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Encyclopedia > Electoral district (Canada)

An electoral district is a geographically-based constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based. An electoral district is often also known as a "constituency", or a "riding" in the Canadian English political jargon. It is officially known in Canadian French as a circonscription, but frequently called a "comté" (county). A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... In the British Isles since Anglo-Saxon times, a riding is traditionally a sub-division (especially in three) of a county, in Australia analogous. ... Canadian English is the form of English language used in Canada, spoken as a first or second language by over 25 million – or 85 percent of – Canadians (2001 census). ... Jargon is a type of terminology which is used in conjunction with a specific activity, e. ... French is one of Canadas two official languages; the other is English and is the language of the majority (see Canadian English). ...


Federal electoral districts return one Member of Parliament (MP) to the Canadian House of Commons; provincial or territorial electoral districts return one Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), Member of the National Assembly (MNA), Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP) or Member of the House of Assembly (MHA) to the provincial or territorial legislature. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... Canada is a federation of ten provinces which, together with three territories, comprise the worlds second largest country. ... A Member of the Legislative Assembly, or MLA, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to the Legislature or legislative assembly of a subnational jurisdiction. ... The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... A Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP) is an elected member of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, Canada. ... Members of the House of Assembly are provincial members titles in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada. ...


While electoral districts in Canada are now exclusively single-member districts, in the past, multiple-member districts were used at both the federal and provincial levels. Alberta had a few districts in its history that returned from two up to seven members: see Calgary, Edmonton and Medicine Hat. The Calgary Provincial Electoral District existed from 1905 to 1913 and 1921 to 1959 and changed significantly over the years with the ever expanding city boundarys, In 1905 members were elected under First Past the Post. ... Edmonton provincial electoral district existed in two incarnations from 1905 - 1909 and again from 1921 - 1955. ... Medicine Hat is an Albertan provincial electoral district, covering most of the city of Medicine Hat. ...


As of June 28, 2004, there were 308 electoral districts across Canada. Since 1999, Ontario uses the federal ridings in its elections for the provincial legislature. Other provinces have completely different federal and provincial ridings. Ontario also had separate provincial ridings prior to 1999. (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English, French (in some areas) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 4th 1,076,395...


The term riding is derived from the English local government term, which was widely used in Canada in the 19th century. Most Canadian counties never had sufficient population to justify administrative sub-divisions. Nonetheless, it was common, especially in Ontario to divide counties with sufficient population to multiple electoral divisions, which thus became known as "ridings" in official documents. Soon after Confederation, the urban population grew (and more importantly, most city dwellers gained the franchise after property ownership was no longer required to gain the vote). Rural constituencies therefore became geographically larger through the 20th century and generally encompassed one or more counties each, and the word "riding" was then used to refer to any electoral division. A political party's local association is therefore generally known as a riding association. For an explanation of terms like England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom see British Isles (terminology) Motto: Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto) (French for God and my right)3 Anthem: God Save the Queen4 Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English de facto 5 Government Monarch Prime... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English, French (in some areas) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 4th 1,076,395... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... In Canadian politics a riding association or constituency association is the basic unit of a political party, that is it is the partys organization at the level of the electoral constituency or riding. ...


Electoral district names are usually geographic in nature, and chosen to represent the community or region within the electoral district boundaries. Where a federal district's name includes more than one geographic designation, it is properly denoted with an em-dash (—) between each distinct geographic name, for example Toronto—Danforth and Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale (but Cape Breton—Canso, not Cape—Breton—Canso.) Where a single geographic name contains a hyphen, that is also not replaced by an em-dash (e.g., Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot, not Saint—Hyacinthe—Bagot; Saint-Lambert, not Saint—Lambert.) Toronto—Danforth in relation to the other Toronto ridings Toronto—Danforth (formerly Broadview—Greenwood) is a federal and provincial electoral district in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1979, and in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario since 1999. ... Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Westdale is the name of a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada. ... Cape Breton—Canso is the name of a federal electoral district in Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot is the name of a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada. ... Saint-Lambert is the name of a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada. ...


Some electoral districts in Quebec are named for historical figures rather than geography (e.g., Louis-Hébert, Honoré-Mercier); these contain hyphens between the words, not em-dashes. This practice is no longer employed in the other provinces and territories. Louis-Hébert is the name of a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada. ... Honoré-Mercier in relation to the other Montreal area ridings Honoré-Mercier is the name of a federal electoral district in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ...


Depending on local convention, however, provincial electoral districts may use a hyphen instead of an em-dash in this context.


