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Encyclopedia > Electric car
The Toyota RAV4 EV was powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices.
The Toyota RAV4 EV was powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices.
The Canadian Dynasty EV 4 door sedan neighborhood electric vehicle.
The Indian REVA 2 door seen here in Malta. More REVAs have been produced than any other currently selling electric car. While in the UK it's a full blown EV, in the US it is allowed only as neighborhood electric vehicle with reduced top speed.
The Indian REVA 2 door seen here in Malta. More REVAs have been produced than any other currently selling electric car. While in the UK it's a full blown EV, in the US it is allowed only as neighborhood electric vehicle with reduced top speed.

The electric car is a vehicle that utilizes chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs, and electric motors and motor controllers instead of an internal combustion engine (ICE). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links DynastyEVSedan. ... Image File history File links DynastyEVSedan. ... An electric vehicle currently in production built by Dynasty Electric Car Corp. ... A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is an American term for a speed limited battery electric vehicle (usually 25 miles per hour in the U.S.A.) restricted by law to operation on roads with speed limits not exceeding 35 MPH. Often such vehicles are not built from scratch but instead... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... G-Wiz electric car in London REVA electric car in Malta REVA is an Indian battery electric vehicle intended for use as a City car. ... A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is an American term for a speed limited battery electric vehicle (usually 25 miles per hour in the U.S.A.) restricted by law to operation on roads with speed limits not exceeding 35 MPH. Often such vehicles are not built from scratch but instead... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery. ... A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... A motor controller is a device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an electric motor. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...


ICEs (hybrid electric vehicles) are examples of hybrid vehicles, and are not considered pure electric vehicles (EVs) because they operate in a charge-sustaining mode. Hybrid vehicles with batteries that can be charged externally to displace some or all of their ICE power and gasoline fuel are called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and are pure battery electric vehicles (BEVs) during their charge-depleting mode. Electric vehicles include automobiles, light trucks, and neighborhood electric vehicles. This article is about water ice. ... A Chevy Volt, one example of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, expected to set a new benchmark. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ... Charge-sustaining is the mode of operation utilized to manage Battery packs in conventional hybrid vehicles. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... Charge-depleting refers to vehicle operation that is dependent on energy from the Battery pack, Battery electric vehicles operate solely in this mode. ... Car redirects here. ... Light truck or light duty truck is a classification for trucks or truck-based vehicles with a payload capacity of less than 4,000 pounds (1,815 kg). ... A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is an American term for a speed limited battery electric vehicle (usually 25 miles per hour in the U.S.A.) restricted by law to operation on roads with speed limits not exceeding 35 MPH. Often such vehicles are not built from scratch but instead...


Electric cars were among the earliest automobiles. They produce no exhaust fumes, and minimal pollution if charged from most forms of renewable energy. Many are capable of acceleration exceeding that of conventional vehicles, are quiet, and do not produce noxious fumes. Electric cars reduce dependence on petroleum and decrease or eliminate greenhouse gas emissions, depending on how their electricity is produced. Car redirects here. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ...


Historically, EVs and PHEVs have had issues with high battery costs, limited travel distance between battery recharging, charging time, and battery lifespan, which have limited widespread adoption. Ongoing battery technology advancements have addressed many of these problems; many models have recently been prototyped, and a handful of future production models have been announced. Toyota, Honda, Ford and General Motors all produced electric cars in the 1990s in order to comply with the California Air Resources Board's Zero Emission Vehicle Mandate. The major US automobile manufacturers have been accused of deliberately sabotaging their electric vehicle production efforts.[1][2] California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the clean air agency of the state of California in the United States. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ...


Electric cars are expected to be cheaper to make and maintain than internal combustion engine vehicles because they have many fewer parts[citation needed]. Using regenerative braking, a feature which is standard on many electric and hybrid vehicles, a significant portion of the energy expended during acceleration may be recovered during braking, increasing the efficiency of the vehicle.[3][4] Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ...


In general terms an electric car is a rechargeable battery electric vehicle. Other examples of rechargeable electric vehicles are ones that store electricity in ultracapacitors, or in a flywheel. An Ultracapacitor is a capacitor that has an unusually large amount of energy storage capability relative to its size when compared to common capacitors. ... Spoked flywheel Flywheel from stationary engine. ...

Contents

Relation with hybrid vehicles

Vehicles using both electric motors and Internal Combustion Engines are examples of hybrid vehicles, and are not considered pure electric vehicles (also called all-electric vehicles) because they operate in a charge-sustaining mode. Hybrid vehicles with batteries that can be charged externally to displace some or all of their ICE power and gasoline fuel are called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and are pure EVs during their charge-depleting mode. The coming Chevrolet Volt is of this type. If batteries cannot be charged externally, the vehicles are called regular hybrids. For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... Charge-sustaining is the mode of operation utilized to manage Battery packs in conventional hybrid vehicles. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... Charge-depleting refers to vehicle operation that is dependent on energy from the Battery pack, Battery electric vehicles operate solely in this mode. ... The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid concept car created by General Motors. ...


History

Main article: History of the electric vehicle
1912 Detroit Electric advertisement
1912 Detroit Electric advertisement
Thomas Edison and an electric car in 1913 (courtesy of the National Museum of American History)
Electric car and antique car on display at a 1912 auto show in Toronto
Electric car and antique car on display at a 1912 auto show in Toronto

The electric car was among some of the earliest automobiles — small electric vehicles predate the Otto cycle upon which Diesel (diesel engine) and Benz (gasoline engine) based the automobile. Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Scottish businessman Robert Anderson invented the first crude electric carriage. Professor Sibrandus Stratingh of Groningen, the Netherlands, designed the small-scale electric car, built by his assistant Christopher Becker in 1835.[5] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Electric vehicles were invented in the mid-1800s and held the vehicular land speed record until around 1900. ... 1915 Detroit Electric Brougham Detroit Electric (1907 - 1939) was an automobile brand produced by the Anderson Electric Car Company in Detroit Michigan. ... Image File history File links Ed_d22m. ... Image File history File links Ed_d22m. ... Edison redirects here. ... The National Museum of American History is a museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution and located in Washington, D.C., on the National Mall. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Camille Jenatzy (1868 - 1913) was a Belgian race car driver. ... Picture of La Jamais Contente vehicle. ... The verb predate has two meanings:- To prey upon: see predator and predation and prey. ... The four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle) of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today (cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ...


The improvement of the storage battery, by Frenchmen Gaston Plante in 1865 and Camille Faure in 1881, paved the way for electric vehicles to flourish. An electric-powered two-wheel cycle was demonstrated at the World Exhibition 1867 in Paris by the Austrian inventor Franz Kravogl. France and Great Britain were the first nations to support the widespread development of electric vehicles.[6] In November 1881 French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris.[7] Gaston Planté (1834-1889) was a French physicist who invented a rechargeable electric battery in 1859. ... Gustave Trouvé (1839-1902) was a French electrical engineer of the 19th Century. ...


Just prior to 1900, before the pre-eminence of powerful but polluting internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many speed and distance records. Among the most notable of these records was the breaking of the 100 km/h (60 mph) speed barrier, by Camille Jenatzy on April 29, 1899 in his 'rocket-shaped' vehicle Jamais Contente, which reached a top speed of 105.88 km/h (65.79 mph). An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... Camille Jenatzy (1868 - 1913) was a Belgian race car driver. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Picture of Jamais Contente vehicle. ...


Electric cars, produced in the USA by Anthony Electric, Baker, Detroit, Edison, Studebaker, and others during the early 20th century for a time out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles. Due to technological limitations and the lack of transistor-based electric technology, the top speed of these early electric vehicles was limited to about 32 km/h (20 mph). These vehicles were successfully sold as town cars to upper-class customers and were often marketed as suitable vehicles for women drivers due to their clean, quiet and easy operation. Electrics did not require hand-cranking to start. Baker Motor Vehicle Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era electric automobiles in Cleveland, Ohio. ... 1915 Detroit Electric Brougham Detroit Electric (1907 - 1939) was an automobile brand produced by the Anderson Electric Car Company in Detroit Michigan. ... Edison is the last name of a famous United States inventor: Thomas Edison Other people known by the name Edison: Charles Edison – son of Thomas Edison and Governor of New Jersey Edison Chen – popular Hong Kong teen idol Edison Carter, character in the television show Max Headroom A number of... Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... ...


