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Encyclopedia > Electoral fraud

Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. Acts of fraud tend to involve affecting vote counts to bring about a desired election outcome, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both. This article is about the political process. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Sortition is the method of random selection, particularly in relation to the selection of decision makers also known as allotment. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... A show election or a sham election is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose. ... A Fixed-term election is an election that occurs on a set date, and cannot be changed by the incumbent politician. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... Indirect election is a process in which voters in an election do not actually choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice. ... Rules for, and experience with, local elections vary widely across jurisdictions. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Apportionment, or reapportionment, is the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ... The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... This article is about the political process. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... Elections by country gives information on elections. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The List of election results by country gives information on elections. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This electoral calendar 2007 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2007 in the de jure and de facto sovereign states and their dependent territories. ... This electoral calendar 2007 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2007 in the de jure and de facto sovereign states and their dependent territories. ... This article is about the political process. ...


Election fraud is probably as old as elections themselves. The first suspicion dates back to 471 BC in the Athenian democracy. Archaeologists found 190 pieces of broken pottery used then as ballots with only 14 different handwritings.[citation needed] Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 476 BC 475 BC 474 BC 473 BC 472 BC - 471 BC - 470 BC 469 BC 468... The speakers platform in the Pnyx, the meeting ground of the assembly where all the great political struggles of Athens were fought during the Golden Age. Here Athenian statesmen stood to speak, such as Pericles and Aristides in the 5th century BC and Demosthenes and Aeschines in the 4th... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Pieces of broken pottery as voting tokens. ... For the town in France, see Ballots, Mayenne. ...


Electoral fraud is illegal in most countries including dictatorships likely to both control the electoral process and excuse any measures that achieve a desired result. Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ...


Especially with national elections, successful election fraud can have the effect of a coup d'état or corruption of the democracy. But even if it does not go this far, the 500 million dollar campaigning during the United States general elections, 2006 shows how much might be at stake in some countries.[1][2] // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... This article is about the political process. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ...


A look at some narrow elections with a margin of less than 0.1% shows that sometimes there would not be much fraud needed to change the outcome. Many elections have been decided by narrow margins of less than 1 vote in 1000 (a margin of victory of less than 0. ...


Extreme examples of election fraud are sham elections that are a common event in dictatorial regimes that still feel the need to establish some element of public legitimacy, some even showing 100% of eligible voters voting on behalf of the régime. Most people only call a regime democratic as long as electoral fraud is rare, isolated, and small, or that electoral fraud by opposing groups roughly cancels the effects. A show election or a sham election is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ...


Electoral fraud is not limited to political polls and can happen in any kind of election where the potential gain is worth the risk for the cheater, as in elections for labor union officials, student councils, sports judging, and the awarding of merit to books, films, music, or television programming. For example, see "ALA Election Fraud".[1] A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... A students union, student government, or student council is a student organization present at many colleges and universities, often with its own building on the campus, dedicated to social and organizational activities of the student body. ...

Contents

History

Despite many known instances of electoral fraud, it remains a difficult phenomenon to study and characterize. This follows from its inherent illegality. Harsh penalties aimed at deterring electoral fraud make it likely that any individuals who perpetrate acts of fraud do so with the expectation that it either will not be discovered or will be excused after the fact. The introduction of secret ballots in the 19th century made electoral fraud more difficult, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation or bribery. Secret balloting appears to have been first implemented in the former Australian colony -- now a state -- of Tasmania on 7 February 1856. The first President of the United States elected using a secret ballot was president Grover Cleveland in 1892. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... Intimidation is generally used in the meaning of criminal threatening. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... Slogan or Nickname: The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ...


Reconstruction, an effort to secure the voting rights of former slaves, ultimately failed in the states of the former Confederate States of America as reactionary interests used violence and intimidation against freedmen as well as political legerdemain to disenfranchise African-Americans, including poll taxes and so-called literacy tests, for almost a century after the American Civil War, ensuring the continuing hegemony of élite agrarian interests at the expense of all other interests in the South until the Voting Rights Act of 1965. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... A Voting test is a test designed to determine ones ability to read and write a given language. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ...