Boundary adjustment

Electoral district boundaries are adjusted to reflect population changes after each decennial census. Depending on the significance of a boundary change, an electoral district's name may change as well. Any adjustment of electoral district boundaries is official as of the date the changes are legislated, but is not put into actual effect until the first subsequent election. Thus, an electoral district may officially cease to exist, but will continue to be represented status quo in the House of Commons until the next election is called. This, for example, gives new riding associations time to organize, and prevents the confusion that would result from changing elected MPs' electoral district assignments in the middle of a Parliament. A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


On some occasions (see for example Timiskaming—French River, Toronto—Danforth), a riding's name may be changed without a boundary adjustment. This usually happens when it is determined at a later date that the existing name is not sufficiently representative of the district's geographic boundaries. This is the only circumstance in which a sitting MP's riding name may change between elections. Timiskaming is a former Canadian electoral district. ... Toronto—Danforth in relation to the other Toronto ridings Toronto—Danforth (formerly Broadview—Greenwood) is a federal and provincial electoral district in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1979, and in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario since 1999. ...


The present formula for adjusting electoral boundaries was adopted in 1985. It starts with the number of seats in Parliament at that time, 282. One seat is automatically allocated to each of Canada's three territories, leaving 279. The total population of Canada's provinces is thus divided by 279, resulting in an "electoral quotient", and then the population of each individual province is divided by this electoral quotient to determine the number of seats to which the province is entitled. This article is about the year. ...


Finally, a few special rules are applied. Under the "senatorial clause", a province's number of seats in the House of Commons can never be lower than its constitutionally mandated number of senators, regardless of the province's population. Under the "grandfather clause", the province's number of seats can also never fall below the number of seats it had in the 33rd Canadian parliament. The Senate (French: Sénat) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, which also includes the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The 33rd Canadian parliament was in session from 1984 until 1988. ...


A province may be allocated extra seats over its base entitlement to ensure that these rules are met. In 2004, for example, Prince Edward Island would have been entitled to only a single seat, but because of the senatorial clause, the province gained three more seats to equal its four senators. Quebec was only entitled to 68 seats by the electoral quotient alone, but through the grandfather clause, the province gained seven seats to equal the 75 seats it had in the 33rd Parliament. Saskatchewan and Manitoba also gained seats under the grandfather clause, New Brunswick gained seats under the senatorial clause, and Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador gained seats under both clauses. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The small under the protection of the great) Official languages English Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant-Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 4 4 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 13th 5,660 km² 0% Population  - Total... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 2nd 1,542,056 km² 11. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples, strength) Official languages English Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 7th 651,036 km² 9. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 8th 647,797 km² 14. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 10 10 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 11th 72 908 km² 2. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Official languages English Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant-Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 11 10 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 12th 55,283 km² 3. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Official languages English Capital St. ...


A third protection clause exists, under which a province may not lose more than 15 per cent of its seats in a single adjustment, but specific application of this rule has never been needed. Only three provinces, Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario, could lose 15 per cent of their current seat allotment without automatically triggering the senatorial or grandfather clauses; to date, none of these provinces have ever faced this situation. Motto: Fortis et Liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 28 6 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 6th 661,848 km² 2. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 5th 944,735 km² 2. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English, French (in some areas) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 4th 1,076,395...


When the province's final seat allotment is determined, an independent election boundaries commission in each province reviews the existing boundaries and proposes adjustments. Public input is then sought, which may then lead to changes in the final boundary proposal. For instance, the proposed boundaries may not accurately reflect a community's historical, political or economic relationship with its surrounding region; the community would thus advise the boundary commission that it wished to be included in a different electoral district.


For example, in the 2003 boundary adjustment, the boundary commission in Ontario originally proposed dividing the city of Greater Sudbury into three districts. The urban core would have remained largely unchanged as Sudbury, while communities west of the central city would have been merged with Algoma—Manitoulin to form the new riding of Greater Sudbury—Manitoulin, and those east and north of the central city would have been merged with Timiskaming to create the riding of Timiskaming—Greater Sudbury. Due to community opposition, however, the existing districts of Sudbury and Nickel Belt were retained in the final report with only minor boundary adjustments. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = City of Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canadas Location. ... Sudbury is the name of a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada. ... Algoma was a Canadian federal electoral district in Ontario. ... Timiskaming is a former Canadian electoral district. ... Nickel Belt is an informal nickname for the Sudbury region in Northern Ontario, because of the belt of nickel ore deposits found in the area. ...


Once the final report is produced, it is then submitted to Parliament for approval, which is given by voting on the report as a piece of legislation.


See also

This is a list of Canadas 308 electoral districts (also known as ridings in Canadian English) as defined by the 2003 Representation Order, which came into effect on May 23, 2004. ... This is a list of past arrangements of Canadas electoral districts. ... Canadian provincial electoral districts, with the exception of the Province of Ontario, have boundaries that are non-coterminous with those of the federal electoral districts. ... Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency of the Government of Canada responsible for the conduct of federal elections and referendums. ...

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