The introduction of the electric starter by Cadillac in 1913 simplified the task of starting the internal combustion engine, formerly difficult and sometimes dangerous. This innovation contributed to the downfall of the electric vehicle, as did the mass-produced and relatively inexpensive Ford Model T, which had been produced since 1908.[8] Internal-combustion vehicles advanced technologically, ultimately becoming more practical than — and out-performing — their electric-powered competitors. In 1903, the first U.S. patent for an automobile electric self-starter was issued to Clyde J. Coleman of New York City (No. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the USA; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ... The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Fords Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1927. ...


Another blow to electric cars in the USA was the loss of Edison's direct current (DC) electric power transmission system in the War of Currents. This deprived BEV users of a convenient source of DC electricity to recharge their batteries.[dubious ] As the technology of rectifiers was still in its infancy, changing alternating current to DC required a costly rotary converter. Edison redirects here. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ... AC, half-wave and full wave rectified signals A rectifier is an electrical device, comprising one or more semiconductive devices (such as diodes) or vacuum tubes arranged for converting alternating current to direct current. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Rotary Converter refers to a class of electrical machinery that was used to convert one form of electrical power into another form. ...


Electric vehicles became popular for some limited range applications. Forklifts were EVs when they were introduced in 1923 by Yale[2]; many battery electric fork lifts are still produced. Electric golf carts have been available for many years, including early models by Lektra in 1954.[3] Their popularity led to their use as neighborhood electric vehicles; larger versions are becoming popular and increasingly ruled "street legal". A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is an American term for a speed limited battery electric vehicle (usually 25 miles per hour in the U.S.A.) restricted by law to operation on roads with speed limits not exceeding 35 MPH. Often such vehicles are not built from scratch but instead...


By the late 1930s, the electric automobile industry had completely disappeared, with battery-electric traction being limited to niche applications, such as certain industrial vehicles. A thorough examination into the social and technological reasons for the failure of electric cars is to be found in Taking Charge: The Electric Automobile in America[4] by Michael Brian Schiffer. Michael Schiffer is one of the founders and pre-eminent exponents of behavioural archaeology. ...


The 1947 invention of the point-contact transistor marked the beginning of a new era for EV technology. Within a decade, Henney Coachworks had joined forces with National Union Electric Company, the makers of Exide batteries, to produce the first modern electric car based on transistor technology, the Henney Kilowatt, produced in 36-volt and 72-volt configurations. The 72-volt models had a top speed approaching 96 km/h (60 mph) and could travel nearly an hour on a single charge. Despite the improved practicality of the Henney Kilowatt over previous electric cars, it was too expensive, and production was terminated in 1961. Even though the Henney Kilowatt never reached mass production volume, their transistor-based electric technology paved the way for modern EVs. Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


Battery powered electric concept cars continued to appear, such as the General Motors "Electrovair" (1966) and "Electrovette" (1976). At the 1990 Los Angeles Auto Show, GM President Roger Smith unveiled the "Impact" electric car, the precursor to the EV1, promising that GM would build electric cars for the public. Nine months later, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) mandated electric car sales by major automakers. In response, makers developed EVs including the Chrysler TEVan, Ford Ranger EV pickup truck, GM EV1 and S10 EV pickup, Honda EV Plus sedan, Nissan lithium-battery Altra EV miniwagon and Toyota RAV4 EV. Automakers refused to properly promote or sell their EVs, allowed consumers to drive them only by closed-end lease and, along with oil groups, fought the mandate. The EV1 was the first electric car produced by General Motors in the United States. ...


Chrysler, GM and some GM dealers sued in Federal court; California soon neutered its ZEV Mandate. After public protests by EV drivers' groups upset by the repossession of their EVs, Toyota offered the last 328 RAV4-EVs for sale to the general public during six months (ending on November 22, 2002). All other electric cars, with minor exceptions, were withdrawn from the market and destroyed by their manufacturers. To its credit, Toyota not only supports the 328 Toyota RAV4-EV in the hands of the general public, still all running at this date, but also supports hundreds in fleet usage. From time to time, Toyota RAV4-EVs come up for sale on the used market and command prices sometimes over 60 thousand dollars. These are highly prized by solar homeowners, who charge their cars from their solar electric rooftop systems. General Motors EV1 A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV will produce no emissions or pollution from the vehicle when stationary or operating. ...


Present and future

As of July, 2006, there were between 60,000 and 76,000 low-speed, battery powered vehicles in use in the US, up from about 56,000 in 2004, according to Electric Drive Transportation Association estimates.[9] There are now over 100,000 NEVs on US streets.

The Tesla Roadster, the first 500 of which are scheduled for delivery in early 2008 uses Li-Ion batteries to achieve 220 miles per charge, while also capable of going 0-60 in under 4 seconds.
The Tesla Roadster, the first 500 of which are scheduled for delivery in early 2008 uses Li-Ion batteries to achieve 220 miles per charge, while also capable of going 0-60 in under 4 seconds.

In 2004, several Silicon Valley entrepreneurs (Elon Musk, known for co-founding Paypal and founding SpaceX, and Martin Eberhard) started Tesla Motors. In 2006 they announced the production of the Tesla Roadster. The Roadster, the design of which is based on the Lotus Elise, uses Lithium-Ion batteries rather than the lead-acid batteries which had previously been predominant in small-maker BEVs. The vehicle uses 6831 li-ion batteries to travel 245 miles per charge, an equivalent fuel efficiency of 135 mpg (U.S.) (1.74 L/100 km), yet accelerates from 0-60 in under 4 seconds on its way to a top speed of 135 mph (210 km/h). Tesla is set to begin deliveries of Roadsters in early 2008. The company announced that production of the Roadster had officially begun on March 17th. The first Tesla was delivered on February 1, 2008. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2539 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Automobile Tesla Roadster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2539 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Automobile Tesla Roadster Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The Tesla Roadster is a fully electric sports car, and is the first car produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ... Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ... Elon Musk (born 28 June 1971) is an entrepreneur and founder of PayPal and SpaceX. He is chairman of Tesla Motors and SolarCity. ... eBays North First Street satellite office campus (home to PayPals corporate headquarters) PayPal is an e-commerce business allowing payments and money transfers to be made through the Internet. ... The Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) is a space-transportation startup company whose stated goal is to improve the cost and reliability of access to space ultimately by a factor of ten. It is based in El Segundo, California, USA. SpaceX is developing a family of partially reusable two-stage... Martin Eberhard is co-founder and former CEO of Tesla Motors, an electric car company in San Carlos, California. ... Tesla Motors, Inc. ... The Tesla Roadster is a fully electric sports car, and is the first car produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ... The Lotus Elise is a roadster conceived in early 1994 and released in September 1996 by the English manufacturer Lotus Cars. ... Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ...

MILES Electric Vehicles, the XS500 capable of 85mph with an estimated price around $30,000.

In December, 2007, Fortune media reported on eleven new companies planning to offer highway-capable electric cars within a few years. Aptera Motors plans to sell both electric and hybrid vehicles in late 2008. Mitsubishi will sell its iMiev EV beginning in 2009, with Subaru and ZAP Motors - Detroit Electric to soon follow. The Aptera is a high-efficiency vehicle currently in development by Aptera Motors, Inc, formerly Accelerated Composites[3], now accepting pre-orders. ... For information on Mitsubishi brand computer monitors, see NEC-Mitsubishi Electronics Display of America Inc. ... For other uses, see Subaru (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1915 Detroit Electric Brougham Detroit Electric (1907 - 1939) was an automobile brand produced by the Anderson Electric Car Company in Detroit Michigan. ...