Enabled by the Reichstag Fire Decree on March 23, 1933 Hitler arrested, intimidated or murdered all members of the Communist Party of Germany and some of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. This helped the NSDAP to get the needed two-thirds-majority to pass the Enabling Act giving Hitler dictatorial powers. A German newspapers final issue, announcing its own prohibition (Verbot) by the police authorities on the basis of the Reichstag fire decree The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung in German) is the common name of the decree issued by German president Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ...


Some examples of election fraud in the 20th century include Communists seizing power in Poland, Romania, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia from nominally democratic governments between 1946 and 1948 with the aid of electoral fraud and maintaining formal power through rigged elections [citation needed]. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ...


Ferdinand Marcos, once fairly elected as President of the Philippines, remained in power and became increasingly dictatorial and kleptocratic as he succeeded in marginalizing dissent and opposition through rigged elections. Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ...


Many dictatorships hold show elections in which results predictably show that nearly 100% of all eligible voters vote and that nearly 100% of those eligible voters vote for the prescribed (often only) list of candidates for office or for referendums that favor the Party in power irrespective of economic conditions and the cruelties of the government. A show election or a sham election is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose. ...


Some notorious examples of electoral fraud in the United States of America include the widespread election manipulation committed by the Daley Machine in 20th century Chicago and Tammany Hall in 19th century New York. Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ...


There have been cases of electoral fraud with postal votes in the UK (including at the 2004 European and local government elections in Birmingham)[3][4][5] and in the US in 2005.[6] Postal voting describes the method of voting in an election whereby ballot papers are distributed and/or returned by post to electors, in contrast to electors voting in person at a Polling station or electronically via an Electronic voting system. ... Many elections in the United Kingdom took place on Super Thursday, June 10, 2004. ... Birmingham (pron. ...


List of controversial elections

Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Results for the BPD and UPM per county, according to the Romanian Communist Party report cited by Petre Å¢urlea. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Greek legislative election of the 19 February 1961 resulted in the third in a row victory for Constantine Karamanlis and his National Radical Union party. ... Presidential and vice-presidential snap elections were held on February 7, 1986 in the Philippines. ... , Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmiri: جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر, ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर, Urdu: جموں Ùˆ کشمیر) (often abbreviated as Kashmir or J & K, is a disputed territory between India and Pakistan and lies mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ... The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference is the largest political party in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Farooq Abdullah (1937- ), the son of Shaikh Abdullah, has served as chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir on several occasions. ... The general election was held in Mexico on Wednesday, July 6, 1988. ... Elections were held in December of 1997 for the new President of the Republic of Serbia (a component state within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Milan Milutinović Dr Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj Socialist Party of Serbia - December 1997 election ... The elections for the Parliament of the Republic of Serbia (a constituent state of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) held on 21 September 1997. ... The elections that took place in two rounds between June 2 and July 3 1996 were the first in the history of Chad since independence. ... The Chadian parliamentary elections of 1997 was the first multi-party parliamentary election held since Chads independence in 1960. ... Judicial System Supreme Court of the Republic Superior Courts of Justice Courts of First Instance Courts of Peace Elections Presidential elections National elections Peruvian Constituent Assembly elections, 1978 Political Parties A.P.R.A. Union for Peru List of political parties in Peru Region & Local government Regional Governments Governors Provincial... Background The elections were called by President Chandrika Kumaratunga for October 24, 2000. ... (Redirected from 2000 United States election) Map The U.S. presidential election of 2000 took place on Election Day, Tuesday, November 7. ... The 2002 New Hampshire Senate election phone jamming scandal involves the use of a telemarketing firm hired by that states Republican Party (NHGOP) for election tampering. ... Parliamentary elections were held in the Republic of Georgia on November 2, 2003. ... Concerns were raised, following the 2004 election, on various aspects of the voting process: whether voting had been made accessible to everyone entitled to vote, whether the votes cast had been correctly counted, and whether these irregularities decisively affected the reported outcome of the election. ... After the 2004 U.S. presidential election there were allegations of data irregularities and systematic flaws which may have affected the outcome of both the presidential and local elections. ... After the 2004 U.S. presidential election there were allegations of data irregularities and systematic flaws which may have affected the outcome of both the presidential and local elections. ... After the 2004 U.S. presidential election there were allegations of data irregularities and systematic flaws which may have affected the outcome of both the presidential and local elections. ... This article details the vote recount effort and related legal challenges that took place after the 2004 U.S. election with a focus on states that had a high discrepancy between unadjusted exit poll results and official results in the US presidential race. ... During the 2004 U.S. presidential election, there were numerous problems with the election process in Florida, including but not limited to missing/uncounted votes, machine malfunction, machine shortage, turnout reaching above 100 percent, and abnormal statistical discrepancies such as 77 percent Democratic precincts voting 77 percent Republican, and the... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Romanian legislative election of 2004 was held on November 28, 2004. ... Presidential elections, legislative elections and local elections were held in the Philippines on May 10, 2004. ... The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... 2004 Gubernatorial Election County Map of Washington. ... The Egyptian presidential election of 2005, held on September 7, 2005, was the first contested presidential election in Egypts history. ... The elections for the position of president of Belarus took place on March 19, 2006. ... The results of the Mexican general election of July 2, 2006, were controversial and contested. ... A general election for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy was held on April 9 and April 10, 2006. ... Elections in Morocco gives information on election and election results in Morocco. ... The Nigerian general elections of 2007 were held on 14 April and 21 April 2007. ...

