 seconds to attempt both to induce unconsciousness and to stop the heart. The voltage is then lowered to reduce current flow to approximately 8 amps. The body of the person may heat up to approximately 138 °F (59 °C), and the electric current will generally cause severe damage to internal organs. Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... For other uses, see Ampere (disambiguation). ...


In theory, unconsciousness occurs in a fraction of a second. However, there are multiple reports of things going wrong during the process. There have been incidents of a person's head on fire; of burning transformers, and of a chair breaking down after the initial jolt and letting the condemned wait in pain on the floor of the execution room while the chair was fixed. In 1946, the electric chair failed to execute Willie Francis, who reportedly shrieked "Stop it! Let me breathe!" as he was being executed. It turned out that the portable electric chair had been improperly set up by an intoxicated trustee. A case was brought before the U.S. Supreme Court (Francis v. Resweber),[5] with lawyers for the condemned arguing that although Francis did not die, he had, in fact, been executed. The argument was rejected on the basis that re-execution did not violate the double jeopardy clause of the 5th Amendment of the US Constitution, and Francis was returned to the electric chair and successfully executed in 1947. For other uses, see Transformer (disambiguation). ... Willie Francis in his cell staring at a calendar highlighting his execution date. ... In the case of State of Louisiana Ex Rel. ... For other uses, see Double jeopardy (disambiguation). ...


Regardless of how the execution is performed, cleaning up afterwards is described as unpleasant. Skin is inevitably burned and prison workers have to separate the burnt skin from the electrodes. The initial flow of electric current may cause the person to lose control over many bodily functions, including muscle movement, urination and defecation. To mitigate this, alterations to modern electric chairs include padding and an inertia style retractable seat belt.


Decline

The use of the electric chair has declined as legislators sought what they believed to be more humane methods of execution. Lethal injection became the most popular method, helped by newspaper accounts of botched electrocutions in the early 1980s. This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...


As of 2006, the only places in the world which still reserve the electric chair as an option for execution are the U.S. states of Alabama, Florida, Nebraska, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. (Oklahoma and Illinois laws provide for its use should lethal injection ever be held to be unconstitutional.) Except for Nebraska, where it remains the only method of execution, inmates in the other states must select it or lethal injection. In the state of Florida, on July 8, 1999, Allen Lee Davis convicted of murder was executed in the Florida electric chair "Old Sparky". Davis' face was bloodied and photographs taken, which were later posted on the internet. The 1997 execution of Pedro Medina created controversy when flames burst from the inmate's head. Lethal injection is now, as of 2006, the primary method of execution in the state of Florida. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Allen Lee Davis (July 20, 1944 - July 8, 1999) was a mass murderer executed on July 8, 1999, for the May 11, 1982 Jacksonville, Florida murder of Nancy Weiler, who was three-months pregnant at the time. ... Old Sparky. ... Pedro Medina (October 5, 1957-March 25, 1997), who was among nearly 125,000 Cubans who came to the United States during the 1980 Mariel boatlift, was executed at Florida State Prison in the north Florida town of Starke for stabbing his former teacher in Orlando in 1982. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ...


The electric chair has also been criticized because of several instances in which the subjects were not instantly killed, but had to be subjected to multiple electric shocks. This led to a call for ending of the practice because many see it as cruel and unusual punishment [3]. Trying to address such concerns, Nebraska introduced a new electrocution protocol in 2004, which called for administration of a 15-second-long jolt of 2,450 volts of electricity; after a 15-minute wait, an official then checks for signs of life. New concerns raised regarding the 2004 protocol resulted, in April 2007, in the ushering in of the current Nebraska protocol, calling for a 20-second-long jolt of 2,450 volts of electricity. (Prior to the 2004 protocol change, an initial eight-second jolt of 2,450 volts was administered, followed by a one-second pause, then a 22-second jolt at 480 volts. After a 20-second break, the cycle was repeated three more times.) “Cruel And Unusual” redirects here. ...


See also

Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a human or animal body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or nerves. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Yellow Mama is the nickname given to U.S. state of Alabamas electric chair. ... Old Sparky. ... Until 1991, the State of Louisiana used the electric chair as its sole method of execution. ... In the early 20th century usage, in parts of the United States using the electric chair the title of State Electrician was often bestowed on the states resident executioner. ... This article is not about Edwin Davis, discoverer in 1846 of the Serpent Mound Edwin F. Davis was the first state electrician for the State of New York and finalised many features of the electric chair. ... Robert Greene Elliott (1874-October 10, 1939) was the state electrician (=executioner) for the State of New York, and those neighboring states which used the electric chair, during the period 1926-1939. ...

References

  1. ^ (November 2000) "Alfred P. Southwick, MDS, DDS: dental practitioner, educator and originator of electrical executions". Journal of the History of Dentistry 48 (3ghy): 115-45. 
  2. ^ Mary Bellis (2005). Death and Money - The History of the Electric Chair. About.com. Retrieved on 13 April 2006.
  3. ^ http://www.newsnet5.com/news/708555/detail.html
  4. ^ War crimes and war criminals, meeting held on July 6, 1942. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  5. ^ U.S. Supreme Court case, Francis v. Resweber: 329 U.S. 459 (1947)

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Electric chair - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2169 words)
The electric chair is a method for killing people, particularly for judicial executions, in which the person to be killed is strapped to a chair (thus the name) and electrocuted using electrodes placed on the body, one being on the head.
The electric chair is an alternate form of execution approved for potential use in Illinois and Oklahoma if other forms of execution are found unconstitutional in the state at the time of execution.
Brown was an employee of Thomas Edison, hired for the purpose of researching electrocution and for the development of the electric chair.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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