In 2007, MILES Electric Vehicles announced that it would produce a highway-speed all-electric sedan named the XS500. The company anticipates that the XS500 will be available for sale in the U.S. in early 2009. The XS500 uses Li-Ion batteries.Rubin, Miles. XS500. Retrieved on 2008-04-15. Hargreaves, Steve. XS500. Retrieved on 2007-08-13. Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In early 2008, Dodge announced the Dodge Zeo. While there are no official release dates or prices, they say it will be affordable to the average american. Dodge Zeo


Regulation in California

Since the late 1980s, electric vehicles have been promoted in the US through the use of tax credits. Electric cars are the most common form of what is defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as zero emission vehicle (ZEV) passenger automobiles, because they produce no emissions while being driven. The CARB had set progressive quotas for sales of ZEVs, but most were withdrawn after lobbying and a lawsuit by auto manufacturers complaining that EVs were economically infeasible due to an alleged "lack of consumer demand". Most of these lobbying influences are shown in a documentary, called Who Killed the Electric Car?. California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the clean air agency of the state of California in the United States. ... A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV will, theoretically, produce no pollution from the vehicle when stationary or operating. ... Car redirects here. ... Who Killed the Electric Car? is a 2006 documentary film that explores the birth, limited commercialization, and subsequent death of the battery electric vehicle in the United States, specifically the General Motors EV1 of the 1990s. ...


The California program was designed by the CARB to reduce air pollution and not specifically to promote electric vehicles. Under pressure from various manufactures, CARB replaced the zero emissions requirement with a combined requirement of a very small number of ZEVs to promote research and development, and a much larger number of partial zero-emissions vehicles (PZEVs), an administrative designation for a super ultra low emissions vehicle (SULEV), which emit about ten percent of the pollution of ordinary low emissions vehicles and are also certified for zero evaporative emissions. While effective in reaching the air pollution goals projected for the zero emissions requirement, the market effect was to permit the major manufacturers to quickly terminate their electric car programs and crush the vehicles. California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the clean air agency of the state of California in the United States. ... A Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) is an administrative category within the U.S. state of California for low emission vehicles. ... Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) is a conventionally powered or gas-electric hybrid vehicle designed to produce minimal air pollution, typically less than 10% of that of an equivalent ordinary vehicle. ...


Selected production vehicles

For more details on this topic, see Category:Production electric vehicles.
and List of production battery electric vehicles

Selected list of battery electric vehicles include (in chronological order):[10] // For more details on this topic, see Category:Production electric vehicles. ...

Name Comments Production years Number produced Top Speed Cost Range
Baker Electric The first electric car; it was reputedly easy to drive 1899–1915 ? 14 mph
23 km/h
US$2300 or €1,700 50 mi
80 km
Detroit Electric Sold mainly to women and physicians. 1907–1939 <5000 20 mph
32 km/h
>US$3,000 or €2,250 depending on options 80 mi (130 km)
Henney Kilowatt The first modern (transistor-based) electric car and outfitted with modern hydraulic brakes. 1958–1960 <100 60 mph
97 km/h
? ?
Skoda Favorit ELTRA 151L & 151 Pick-Up Czech-built (first electric car prog. for eastern block mfr.), exported to Europe and N. America. Lead acid batt. 15 kW·h pack nominal; 84 V system with regen. 1992-1994 <1100, perhaps 20 surviving 50 mph
80 km/h (limiter)
< US $20,000, without subsidy 50 mi
80 km
General Motors EV1 For lease only, all recovered from customers by General Motors and most destroyed 1996–2003 1117 80 mph
129 km/h
~ US$40,000 or €30,000, without subsidies 160 mi
257 km
Honda EV Plus First BEV from a major automaker without lead-acid batteries. 24 twelve volt NiMH batteries 1997–1999 ~300 80+ mph
130+ km/h
US$455 or €340/month for 36 month lease; or $53,000 or €40,000 without subsidies 80–110 mi
130–180 km
Toyota RAV4 EV Some leased and sold on US east and west coasts, supported. Toyota agreed to stop crushing. 1997–2002 1249 78 mph
125 km/h
US$40,000 or €30,00 without subsidies 87 mi
140 km
Ford Ranger EV Some sold, most leased; almost all recovered and most destroyed. Ford allowed reconditioning and sale of a limited quantity to former leaseholders by lottery. 1998–2002 1500, perhaps 200 surviving ~ US$50,000 or €37,600; subsidized down to $20,000 or €15,000 74 mi
119 km
Nissan Altra EV Mid-sized station wagon designed from the ground up as the first BEV to use Li-ion batteries, 100,000+ mi (160,000 km) battery lifetime 1998–2000 ~133 75+ mph
120+ km/h
US$470/month lease only 120 mi
193 km
TH!NK City Two seat, 85 km (52 mi) range, NiCd batteries. Next generation vehicle production planned for fall 2007. 1999–2002 1005 56 mph
90 km/h
53 mi
85 km
REVA Indian-built city car (sold in England as the "G-Wiz"). 2001– >1800 45 mph
72 km/h
£8,000, US$15,000 or €11,900 50 mi
80 km
ZAP Xebra Chinese built sedan and truck 2006– 700+ 36 mph
60 km/h[11]
$10,000 or €7,500 20 mi
32 km
Tesla Roadster 650 scheduled for delivery in 2008, first one delivered February 1, 2008[12][13] 2008– 1 130 mph or 210 km/h [5] US$92,000 or €69,120 base price [6] 220 mi
350 km

Baker Motor Vehicle Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era electric automobiles in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. ... 1915 Detroit Electric Brougham Detroit Electric (1907 - 1939) was an automobile brand produced by the Anderson Electric Car Company in Detroit Michigan. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... The Škoda Favorit is a small car, production of which started in early 1990. ... EV1 redirects here. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... The Honda EV Plus was the first production electric car from a major automaker with non lead acid batteries. ... A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ... A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery but has a hydrogen-absorbing alloy for the anode instead of cadmium. ... This article or section should include material from Tenancy agreement A lease is a contract conveying from one person (the lessor) to another person (the lessee) the right to use and control some article of property for a specified period of time (the term), without conveying ownership, in exchange for... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ford Ranger EV (Electric Vehicle) is a battery electric vehicle produced by Ford Motor Company. ... The Nissan Altra was a electric car produced by Nissan Motors between 1998 and 2002. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ... This article or section should include material from Tenancy agreement A lease is a contract conveying from one person (the lessor) to another person (the lessee) the right to use and control some article of property for a specified period of time (the term), without conveying ownership, in exchange for... Think Nordic is a battery electric vehicle company located in Aurskog, Norway, manufacturing cars under the Think brand. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and pronounced nye-cad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys using the metals nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) as the active chemicals. ... G-Wiz electric car in London REVA electric car in Malta REVA is an Indian battery electric vehicle intended for use as a City car. ... The Fiat Panda, a 1980s city car A current model Toyota Aygo city car A city car (or urban car) is a small, moderately powered automobile intended for use in urban areas. ... ZAP Xebra is an electric vehicle that was launched in May 2006 in the US market. ... A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ... The Tesla Roadster is a fully electric sports car, and is the first car produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Use

In the United States

I believe strongly that this country has to get off oil ... The electrification of the automobile is inevitable.

Bob Lutz, GM Vice-Chairman of global product development, in Newsweek magazine

The following chart and table are based on Department of Energy tables on Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 2005, from table V1 and from the Historical Data. Figures for electric vehicles include Low-Speed Vehicles (LSVs), which are "four-wheeled motor vehicles whose top speed is between 20 and 25 miles per hour [32 to 40 km/h]...to be used in residential areas, planned communities, industrial sites, and other areas with low density traffic, and low-speed zones."[14] LSVs, more commonly known as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs), were defined in 1998 by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 500, which required safety features such as windshields and seat belts, but not doors or side walls.[15][16] The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, often pronounced nit-suh) is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, part of the Department of Transportation. ...

Number of battery electric vehicles in use each year (red), and year-to-year percentage increase (blue), per table at left
Number of battery electric vehicles in use each year (red), and year-to-year percentage increase (blue), per table at left
Battery Electric Vehicles
in the United States
Year Number
1992 1,607
1993 1,690
1994 2,224
1995 2,860
1996 3,280
1997 4,453
1998 5,243
1999 6,964
2000 11,830
2001 17,847
2002 33,047
2003 47,485
2004 49,536
2005 51,398
Average growth 30.5%

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Israel

Israel's Shai Agassi has reached agreements with Renault-Nissan and the Israeli government for a plan called Project Better Place to install recharging and battery replacement stations nationwide and put 100,000 electric cars on the roads beginning in 2011. Israel is considered a practical choice for the first large-scale use of electric vehicles because 90 percent of car owners drive less than 70 kilometers per day and the major cities are fewer than 150 kilometers apart.[17] Shai Agassi is a member of the Executive Board of SAP AG. He is responsible for SAPs overall technology strategy and execution. ... Project Better Place is a name for an innovative company focused on building massive scale Electric Recharge Grids as infrastrucutre supporting the deployment of electric vehicles (including plug-in hybrids) in countries around the world. ...