Techniques

Voter intimidation and coercion

  • Intimidation of voters that prevents them from voting, such as by voter suppression.
  • Disrupting voting in polling stations in areas with unwanted political tendencies for example with bomb threats to polling places[7] or other sabotage, including ballots, ballot boxes, or voting machines.
  • Using caging lists for voter suppression
  • For example, in 2004, police stationed outside a Cook County, Illinois, polling place were requesting photo ID and telling voters if they had been convicted of a felony that they could not vote. [2]
  • Also in 2004, for example, In Pima, Arizona, voters at multiple polls were confronted by an individual, wearing a black t-shirt with “US Constitution Enforcer” and a military-style belt that gave the appearance he was armed. He asked voters if they were citizens, accompanied by a cameraman who filmed the encounters. [3]
  • Voters often complain about misinformation campaigns via flyers or phone calls encouraging them to vote on a day other than election day or spreading false information regarding their right to vote. In Polk County, Florida, in 2004, for example, voters received a call telling them to vote on November 3 (the election was on November 2). Also in 2004, in Wisconsin and elsewhere voters received flyers that said, “If you already voted in any election this year, you can’t vote in the Presidential Election”, implying that those who had voted in earlier primary elections were ineligible to vote. Also, “If anybody in your family has ever been found guilty of anything you can’t vote in the Presidential Election.” Finally, “If you violate any of these laws, you can get 10 years in prison and your children will be taken away from you.”[8][9]
  • Another simple, but notorious method of voter intimidation is the shoe polish method, which is often used in company towns. This method entails coating the voting machines lever or button of the opposing candidate(s) with shoe polish. To understand how this works, take the example of an employee of the company who, against the advice of the party in power, votes for the opposing candidate(s). After they leave the voting booth, a conspirator to the fraud (a precinct captain or other local V.I.P.) will handshake the voter. The conspirator will then subtly check their hand for any shoe polish and will note that the voter has left some shoe polish after the handshake. Soon afterward that unfortunate voter gets fired from his job.
  • Buying or coercing votes from persons who would normally vote for another candidate or would not vote at all, but who are nevertheless eligible to vote.
  • Intimidation of voters that alters their vote. "Four-legged voting," where precinct workers would pull the levers on voting machines instead of the voter.
  • Absentee and other remote voting can be more open to some forms of intimidation and coercion as the voter does not have the protection and privacy of the polling location.
  • In Britain, one historically popular technique has been long known as granny farming, after a contemptuous slang designation for retirement homes. In this, party activists visit retirement homes, purportedly to help the elderly and immobile exercise their voting rights. Residents are asked to fill out 'absentee voter' forms, allowing them a proxy or postal vote. When the forms are signed and gathered, they are then secretly rewritten as applications for proxy votes, naming party activists or their friends and relatives as the proxies. These people, unknown to the voter, then cast the vote for the party of their choice. This trick relies on elderly care home residents typically being absent-minded, or suffering from dementia. A case for this had occurred into the United States, when Kwame Kilpatrick was running for reelection as mayor of Detroit. Kilpatrick supporters had nursing home residents sign absentee ballots which were either already marked or later marked as voting for Kilpatrick.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A polling station situated inside a suburban library in the north of Cambridge during the United Kingdom general election, 2005. ... A polling station situated inside a suburban library in the north of Cambridge during the United Kingdom general election, 2005. ... “Saboteur” redirects here. ... A ballot is a device used to record choices made by voters. ... Clear sided ballot boxes used in the Haitian general election in 2006. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... Caging is a term of art in the direct mail industry, as well as a term applied to a technique of voter suppression. ... A company town is a town or city in which all or almost all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries of life within its borders are owned by a single company. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... An open can of Kiwi shoe polish with a side-mounted opening mechanism visible at the top of the photo. ... Shaking with the right hand while delivering a certificate with the left. ... A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building, or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it. ... In the United States, an absentee ballot is a ballot that the voter receives and (usually) sends through the mail, rather than travelling to a polling place and marking the ballot at a voting booth. ... Postal Voting describes the method of voting in an election whereby ballot papers are distributed and/or returned by post to electors, in contrast to electors voting in person at a Polling station or electronically via an Electronic voting system. ... Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... A retirement home is a place of residence intended for the elderly. ... In the United States, an absentee ballot is a ballot that the voter receives and (usually) sends through the mail, rather than travelling to a polling place and marking the ballot at a voting booth. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Kwame M. Kilpatrick (born June 8, 1970) is the Mayor of Detroit, Michigan. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor...