Comparison to internal combustion vehicles

Tzero an older model electric vehicle on a drag race with a Dodge Viper left behind
Tzero an older model electric vehicle on a drag race with a Dodge Viper left behind

Electric cars have become much less common than internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). Therefore, it is often helpful to consider many aspects of BEVs in comparison to ICEVs. Image File history File links Tzeroviper. ... Image File history File links Tzeroviper. ... T subscript Zero (t0) is a symbol used in mathematics referring to the starting point or the beginning of time within a system. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...


Cost

While gasoline powered cars typically average 10 to 50 mpg (5-23 L/100 km), electric cars can average the equivalent of 200 mpg (1.5 L/100 km) with a typical cost of two to four cents per mile. In contrast, gasoline-powered ICEVs currently cost about four to six times as much.[18] The total cost of ownership for modern EVs depends primarily on the cost of the batteries (see below),[19] the type and capacity of which determine several factors such as travel range, top speed, battery lifetime and recharging time; several trade-offs exist. The cost of batteries is primarily a life-cycle cost, which is highly dependent upon both the initial cost, longevity of both the battery and the vehicle, and the battery, charger, motor, and motor power regulator energy-throughput efficiency.


Batteries are usually the most expensive component of electric cars, though the price per kilowatt-hour of charge has fallen rapidly in recent years for the more recently introduced technologies such as lithium-ion and lithium-polymer. Older technologies such as lead-acid have become more expensive due to increase in materials cost, particularly lead, driven by demand for use in powered bicycles (particularly in China and India) and in uninterruptible power supplies to support small computer systems. Increasing returns to scale should lower their cost when electric cars are manufactured on the scale of the current ICE vehicles. Since the late 1990s, advances in battery technologies have been driven by skyrocketing demand for laptop computers and mobile phones, with consumer demand for more features, larger, brighter displays, and longer battery time driving research and development in the field. The electric vehicle marketplace has reaped the benefits of these advances. The kilowatt-hour (symbol: kW·h) is a unit for measuring energy. ... Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ... Lithium polymer batteries (Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... An uninterruptible power supply (UPS), also known as an uninterruptible power source or a battery backup is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available. ... In economics, returns to scale and economies of scale are related terms that describe what happens as the scale of production increases. ... For the band, see Laptop (band). ...


Some batteries can be leased or rented instead of bought (see Think Nordic). In 1947, in Nissan's first electric car, the batteries were removable so that they could be replaced at filling stations with fully charged ones. This article is about a property agreement in private law. ... This article is about an agreement for payment for temporary use. ... Think Nordic is a battery electric vehicle company located in Aurskog, Norway, manufacturing cars under the Think brand. ...


Ownership costs

In the UK ownership costs include vehicle excise duty or road tax. Electric vehicles are now exempt and so electric car owners will save around £100 per year compared with an average conventional car. There remains some uncertainty about annual depreciation rates and resale values for EVs due to the unknown length of battery-life and the low demand for battery electrics compared to other green car types. As EVs lose their value faster than conventional cars depreciation rates are likely to be higher than for a conventional car at this time. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


In the UK, electric car users who install additional recharging equipment will face additional financial penalties. Costs per standard charge point are around £500-£2000, depending on the difficulty of installation. Fully installed fast-chargers will cost between £10,000 and £30,000 per point although this depends on whether an on-board or off-board fast-charging system is used.


Running costs

Some running costs are significantly less for electric cars than for ICE powered cars. In particular, fuel costs are very low due to the competitive price of electricity - fuel duty is zero-rated - and to the high efficiency of the vehicles themselves. Taking into account the high fuel economy of battery electric cars, the fuel costs can be as low as 1.0-2.5p per mile (depending on the tariff). For a typical 10,000 miles per year, switching from a conventional car to an electric car could save around £800 in fuel costs. However if the battery hire is considered a running cost, then the saving on fuel is canceled out by the monthly battery leasing cost. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Electric car operating costs can be directly compared to the equivalent operating costs of a gasoline-powered vehicle. A gallon of gasoline contains about 36.4 kW·h of energy. To calculate the cost of the electrical equivalent of a gallon of gasoline, multiply the utility cost per kW·h by 36.4. Because automotive internal combustion engines are only about 20% efficient, then at most 20% of the total energy in that gallon of gasoline is ever put to use [20]. An electric car's efficiency is affected by its charging and discharging efficiencies. A Typical charging cycle is about 85% efficient, and the discharge cycle converting electricity into mechanical power is about 95% efficient, resulting in 81% of each kW·h is put to use. The electricity generating system in most countries is typically up to 40% efficient, twice as efficient as the conversion in an ICE.


A car powered by an internal combustion engine at 20% efficiency, getting 30 mpg, will require 0.24 Kw·h per mile. At a cost of $3.50 per gallon this is $0.12 per mile. A battery electric version of that same car with a charge/discharge efficiency of 81%, and charged at a cost of $0.10 for kW·h would cost $0.03 per mile, or would be paying the equivalent of $0.88 per gallon.


Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions

Production and conversion electric cars typically use 0.17 to 0.37 kilowatt-hours per mile (0.1–0.23 kW·h/km).[21][22] Approximately 20% of this power consumption is due to inefficiencies in charging the batteries. Tesla Motors indicates that the well to wheels[citation needed] power consumption of their li-ion powered vehicle is 0.215 kW·h/mi. The US fleet average of 23 miles per gallon of gasoline is equivalent to 1.58 kW·h/mi and the 70 mpg (U.S.) Honda Insight uses 0.52 kW·h/mi (assuming 36.4 kW·h per US gallon of gasoline), so hybrid electric vehicles are relatively energy efficient, and battery electric vehicles are much more energy efficient. A 2001 DOE estimate calculates a battery powered EV at 7¢/kW·h can be driven 43 miles (69 km) for a dollar and at $1.25/gal a gasoline vehicle will go 18 miles (29 km). An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicle to battery electric propulsion, creating a battery electric vehicle. ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ...

Sources of electricity in the U.S. 2006[1]
Sources of electricity in the U.S. 2006[1]

Generating electricity and providing liquid fuels for vehicles are different categories of the energy economy, with different inefficiencies and environmental harms. A 55% to 99.9% improvement in CO2 emissions takes place when driving an EV over an ICE (gasoline, diesel) vehicle depending on the source of electricity.[23] Comparing CO2 emissions can be done by using the US national average of 1.28 lb (0.58 kg) CO2/(kW·h)[citation needed] for electricity generation, giving a range for BEVs from zero up to 0.2 to 0.5 lb (0.23 kg) CO2/mi (0.06 to 0.13 kg/km). Because 1 gal of gasoline produces 19 lb (8.6 kg) CO2 when burned in a typical automobile engine, the average US fleet produces 0.83 lb/mi (0.23 kg/km), a 40 mpg car produces approximately 0.47 lb/mi and the Insight 0.27 lb/mi (0.08 kg/km).[24] CO2 and other greenhouse gases emissions are minimal for BEVs powered from sustainable electricity sources (e.g. solar energy), but are constant per gallon (or litre) for gasoline vehicles. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... This article is about water ice. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ...

Model Short tons CO2
(conventional,
mostly fossil fuel
electricity production)
Short tons CO2
(renewable electricity
production,
e.g., solar panel,
or wind power)
2002 Toyota RAV4-EV (pure BEV) 3.8 0.0
2000 Toyota RAV4 2wd (gasoline) 7.2 7.2
Other battery electric vehicle(s)
2000 Nissan Altra EV 3.5 0.0
Hybrid vehicles
2001 Honda Insight 3.1 3.1
2005 Toyota Prius 3.5 3.5
2005 Ford Escape H 2x 5.8 5.8
2005 Ford Escape H 4x 6.2 6.2
Internal combustion engine vehicles
2005 Dodge Neon 2.0L 6.0 6.0
2005 Ford Escape 4x 8.0 8.0
2005 GMC Envoy XUV 4x 11.7 11.7
Table assumes driving 15,000(?) miles per year and is for one year

Aerodynamic drag has a large impact on energy efficiency as the speed of the vehicle increases. See Automobile drag coefficients for a list of cars. The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... An object moving through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ... The drag coefficient is a common metric in automotive design, where designers strive to achieve a low coefficient. ...