Physical tampering

  • Ballot stuffing, also called "ghost voting."
  • Booth capturing is a persistent problem in Indian democracy where thugs of one party "capture" a polling booth and stamp their votes, threatening everyone.
  • Theft or destruction of ballot boxes.
  • Destroying election material in order to annul results for individual polling stations or even whole constituencies.

Ballot stuffing is the act of one person submitting multiple ballots during a vote in which only one ballot per person is permitted. ... Booth capturing is a type of electoral fraud, witnessed primarily in India where party loyalists capture a polling booth and vote on behalf of the voters to ensure that their candidate wins. ...

Physical tampering with voting machines

  • Change the software of a voting machine to shift votes between candidates. A demonstration how this can be done on a Diebold Election Systems AccuVote-TS was conducted by the Center for Information Technology Policy, at the University of Princeton.[10]. Another demonstration was shown on Dutch TV by the group "Wij vertrouwen stemcomputers niet".[11]
  • Altering or replacing the hardware of the voting machine, such as inserting a circuit board using a Man in the middle attack technique to manipulate recorded votes. The board could be placed between keyboard, display and voting storage. In the case of Nedap machines this would allow manipulation without breaking the seals covering the central unit.[12]. Another place for a man in the middle attack could be between the central unit and the printer, but this would only be useful on machines where the stored votes will not be verified by other means like a display.
  • Altering voting machines to favor one candidate over another, for example by jamming a button or changing the sensitive area of a touchscreen.[13]
  • Intentional misconfiguration, for example altering the ballot design to misidentify a candidates party.
  • Voting machines might also be subject to Van Eck phreaking on the display or keyboard, compromising the secrecy of the votes.[14]
  • One voting machine possibly subject to ballot stuffing if the voter is allowed unsupervised access, is the Sequoia Voting Systems AVC Edge touchscreen. These machines have a yellow button on the bottom (the reverse side of the touch screen) which if pressed after a valid vote will set the machine in "manual mode" bringing up a blank ballot allowing an additional vote.[15]. This is an optional feature not found on all AVC Edge touchscreens, and is programmed to alert supervisors with two audible beeps.
  • Abusing the administrative access to the machine by election officials might also allow individuals to vote multiple times.
  • Electronic, and mechanical voting machines can be subject to different types of electoral fraud, as potential fraud could be incorrectly categorized as a technical problem.

A list of other threats to voting systems is kept by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.[16] Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Diebold Election Systems, Inc. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... In cryptography, a man in the middle attack (MITM) is an attack in which an attacker is able to read, insert and modify at will, messages between two parties without either party knowing that the link between them has been compromised. ... It has been suggested that Touch panel be merged into this article or section. ... Van Eck phreaking is the process of eavesdropping on the contents of a CRT display by detecting its electromagnetic emissions. ... Ballot stuffing is the act of one person submitting multiple ballots during a vote in which only one ballot per person is permitted. ... Sequoia Voting Systems is a company based in California, and one of the largest providers of electronic voting systems in the US. Some of its main competitors are Diebold Election Systems and Election Systems & Software. ... Electronic voting machine by Diebold Election Systems used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ... NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ...