Maintenance

EVs, particularly those using AC or brushless DC motors, have far fewer parts to wear out. An ICE vehicle on the other hand will have many mechanical, fluid, and electrical parts that may include some of the following: pistons, connecting rods, crankshafts, cylinder walls, valves, valve springs, valve guides, camshafts, cambelts, lifters, pushrods, rocker arms, oil pumps, fuel pumps, water pumps, radiators, gearbox (rarely used in EV's), clutch, distributors, spark plugs, air filters, oil filters, coolant and vacuum hoses, injectors, carburettors, turbos, superchargers, gaskets, seals and bearings. All of these parts may wear out over time. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A brushless DC motor is an electric motor that operates like a DC motor, but with the roles of the rotor and stator reversed. ...


Both hybrids and EVs can use regenerative braking, which greatly reduces wear and tear on friction brakes - Prius taxi drivers report far less frequent brake maintenance.


Acceleration performance

Although some electric vehicles have very small motors, 20 hp (15 kW) or less and therefore have modest acceleration, the relatively constant torque of an electric motor even at very low speeds tends to increase the acceleration performance of an electric vehicle for the same rated motor power. Another early solution was American Motors’ experimental Amitron piggyback system of batteries with one type designed for sustained speeds while a different set boosted acceleration when needed. This article is about a unit of measurement. ... American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed on January 14, 1954 by the merger of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and the Hudson Motor Car Company. ... The Amitron was an American experimental car built in 1967 by American Motors and Gulton Industries. ...


Electric vehicles can also utilize a direct motor-to-wheel configuration which increases the amount of available power. Having multiple motors connected directly to the wheels allows for each of the wheels to be used for both propulsion and as braking systems, thereby increasing traction. In some cases, the motor can be housed directly in the wheel, such as in the Whispering Wheel design, which lowers the vehicle's center of gravity and reduces the number of moving parts. When not fitted with an axle, differential, or transmission, electric vehicles have less drivetrain rotational inertia. In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... Look up traction, gription in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Whispering wheel is a self-propelled electrically powered wheel designed for propulsion in hybrid or alternative energy vehicles or busses. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, for allowing each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ...


A gearless or single gear design in some EVs eliminates the need for gear shifting, giving such vehicles both smoother acceleration and smoother braking. Because the torque of an electric motor is a function of current, not rotational speed, electric vehicles have a high torque over a larger range of speeds during acceleration, as compared to an internal combustion engine. As there is no delay in developing torque in an EV, EV drivers report generally high satisfaction with acceleration.


For example, the Venturi Fetish delivers supercar acceleration despite a relatively modest 300 horsepower (220 kW), and a top speed of around 100 miles per hour. Some DC motor-equipped drag racer EVs, have simple two-speed transmissions to improve top speed[25][26]. The Tesla Roadster prototype can reach 60 mph (97 km/h) in 4 seconds with a motor rated at 248 hp (185 kW). The Ronaele 300E Mustang is another performance car that has recently emerged, the pure electric can reach 60 mph (97 km/h) in under 4 seconds with a motor rated at 300 horsepower (220 kW). The Venturi Fétish is the worlds first production two-seater electric sports car. ... For other uses, see Supercar (disambiguation). ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... The Tesla Roadster is a fully electric sports car, and is the first car produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ...


Batteries

Prototypes of 75 watt-hour/kilogram lithium ion polymer battery. Newer Li-ion cells can provide up to 130 Wh/kg and last through thousands of charging cycles.
Prototypes of 75 watt-hour/kilogram lithium ion polymer battery. Newer Li-ion cells can provide up to 130 Wh/kg and last through thousands of charging cycles.

Rechargeable batteries used in electric vehicles include lead-acid ("flooded" and VRLA), NiCd, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, Li-ion polymer, and, less commonly, zinc-air and molten salt batteries. The amount of electricity stored in batteries is measured in ampere hours or in coulombs, with the total energy often measured in watt hours. Image File history File links NASA_Lithium_Ion_Polymer_Battery. ... Image File history File links NASA_Lithium_Ion_Polymer_Battery. ... Lithium ion polymer batteries, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (Abbreviated Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... Rechargeable batteries are batteries that can be restored to full charge by the application of electrical energy. ... A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery. ... A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ... VRLA stands for valve regulated lead acid and is the designation for maintenance-free lead-acid batteries. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and pronounced nye-cad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys using the metals nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) as the active chemicals. ... A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery but has a hydrogen-absorbing alloy for the anode instead of cadmium. ... Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion or Li-On) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ... Lithium ion polymer batteries, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (Abbreviated Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... Zinc-air batteries, also called “zinc-air fuel cells,“ are non-rechargeable electro-chemical batteries powered by the oxidation of zinc with oxygen from the air. ... Molten salt batteries are a class of primary cell and secondary cell high temperature electric battery that use molten salts as an electrolyte. ... An ampere-hour (abbreviated as Ah or A-h) is a unit of electric charge. ... The coulomb (symbol: C) is the SI unit of electric charge. ... The watt-hour (symbol W·h) is a unit of energy. ...


Charging

Batteries in BEVs must be periodically recharged (see also Replacing, below). BEVs most commonly charge from the power grid (at home or using a street or shop recharging point), which is in turn generated from a variety of domestic resources; such as coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear and others. Home power such as roof top photovoltaic solar cell panels, microhydro or wind may also be used and are promoted because of concerns regarding global warming. Transmission towers Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power transmission, or more accurately Electrical energy transmission, is the second process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ... A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery. ... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ... Micro Hydro is a term used for hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Charging time is limited primarily by the capacity of the grid connection. A normal household outlet is between 1.5 kilowatts (in the US, Canada, Japan, and other countries with 110 volt supply) to 3 kilowatts (in countries with 240 V supply). The main connection to a house might be able to sustain 10 kilowatts, and special wiring can be installed to use this. At this higher power level charging even a small, 7 kilowatt-hour (14–28 mi) pack, would probably require one hour. This is small compared to the effective power delivery rate of an average petrol pump, about 5,000 kilowatts. Even if the supply power can be increased, most batteries do not accept charge at greater than their charge rate ("1C"), because high charge rate has adverse effect on the discharge capacities of batteries.[27] Look up grid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... Outlet may mean: A place or opening by which anything is let out (e. ... The kilowatt (symbol: kW) is a unit for measuring power, equal to one thousand watts. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ...


In 1995, some charging stations charged BEVs in one hour. In November 1997, Ford purchased a fast-charge system produced by AeroVironment called "PosiCharge" for testing its fleets of Ranger EVs, which charged their lead-acid batteries in between six and fifteen minutes. In February 1998, General Motors announced a version of its "Magne Charge" system which could recharge NiMH batteries in about ten minutes, providing a range of sixty to one hundred miles.[28] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... AeroVironment is a California technology company that is primarily involved in energy systems, electric vehicle systems, and unmanned aerial vehicles. ... The Ford Ranger EV (Electric Vehicle) is a battery electric vehicle produced by Ford Motor Company. ... wall, handheld, and floor mount The Magne Charge(tm) Inductive charging system is an Indictive charging used to charge battery electric vehicles (BEV) made by General Motors such as the EV1 and Chevy S10 EV as well as other electric vehicles. ... A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery but has a hydrogen-absorbing alloy for the anode instead of cadmium. ...


In 2005, handheld device battery designs by Toshiba were claimed to be able to accept an 80% charge in as little as 60 seconds.[29] Scaling this specific power characteristic up to the same 7 kilowatt-hour EV pack would result in the need for a peak of 340 kilowatts of power from some source for those 60 seconds. It is not clear that such batteries will work directly in BEVs as heat build-up may make them unsafe. A handheld is most often used to refer to: A personal digital assistant (PDA). ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... In engineering, specific power (sometimes also power per unit mass or power density) refers to the amount of power delivered by an energy source, divided by some measure of the sources size or mass. ...