The most comprehensive study on attacking electronic voting machines has been compiled by the Brennan Center for Justice.[17]


Inflation or deflation of voters lists

  • Registering false voters such as the deceased or even fictitious persons.
  • Subverting voter registration rules, such as with "fagot voters." (persons who had land assigned to them prior to an election and removed immediately after an election to meet requirements to vote),[18] through "colonization" (the process of transporting groups of men from other cities and lodging them in flophouses).[19]

A flophouse or dosshouse is a place that offers very cheap lodging, generally by providing only minimal services. ...

Social engineering

  • People pretending to help elderly or blind persons with their vote.
  • Election officials misinforming voters of when their vote is recorded and later recording it themselves. This apparently happened during municipality elections in Landerd, Netherlands in 2006 where a candidate was also an election official and got the unusual amount of 181 votes in the polling place where he was working. In the other three polling places together he got 11 votes.[20] Only circumstantial evidence could be found because the voting machine was a direct-recording electronic voting machine, in a poll by a local newspaper the results were totally different. The case is still under prosecution.[21]

Landerd is a municipality in the southern Netherlands. ... Circumstantial evidence is lesbian sex with a huge glass dildo unrelated facts that, when considered together, can be used to infer a conclusion about something unknown. ... Direct recording voting machine developed in Brazil and used in 100% of Brazilian elections Election Technology This box:      A direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machine records votes by means of a ballot display provided with mechanical or electro-optical components that can be activated by the voter (typically buttons or...

By voters

  • Impersonating a voter.
  • Voting in multiple precincts, carousel voting. Men who were known to sell their vote and vote in multiple precincts were known as "floaters."[19] In the USA Fifty-two people have been convicted of federal election fraud for voting in multiple locations since 2002.[22] In some countries like El Salvador, Namibia or Afghanistan voters get a finger marked with ink to prevent multiple votes. In the Afghanistan elections in 2005 this didn't work well because the ink could be rubbed off.
  • Voter import: In Bulgaria the controversial Movement for Rights and Freedoms is said to combine the former two, by "importing" voters from Turkey at the day of the election, who then vote in every single polling station within a city.
  • Vote selling: This is possible as long as a voter has a way to prove how she voted. Because of this a secret ballot is preferred and postal- or internet voting is just accepted as an exception in most electoral systems. (also see Blocks of Five) In Mexico it is used that the voter takes a picture of his vote with his cellphone camera to validate his payment.

Look up personate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Movement for Rights and Freedoms (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a centrist political party in Bulgaria, based in the Turkish minority. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... Postal Voting describes the method of voting in an election whereby ballot papers are distributed and/or returned by post to electors, in contrast to electors voting in person at a Polling station or electronically via an Electronic voting system. ... Electronic voting (also known as e-voting and including Internet voting and other online voting) is any of several means of determining peoples collective intent electronically. ... The Blocks of Five were groups of electors whose selling of their votes to the United States Republican Party for voting in the United States presidential election, 1888 was exposed. ...

During tabulation in the polling place

  • Bribery, corruption or threatening of election officials.
  • Destroying all ballots if the balance was not as desired.
  • Tampering with tabulation software (applicable only to computer assisted tabulation). This apparently happened in the Mexican general election, 1988.[citation needed]
  • Spoiling votes: for example, by marking more candidates than allowed.
  • Counting electronic ballots of voting machines, usually memory cards, more than once if they contain votes as wanted by the fraudster. The opposite is to let them disappear in case of unwanted votes, this is equivalent to stealing a whole ballot box.[23]
  • Obstructing vote counting.[24]

The general election was held in Mexico on Wednesday, July 6, 1988. ... In voting, a ballot paper is considered to be spoilt, void, or null if it is regarded by the election authorities to contain irregularities during vote counting, and hence cannot be recorded as a valid vote. ... For the town in France, see Ballots, Mayenne. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... Memory cards are solid-state electronic flash memory data storage devices used with digital cameras, handheld and laptop computers, phones, music players, video game consoles and other electronics. ...