In 2007, Altairnano's NanoSafe batteries are rechargeable in several minutes, versus hours required for other rechargeable batteries.[citation needed] A NanoSafe cell can be charged to around 95% charge capacity in approximately 10 minutes.[citation needed] Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. ... Altairnano is a industry innovator in the discovery, development and manufacture of ceramic nanomaterials, working with industry and academic partners, have produced novel products for life sciences, alternative energy, air and water purification and advanced materials applications. ...


Most people do not always require fast recharging because they have enough time, 30 minutes to six hours (depending on discharge level) during the work day or overnight to recharge. As the charging does not require attention it takes a few seconds for an owner to plug in and unplug their vehicle much like a cell phone. Many BEV drivers prefer recharging at home, avoiding the inconvenience of visiting a fuel station. Some workplaces provide special parking bays for electric vehicles with chargers provided - sometimes powered by solar panels. In colder areas such as Minnesota and Canada there already exists some infrastructure for public power outlets, in parking garages and at parking meters, provided primarily for engine pre-heating. Fuel Stations are points at which vehicles operating on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, or hydrogen can stop at in order to refuel. ...


Connectors

The charging power can be connected to the car in two ways (electric coupling). The first is a direct electrical connection known as conductive coupling. This might be as simple as a mains lead into a weatherproof socket through special high capacity cables with connectors to protect the user from high voltages. The second approach is known as inductive charging. A special 'paddle' is inserted into a slot on the car. The paddle is one winding of a transformer, while the other is built into the car. When the paddle is inserted it completes a magnetic circuit which provides power to the battery pack. In one inductive charging system[7], one winding is attached to the underside of the car, and the other stays on the floor of the garage. In electronics and telecommunication, coupling is the desirable or undesirable transfer of energy from one medium, such as a metallic wire or an optical fiber, to another medium, including fortuitous transfer. ... Conductive coupling: Energy transfer achieved by means of physical contact, coupling other than inductive or capacitive coupling. ... Mains may mean or refer to, or be a subject of: Mains electricity Electricity transmission Public utility, about mains services, including electricity, natural gas, water, and sewage disposal Mains (Scotland), about the central steading of a townland BMX racing See also: Main Mane Category: ... CEE 7/7 plug and socket Domestic AC power plugs and sockets allow a connection between the mains (domestic, usually single-phase, AC electrical power) and the appliances commonly used in homes. ... In electrical engineering High voltage refers to a voltage which is high. ... Inductive charging is a way to recharge portable electronics batteries without plugging in any cords. ... For other uses, see Transformer (disambiguation). ...


The major advantage of the inductive approach is that there is no possibility of electric shock as there are no exposed conductors, although interlocks, special connectors and ground fault detectors can make conductive coupling nearly as safe. Inductive charging can also reduce vehicle weight, by moving more charging components offboard.[30] Conductive coupling equipment is lower in cost and much more efficient due to a vastly lower component count.[citation needed] An inductive charging proponent from Toyota contended in 1998 that overall cost differences were minimal, while a conductive charging proponent from Ford contended that conductive charging was more cost efficient.[30] Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a humans body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or hair. ... A residual current device (RCD) A residual current device (RCD), or residual current circuit breaker (RCCB), is an electrical wiring device that disconnects a circuit whenever it detects that the flow of current is not balanced between the phase (hot) conductor and the neutral conductor. ...


Travel range before recharging and trailers

The General Motors EV1 had a range of 75 to 150 miles (240 km) with NiMH batteries in 1999.
The General Motors EV1 had a range of 75 to 150 miles (240 km) with NiMH batteries in 1999.

The range of a BEV depends on the number and type of batteries used, and the performance demands of the driver. The weight and type of vehicle also have an impact just as they do on the mileage of traditional vehicles. Electric vehicle conversions depends on the battery type: Image File history File links GM_EV.jpg‎ General Motors EV1 This is a copyrighted image that has been released by a company or organization to promote their work or product in the media, such as advertising material or a promotional photo in a press kit. ... Image File history File links GM_EV.jpg‎ General Motors EV1 This is a copyrighted image that has been released by a company or organization to promote their work or product in the media, such as advertising material or a promotional photo in a press kit. ... EV1 redirects here. ... NIMH or NiMH may refer to: National Institute of Mental Health, a part of the United States National Institutes of Health. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicle to battery electric propulsion, creating a battery electric vehicle. ...

  • Lead-acid batteries are the most available and inexpensive. Such conversions generally have a range of 30 to 80 km (20 to 50 mi). Production EVs with lead-acid batteries are capable of up to 130 km (80 mi) per charge.
  • NiMH batteries have higher energy density and may deliver up to 200 km (120 mi) of range.
  • New lithium-ion battery-equipped EVs provide 400–500 km (250–300 mi) of range per charge.[31] Lithium is also less expensive than nickel.[32]

Finding the economic balance of range versus performance, battery capacity versus weight, and battery type versus cost challenges every EV manufacturer. NIMH or NiMH may refer to: National Institute of Mental Health, a part of the United States National Institutes of Health. ... Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ...


With an AC system regenerative braking can extend range by up to 50% under extreme traffic conditions without complete stopping. Otherwise, the range is extended by about 10 to 15% in city driving, and only negligibly in highway driving, depending upon terrain. Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ...


BEVs (including buses and trucks) can also use genset trailers and pusher trailers in order to extended their range when desired without the additional weight during normal short range use. Discharged battery set trailers can be replaced by recharged ones along a route. If rented then maintenance costs can be deferred to the agency. Genset trailers are gassoline fueled trailers with generators which can be hitched up to an electric vehicle and provide the average energy required to give the vehicle unlimited range. ... Pusher trailers are gassoline fueled trailers with traditional ICE and transmissions which can be hitched up to an electric vehicle and run from the cockpit to give the vehicle unlimited range. ...


Such BEVs can become Hybrid vehicles depending on the trailer and car types of energy and powertrain. For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ...


Replacing

An alternative to recharging is to exchange drained or nearly drained batteries (or battery range extender modules) with fully charged batteries. A123Systems is a developer of next generation Lithium-Ion batteries. ...


Re-filling

Zinc-bromine flow batteries or Vanadium redox batteries can be re-filled, instead of recharged, saving time. The depleted electrolyte can be recharged at the point of exchange, or taken away to a remote station. The zinc-bromine flow battery is a type of hybrid flow battery. ... The vanadium redox ( and redox flow ) battery was first patented by the University of New South Wales in Australia in 1986. ...


V2G: uploading and grid buffering

Main article: Vehicle-to-grid

Smart grid allows BEVs to provide power to the grid in anytime, specially: Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology is a bi-directional grid interface for gridable vehicles such as Battery Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. ... A Smart meter generally refers to a type of advanced meter (usually an electrical meter) that identifies consumption in more detail than a conventional meter, and optionally communicates that information via some network back to the local utility for monitoring and billing purposes. ...

  • During peak load periods, when the selling price of electricity can be very high. These vehicles can then be recharged during off-peak hours at cheaper rates while helping to absorb excess night time generation. Here the vehicles serve as a distributed battery storage system to buffer power.

In electrical engineering, a load profile is a graph of the variation in the electrical load versus time. ... Mount Cook, a mountain in New Zealand A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Tree limbs create a short circuit in electrical lines during a storm that spawned two tornados. ...

Lifespan

Individual batteries are usually arranged into large battery packs of various voltage and ampere-hour capacity products to give the required energy capacity. Battery life should be considered when calculating the extended cost of ownership, as all batteries eventually wear out and must be replaced. The rate at which they expire depends on a number of factors. A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... An ampere-hour (abbreviated as Ah or A-h) is a unit of electric charge. ... An ampere-hour (abbreviated as Ah or A-h) is a unit of electric charge. ...


The depth of discharge (DOD) is the recommended proportion of the total available energy storage for which that battery will achieve its rated cycles. Deep cycle lead-acid batteries generally should not be discharged below 80% capacity. More modern formulations can survive deeper cycles.


In real world use, some fleet Toyota RAV4 EVs, using NiMH batteries, will exceed 100,000 miles (160,000 km), and have had little degradation in their daily range.[33] Quoting that report's concluding assessment: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... NIMH or NiMH may refer to: National Institute of Mental Health, a part of the United States National Institutes of Health. ...

The five-vehicle test is demonstrating the long-term durability of Nickel Metal Hydride batteries and electric drive trains. Only slight performance degradation has been observed to-date on four out of five vehicles.... EVTC test data provide strong evidence that all five vehicles will exceed the 100,000-mile (160,000 km) mark. SCE’s positive experience points to the very strong likelihood of a 130,000 to 150,000-mile (240,000 km) Nickel Metal Hydride battery and drive-train operational life. EVs can therefore match or exceed the lifecycle miles of comparable internal combustion engine vehicles. Southern California Edison, the largest subsidiary of Edison International (NYSE: EIX), is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California. ...


In June 2003 the 320 RAV4 EVs of the SCE fleet were used primarily by meter readers, service managers, field representatives, service planners and mail handlers, and for security patrols and carpools. In five years of operation, the RAV4 EV fleet had logged more than 6.9 million miles, eliminating about 830 tons of air pollutants, and preventing more than 3,700 tons of tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions. Given the successful operation of its EVs to-date, SCE plans to continue using them well after they all log 100,000-miles.

Jay Leno's 1909 Baker Electric (see Baker Motor Vehicle) still operates on its original Edison cells. Battery replacement costs of BEVs may be partially or fully offset by the lack of regular maintenance such as oil and filter changes required for ICEVs, and by the greater reliability of BEVs due to their fewer moving parts. They also do away with many other parts that normally require servicing and maintenance in a regular car, such as on the gearbox, cooling system, and engine tuning. And by the time batteries do finally need definitive replacement, they can be replaced with later generation ones which may offer better performance characteristics, in the same way one might replace an old laptop battery. James Douglas Muir Jay Leno (April 28, 1950) is an Emmy Award-winning American stand-up comedian and television host, who succeeded Johnny Carson as host of The Tonight Show in 1992. ... Baker Motor Vehicle Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era electric automobiles in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The nickel-iron battery is a storage battery having a Nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and an iron anode, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. ... // A typical container of motor oil, with some in a glass. ... Spin-on oil filter beneath the engine of a Saab 9-5 (2005) Cartridge oil filter for use on a 2006 Volvo S40 An oil filter is a device used to decontaminate oil that contains suspended impurities. ...


Safety

The safety issues of battery electric vehicles are largely dealt with by the international standard ISO 6469. This document is divided in three parts dealing with specific issues: ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ...

  • On-board electrical energy storage, i.e. the battery
  • Functional safety means and protection against failures
  • Protection of persons against electrical hazards.

Firefighters and rescue personnel receive special training to deal with the higher voltages and chemicals encountered in electric and hybrid electric vehicle accidents. While BEV accidents may present unusual problems, such as fires and fumes resulting from rapid battery discharge, there is apparently no available information regarding whether they are inherently more or less dangerous than gasoline or diesel internal combustion vehicles which carry flammable fuels. This article is about the profession. ...


Future

The future of battery electric vehicles depends primarily upon the cost and availability of batteries with high energy densities, power density, and long life, as all other aspects such as motors, motor controllers, and chargers are fairly mature and cost-competitive with internal combustion engine components. Li-ion, Li-poly and zinc-air batteries have demonstrated energy densities high enough to deliver range and recharge times comparable to conventional vehicles. A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery. ... Li-Ion Camera Battery Lithium ion batteries (or Li-ion) have become very common and dropped in price recently. ... Lithium ion polymer batteries, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (Abbreviated Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. ... Zinc-air batteries, also called “zinc-air fuel cells,“ are non-rechargeable electro-chemical batteries powered by the oxidation of zinc with oxygen from the air. ...


Bolloré a French automotive parts group developed a concept car the "Bluecar" using Lithium metal polymer batteries developed by a subsidiary Batscap. It had a range of 250 km and top speed of 125 km/h.(Bluecar) document


Firefly Energy has developed a carbon foam-based lead acid battery with a reported capacity from 90-160 Watt-hours/kg


The cathodes of early 2007 lithium-ion batteries are made from lithium-cobalt metal oxide. That material is expensive, and can release oxygen if its cell is overcharged. If the cobalt is replaced with iron phosphates, the cells will not burn or release oxygen under any charge. The price premium for early 2007 hybrids is about US $5000, some $3000 of which is for their NiMH battery packs. At early 2007 gasoline and electricity prices, that would break even after six to ten years of operation. The hybrid premium could fall to $2000 in five years, with $1200 or more of that being cost of lithium-ion batteries, providing a three-year payback.[34]


Experimental supercapacitors and flywheel energy storage devices offering comparable storage capacity, higher charging rates, and lower volatility have the potential to overtake batteries as the prominent rechargeable storage for EVs. The FIA has included their use in its sporting regulations of energy systems for Formula One race vehicles in 2007 and 2009, respectively. EEStor claims to have developed a supercapacitor for electricity storage. These units use barium titanate coated with aluminum oxide and glass to achieve a level of capacitance claimed to be much higher than what is currently available in the market. The claimed energy density is 1.0 MJ/kg (existing commercial supercapacitors typically have an energy density of around 0.01 MJ/kg, while lithium ion batteries have an energy density of around 0.54–0.72 MJ/kg). EEStor claims a less than 5 minute charge should give the supercapacitor sufficient energy to drive a car 250 miles (400 km).[35] MC and BC series supercapacitors (up to 3000 farad capacitance) produced by Maxwell Technologies Supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), are electrochemical capacitors that have an unusually high energy density when compared to common capacitors, typically on the order of thousands of times greater than... NASA G2 flywheel Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) works by accelerating a rotor (flywheel) to a very high speed and maintaining the energy in the system as rotational energy. ... The Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile, commonly referred to as the FIA, is a non-profit association established in 1904 to represent the interest of motoring organisations and motor car users. ... F1 redirects here. ... EEstor cell EEStor is a company based in Cedar Park, Texas, United States that claims to have developed a superior type of capacitor for electricity storage, which EEStor calls Electrical Energy Storage Units (EESU). ... MC and BC series supercapacitors (up to 3000 farad capacitance) produced by Maxwell Technologies Supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), are electrochemical capacitors that have an unusually high energy density when compared to common capacitors, typically on the order of thousands of times greater than...


Hobbyists, conversions, and racing

Eliica prototype
Eliica prototype

Hobbyists often build their own EVs by converting existing production cars to run solely on electricity. There is a cottage industry supporting the conversion and construction of BEVs by hobbyists. Universities such as the University of California, Irvine even build their own custom electric or hybrid-electric cars from scratch. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (890x353, 80 KB) Summary promotional photo of the Eliica concept car, taken from http://www. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (890x353, 80 KB) Summary promotional photo of the Eliica concept car, taken from http://www. ... The Eliica (or the Electric Lithium-Ion battery Car) is an electric car prototype, or concept car designed by a team at Keio University in Tokyo, led by Professor Hiroshi Shimizu. ... An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicle to battery electric propulsion, creating a battery electric vehicle. ... The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ... The University of California, Irvine is a public research university primarily situated in suburban Irvine, California, USA. Founded in 1965, it is one of ten University of California campuses and is commonly known as UCI or UC Irvine. ...


Short-range battery electric vehicles offer the hobbyist comfort, utility, and quickness, sacrificing only range. Short-range EVs may be built using high-performance lead–acid batteries, using about half the mass needed for a 60 to 80 mile (100 to 130 km) range; the result is a vehicle with about a thirty mile (50 km) range, which when designed with appropriate weight distribution (40/60 front to rear) does not require power steering, offers exceptional acceleration in the lower end of its operating range, is freeway capable and legal, but are expensive due to the higher cost for these higher-performance batteries. By including a manual transmission, short-range EVs can obtain both better performance and greater efficiency than the single-speed EVs developed by major manufactures. Unlike the converted golf carts used for neighborhood electric vehicles, short-range EVs may be operated on typical suburban throughways (40 to 45 mph (72 km/h) or 60 or 70 km/h speed limits are typical) and can keep up with traffic typical on such roads and the short "slow-lane" on-and-off segments of freeways common in suburban areas. Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on cars by using an external power source to assist in turning the wheels. ... A manual transmission (also known as a stick shift, straight drive, or standard transmission) is a type of transmission used in automotive applications. ... A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is an American term for a speed limited battery electric vehicle (usually 25 miles per hour in the U.S.A.) restricted by law to operation on roads with speed limits not exceeding 35 MPH. Often such vehicles are not built from scratch but instead...