During central tabulation of the results

  • Bribery or corruption of election officials. This apparently happened in the Philippine general election, 2004 and is suspected in the Italian general election, 2006
  • Interfering in the data transmission.

The crisis first became public on June 6, 2005 with the press conference held by Presidential Press Secretary Ignacio Bunye. ... A general election for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy was held on April 9 and April 10, 2006. ...

Through legislative means

  • Gerrymandering (drawing voting district lines in such a way as to obtain a favorable result) or including prison inmates in a local population are also often argued to be forms of electoral fraud.
  • Creating additional barriers to vote can also be considered fraud, such as requiring extensive forms of identification.
  • Mandating voter matching standards be too strict (purging voters from the rolls and disenfranchising eligible voters) or too loose (leaving ineligible voters on the rolls and making the system vulnerable to fraud).
  • Creating election deadlines that are unreasonable to certain portions of the electorate, such as requiring active duty military ballots to be delivered before it would be possible for them to be mailed.
  • Disqualification of candidates by arbitrary means. The best example was the 1990 mayoral race in Washington DC when Jesse Jackson considered running for DC mayor, which concerned incumbent mayor Marion Barry who had been polling very low and felt he could not compete with Jackson's popularity. Since Jackson made most his money from speeches, Barry ordered the DC Council to pass a law making it illegal for anyone to run for mayor of Washington DC who makes more than $10,000 a year from honoraria. This became known as the "Jesse Jackson law", as the sole intent of the law was to declare Jackson unsuitable for election. [25]

Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... Marion Barry Marion Shepilov Barry, Jr. ...

Smear campaign

A smear campaign or smear tactics are deliberate attempts by an individual or group to malign another individual or groups reputation. ...

Election fraud in legislature

Election fraud in legislature is different because the number of voters is a lot smaller. Still there can be some examples found:

  • The two-thirds majority Hitler needed to pass the Enabling Act, which gave him dictatorial power, was only attained by arresting enough members of the opposition.
  • The controversial method of using a paper-clip or bubblegum to jam a representative's voting button in absence.[26]
  • In 2004 security expert Bruce Schneier published a theoretical paper how election fraud in the papal election could be done.[27]

Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... Electoral fraud is the deliberate interference with the process of an election. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ...

Fraud prevention

The best way to protect the electorate from electoral fraud is to have an election process which is completely transparent to all voters, from nomination of candidates through casting of the votes and tabulation. A key feature in insuring the integrity of any part of the electoral process is a strict chain of custody. The chain of custody is a concept in jurisprudence which applies to the handling of evidence and its integrity. ...


To prevent fraud in central tabulation, there has to be a public list of the results from every single polling place. This is the only way for voters to prove that the results they witnessed in their election office are correctly incorporated into the totals.


Various forms of statistics can be indicators for election fraud e.g. exit polls which are very different to the final results. Having reliable exit polls could keep the amount of fraud low to avoid a controversy. Other indicators might be unusual high numbers of invalid ballots, overvoting or undervoting. It has to be kept in mind that most statistics do not reflect the types of election fraud which prevent citizens from voting at all like intimidation or misinformation. A statistic (singular) is the result of applying a statistical algorithm to a set of data. ... An exit poll is a poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations. ...


Preventing citizens from voting

The best way to prevent voter suppression is to protect the secrecy of the votes. The targeting of voters using caging lists can be reduced by protecting data privacy of the population. Any voter intimidation should be brought to court. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Caging is a term of art in the direct mail industry, as well as a term applied to a technique of voter suppression. ... Data privacy refers to the evolving relationship between technology and the legal right to, or public expectation of privacy in the collection and sharing of data. ...


There should be regulations on the minimum number of polling places, election officials and voting machines per voter in a district. This prevent officials from artificially producing long lines in districts with unwanted political tendencies. Voting machines should be tested before the election starts. Voting on a Sunday or public holiday also would take the timely pressure off the voters. A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ...


Prosecution

In countries with strong laws and effective legal systems, lawsuits can be brought against those who have allegedly committed fraud; but determent with legal prosecution would not be enough. Although the penalties for getting caught may be severe, the rewards for succeeding are likely to be worth the risk. The rewards range from benefits in contracting to total control of a country.


In Germany there are currently calls for reform of these laws because lawsuits can be and are usually prolonged by the newly elected Bundestag[28] Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ...


Election observation

In countries with high rates of corruption and in countries new to democracy, international observers, e.g., from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) may be brought in to observe the elections. OSCE has observed over 150 elections and referendums between 1995 and 2006, sending more than 15,000 observers. Recently observed elections have been the Afghanistan presidential elections in October 2004, the 2004 U.S. presidential election and the Belarusian presidential election, 2006. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Concerns were raised, following the 2004 election, on various aspects of the voting process: whether voting had been made accessible to everyone entitled to vote, whether the votes cast had been correctly counted, and whether these irregularities decisively affected the reported outcome of the election. ... The elections for the position of president of Belarus took place on March 19, 2006. ...


Besides international observers there might be local observers:

Critics note that observers cannot spot certain types of election fraud like targeted voter suppression or manipulated software of voting machines. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Voter registration is the shit in some democracies for citizens to check in with some central registry before being allowed to vote in elections. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ...


End-to-end Auditablity

End-to-end (E2E) auditable voting systems provide voters with a receipt to allow them to verify their vote was cast correctly, and an audit mechanism to verify that the results were tabulated correctly and all votes were cast by valid voters. The ballot receipt does not permit voters to prove to others how they voted. Election Technology This box:      End-to-end auditable (E2E) systems are a form of Independent Verification. ...


Testing and certification of electronic voting

Further information: Certification of voting machines

One method for verifying voting machine accuracy is Parallel Testing, the process of using an independent set of results compared against the original machine results. Parallel testing can be done prior to or during an election. During an election, one form of parallel testing is the VVPAT. This method is only effective if statistically significant numbers of voters verify that their intended vote matches both the electronic and paper votes. // Certification of voting machines blackboxvoting. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true. ...


On election day, a statistically significant number of voting machines can be randomly selected from polling locations and used for testing. This can be used to detect potential fraud or malfunction unless a manipulated software would only start to cheat after a certain event like a voter pressing a special key combination (Or a machine might cheat only if someone doesn't perform the combination, which requires more insider access but fewer voters). In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true. ...


Another form of testing is Logic & Accuracy Testing (L&A), pre-election testing of voting machines using test votes to determine if they are functioning correctly.


Another method to insure the integrity of electronic voting machines is independent software verification and certification. Once software is certified, code signing can insure the software certified is identical to that which is used on election day. Some argue certification would be more effective if voting machine software was publicly available or open source. Software verification is a broad and complex discipline of software engineering whose goal is to assure that a software fully satisfies all the expected requirements. ... // Certification of voting machines blackboxvoting. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...


Certification and testing processes conducted publicly and with oversight from interested parties can promote transparency in the election process. The integrity of those conducting testing can be questioned.


Testing and certification can prevent voting machines from being a black box where voters can not be sure that counting inside is done as intended. Black Box Voting is voting on electronic machines which dont print paper ballots. ...

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

See also

Ballot stuffing is the act of one person submitting multiple ballots during a vote in which only one ballot per person is permitted. ... In Australian politics, branch stacking is the act of enrolling persons to a party by offering inducement, or enrolling persons for the principal purpose of influencing the outcome of internal pre-selections of candidates for public office. ... Cooping was a practice by which unwilling participants were forced to vote often several times over for a particular candidate in an election: Political gangs were willing to go to great extremes to ensure the success of their candidates. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. Blue colors indicate little corruption, red colors indicate much corruption In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse by government officials of their governmental powers for illegitimate... A show election or a sham election is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose. ... Postal Voting describes the method of voting in an election whereby ballot papers are distributed and/or returned by post to electors, in contrast to electors voting in person at a Polling station or electronically via an Electronic voting system. ... This article is about the political process. ... Caging is a term of art in the direct mail industry, as well as a term applied to a technique of voter suppression. ... Mark Crispin Miller is professor of media studies at New York University and the author of the book: Fooled Again, How the Right Stole the 2004 Elections. ... A smear campaign or smear tactics are deliberate attempts by an individual or group to malign another individual or groups reputation. ... The Electoral Administration Act 2006 is an Act which was passed by Parliament of the United Kingdom on 11 July 2006. ... The Blocks of Five were groups of electors whose selling of their votes to the United States Republican Party for voting in the United States presidential election, 1888 was exposed. ... Orange-clad supporters of Viktor Yushchenko gather in Independence Square in Kiev. ... The American Center for Voting Rights or ACVR was a non-profit organization founded by Mark F. Thor Hearne that operated from March 2005 to May 2007 and pushed for laws to reduce voter intimidation and voter fraud, including photo ID for voters. ...