Japanese Professor Hiroshi Shimizu from Faculty of Environmental Information of the Keio University created the limousine of the future: the Eliica (Electric Lithium Ion Car) has eight wheels with electric 55 kilowatt hub motors (8WD) with an output of 470 kilowatts and zero emissions, a top speed of 370 kilometers per hour, and a maximum range of 320 kilometers provided by lithium-ion-batteries (video at eliica.com). However, current models cost approximately $300,000 US, about one third of which is the cost of the batteries. Keio University ) is one of the oldest private universities in Japan. ... The Eliica (or the Electric Lithium-Ion battery Car) is an electric car prototype, or concept car designed by a team at Keio University in Tokyo, led by Professor Hiroshi Shimizu. ...


Alternative green vehicles

Main article: Green vehicle#Types

Other Types of green vehicles include other vehicles that go fully or partly on alternative energy sources than fossil fuel. Another alternative is to use alternative fuel composition in conventional fossil fuel-based vehicles, making them go partly on renewable energy sources. A green vehicle is a vehicle that is considered to be more environmentally friendly than traditional all-petroleum internal combustion engine vehicles (APICEVs). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ...


Other approaches include personal rapid transit, a public transportation concept that offers automated on-demand non-stop transportation, on a network of specially-built guideways. Personal rapid transit (PRT), also called personal automated transport (PAT) or podcar is a public transportation concept that offers automated on-demand non-stop transportation, on a network of specially-built guideways. ... Mass transit redirects here. ...


See also

Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. ... While most boats on the water today are powered by diesel engines, and sail power and gasoline engines are also popular, it is perfectly feasible to power boats by electricity too. ... An articulated trolleybus in Arnhem, Netherlands A trolleybus (also known as electric bus, trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is a bus powered by two overhead electric wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... VentureOne computer generated image of 3 wheeler concept vehicle Electric motorcycles and scooters are vehicles with two or three wheels that use electric motors to attain locomotion. ... An electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) driven vehicle to battery electric propulsion, creating a battery electric vehicle. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... This is a list of emerging technologies. ... // For more details on this topic, see Category:Production electric vehicles. ... A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is an American term for a speed limited battery electric vehicle (usually 25 miles per hour in the U.S.A.) restricted by law to operation on roads with speed limits not exceeding 35 MPH. Often such vehicles are not built from scratch but instead... Phoenix Motorcars is a California-based company that focuses on developing electric vehicles. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... Project Better Place is a name for an innovative company focused on building massive scale Electric Recharge Grids as infrastrucutre supporting the deployment of electric vehicles (including plug-in hybrids) in countries around the world. ... A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery. ... Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology is a bi-directional grid interface for gridable vehicles such as Battery Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. ... The Zap Xebra 2007 Chicago Auto Show. ...

References

  1. ^ "The Death and Rebirth of the Electric Auto" Hari Heath. The Idaho Observer Vol 8, No. 26, Sept, 21, 2006.
  2. ^ Who killed the electric car? (website)
  3. ^ Nabble - Re: Why doesn't regen work with DC
  4. ^ BRUSA > Applications
  5. ^ Stratingh's electric cart
  6. ^ Bellis, M. (2006) "The History of Electric Vehicles: The Early Years" About.com article at inventors.about.com accessed on 6 July 2006
  7. ^ Wakefield, Ernest H. (1994). History of the Electric Automobile. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 2-3. ISBN 1-56091-299-5. 
  8. ^ McMahon, D. (2006) "Some EV History" Econogics, Inc. essay at econogics.com accessed on 5 July 2006
  9. ^ Saranow, J. (July 27, 2006) "The Electric Car Gets Some Muscle" The Wall Street Journal, pp. D1-2.
  10. ^ Full Size Electric Vehicles http://electricandhybridcars.com/index.php/pages/evmanufactures.html
  11. ^ http://www.wired.com/cars/futuretransport/magazine/16-04/ff_zapped
  12. ^ Tesla Roadster ‘Signature One Hundred’ Series Sells Out
  13. ^ Tesla to open five dealer outlets
  14. ^ Hendrickson, Gail, and Kelly Ross. May 2005. [http://www.ase.org/images/lib/transportation/Alliance_Transportation_Handbook.pdf The Drive to Efficient Transportation], Alliance to Save Energy, p. 36. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
  15. ^ 1999. "Low-Speed Vehicles," The Senate, State of Hawaii, p. 3. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
  16. ^ "Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Neighborhood Electric Vehicles." (Website). U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
  17. ^ Zvi Hellman, "A Dream Green Car," Jerusalem Report, Feb. 18, 2008
  18. ^ Idaho National Laboratory (2005) "Comparing Energy Costs per Mile for Electric and Gasoline-Fueled Vehicles" Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity report at avt.inel.gov accessed 11 July 2006.
  19. ^ Error - LexisNexis® Publisher
  20. ^ Physics in an automotive engine
  21. ^ Idaho National Laboratory (2006) "Full Size Electric Vehicles" Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity reports at avt.inel.gov accessed 5 July 2006
  22. ^ Idaho National Laboratory (2006) "1999 General Motors EV1 with NiMH: Performance Statistics" Electric Transportation Applications info sheets at inel.gov accessed 5 July 2006
  23. ^ Alternate Fuel Technology - Battery Electric VehiclesPDF (245 KiB)
  24. ^ US Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency (Model year 2007) database "Search for cars that don't need gasoline" Fuel Economy Guide accessed 5 July 2006
  25. ^ Hedlund, R. (2006) "The 100 Mile Per Hour Club" National Electric Drag Racing Association list at nedra.com accessed 5 July 2006
  26. ^ Hedlund, R. (2006) "The 125 Mile Per Hour Club" National Electric Drag Racing Association list at nedra.com accessed 5 July 2006
  27. ^ The high-power lithium-ion
  28. ^ Anderson, C.D. and Anderson, J. (2005) "New Charging Systems" Electric and Hybrid Cars: a History (North Carolina: McFarland & Co., Inc.) ISBN 0-7864-1872-9, p. 121.
  29. ^ Toshiba Corporation (2005) "Toshiba's New Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Recharges in Only One Minute" press release at toshiba.co.jp accessed 5 July 2006
  30. ^ a b "Car Companies' Head-on Competition In Electric Vehicle Charging." (Website). The Auto Channel, 1998-11-24. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
  31. ^ Mitchell, T. (2003) "AC Propulsion Debuts tzero with LiIon Battery" AC Propulsion, Inc. press release at acpropulsion.com accessed 5 July 2006
  32. ^ Lithium batteries power hybrid cars of future accessed 22 June 2007
  33. ^ Knipe, TJ et al. (2003) "100,000-Mile Evaluation of the Toyota RAV4 EV" Southern California Edison, Electric Vehicle Technical Center report at evchargernews.com accessed on 5 July 2006
  34. ^ Voelcker, J. (January 2007) "Lithium Batteries for Hybrid Cars" IEEE Spectrum
  35. ^ Zenn gearing up for EEStor-powered car

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External links

Patents

  • U.S. Patent 523,354 , E. E. Keller, Electrically Propelled Preambulator
  • U.S. Patent 594,805 , Hiram Stevens Maxim, Motor vehicle
  • U.S. Patent 772,571 , H. S. Maxim, Electric motor vehicle

Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, 1916 1895 . ...

Organizations

  • Open Source Electric Car by Society for Sustainable Mobility
  • US Electric Auto Association (EAA) and recharging points

News stories

  • GM Engineer discusses battery integration challenge - Jan 30, 2007
  • GM does U-turn on electric car program, now says electric cars are the future 7 November 2006
  • Renault Nissan to invest in Israeli electric car project 12 January 2007
is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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