References

  1. ^ CAMPAIGN 2006: 11 Days to go 'Orgy' of spending on political ads -- $500 million breaks state record (SF Chronicle, October 27, 2006)
  2. ^ Insider Risks in Elections (Bruce Schneier, July 2004)
  3. ^ Judge upholds vote-rigging claims (BBC, 4. April 2005)
  4. ^ New fears over postal vote fraud (Guardian, 13. April 2005)
  5. ^ Labour to halt postal vote fraud but only after election (Times, April 11, 2005)
  6. ^ Connors pleads guilty to election fraud (Times Union, November 30. 2006)
  7. ^ Did bomb threat stifle vote? (Capital Times)
  8. ^ Intimidation and Deceptive Practices
  9. ^ Incidents Of Voter Intimidation & Suppression
  10. ^ Security Analysis of the Diebold AccuVote-TS Voting Machine
  11. ^ Nedap/Groenendaal ES3B voting computer a security analysis
  12. ^ Nedap/Groenendaal ES3B voting computer a security analysis (chapter 7.1)
  13. ^ Test run for voting (Miami Herald, 10/31/2006)
  14. ^ Nedap/Groenendaal ES3B voting computer a security analysis (chapter 6)
  15. ^ Button on e-voting machine allows multiple votes
  16. ^ Threats to Voting Systems (NIST)
  17. ^ The Machinery of Democracy: Protecting Elections in an Electronic World
  18. ^ Williamson, Chilton (1968). American Suffrage from Property to Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton U. Press. ASIN B000FMPMK6. 
  19. ^ a b Saltman, Roy G. (Jan 2006). The History and Politics of Voting Technology. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6392-4. 
  20. ^ Statement of voting machine manufacturer Nedap (German)
  21. ^ Raadslid Landerd is stuk minder populair in schaduwverkiezing (dutch)
  22. ^ Let The Recounts Begin
  23. ^ [http://www.abcnews.go.com/Politics/Vote2006/story?id=2623854&page=1
  24. ^ The best defense is a good offense, so VOTE!
  25. ^ "Shakedown: Exposing the Real Jesse Jackson" by Kenneth Timmerman
  26. ^ Is "Ghost" Voting Acceptable?
  27. ^ Bruce Schneier: Hacking the Papal Election, April 15, 2005
  28. ^ Reform der Wahlprüfung (German)
  29. ^ Justice department dispatches election monitors (cnn.com, 6. November 2006)
  30. ^ democrats.org: Voter Protection Resource Center

Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Electoral Backgrounder 14: Electoral Fraud and Multiple Voting (5275 words)
In many cases, allegations of electoral fraud are made because the complexities of the federal electoral system, and the in-built accountability and transparency measures that guard against such fraud, are not completely understood or appreciated, leading to suspicions about the integrity of the organisation conducting the election.
In other cases, allegations of electoral fraud may be deliberately intended to cast doubt on the legitimacy of an incoming government, or to raise suspicions about forthcoming elections so as to discredit the result in advance, and may be part of a wider campaign of political mischief.
Electoral fraud is a term used to refer to a range of offences contained in the Electoral Act, and can be applied to the overall conduct of an election, to the maintenance of the electoral rolls, or to more specific instances of enrolment and voting behaviour.
Electoral fraud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1513 words)
Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election.
Acts of fraud tend to involve affecting vote counts to bring about a desired election outcome, either by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate or depressing the vote share of the rival candidates.
Some notorious examples of electoral fraud in the United States of America include the widespread election manipulation committed by the Daley Machine in 20th century Chicago and Tammany Hall in 19th century New York.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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