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Encyclopedia > Elective monarchy

An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by a someone who is elected by a group. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...

Contents

Some examples from history

In the ancient Kingdom of Rome, the kings were elected by the Assemblies. For the son of Napoleon I of France, styled the King of Rome, see Napoleon II of France. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ...


The Holy Roman Empire is perhaps the best-known example of an historical elective monarchy[1]; the emperor was elected by a small council of nobles called prince-electors, although there was a hereditary flavor to the succession, especially after the 15th Century. Interestingly, most of the electoral seats were hereditary (some were held by clerics). This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ...


In Gaelic-order Ireland, a , or king was elected to rule clan lands both large and small. While (king) is used regardless of the size of the territory, in English, the lesser rulers are more commonly called chieftains. The Ard Rí na hÉireann, or High King of Ireland was also elected from among the provincial kings. Arms of the Kings of Ireland1 Capital Hill of Tara (ceremonial) Language(s) Irish Government Monarchy High King  - 1002-1014 Brian Boru  - 1151-1154 Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair History  - Established prehistory  - Norman invasion 1 May 1169  - Flight of the Earls September, 1607 1 The Wijnbergen Roll dating from c. ... A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings. ...


A system of elective monarchy existed in Anglo-Saxon England (see Witenagemot), the Kingdom of Hawaii, Visigothic Spain, and medieval Scandinavia and in the Principality of Transylvania. Medieval France was an elective monarchy at the time of the first Capetian kings; the kings however took the habit of, during their reign, having their son elected as successor. The election soon became a mere formality and vanished after the reign of Philip II of France. The dukes of Venice, or Doges were elected by the aristocracy. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... Motto Ua mau ke ea o ka āina i ka pono Anthem Hawaii Ponoi Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 Liliuokalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History  - Inception 1795  - Unification... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: or Erdelj / Ердељ) is a historical region in the center of Romania. ... During the latter years of the elderly Charlemagnes rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of his kingdom. ... The direct Capetian Dynasty followed the Carolingian rulers of France from 987 to 1328. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ...


In Africa, the Mali Empire functioned as both a constitutional and elective monarchy. The mansa (emperor) had to be approved by the Gbara or Great Assembly despite hereditary claims. The Kingdom of Kongo was a purer example of an elective monarchy, where blood claims had even less pull. Nobles elected a king's successor, and it was not uncommon for the successor to not be of the same family as his predecessor. This form of elective monarchy existed in the kingdom from its inception in around 1400 until its complete disintegration in the early 20th century. Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ... This article is about the Mandinka word. ... The Kingdom of Congo (now usually rendered as Kingdom of Kongo to maintain distinction from the present-day Congo nations) Capital Mbanza-Kongo, Angola; re-named São Salvador in the late 16th century; re-named back to Mbanza-Kongo in 1975 Religion Christianity with some traditional practices Government Monarchy... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...

The Republic at the Zenith of Its Power. Golden Liberty. The Royal Election of 1573, by Jan Matejko

In Poland, after the death of the last Piast in 1370, Polish kings were initially elected by a small council; gradually, this privilege was granted to all members of the szlachta (Polish nobility). Kings of Poland during the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795) were elected by gatherings of crowds of nobles at a field in Wola, today the neighbourhood of Warsaw. Since in Poland all sons of a noble were nobles, and not only the eldest, every one of an estimated 500,000 nobles could potentially have participated in such elections in person - by far the widest franchise of any European country at the time. During the election period, the function of the king was performed by an interrex (usually in person of the primate of Poland). This unique Polish election was termed the free election (wolna elekcja). The Republic at Zenith of Power. ... The Republic at Zenith of Power. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after the Union of Lublin... Election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland at Wola, outside Warsaw ( 1669). ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... The Piast dynasty is a line of Kings and dukes that ruled Poland from its beginnings as an independent state up to 1370. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Area 19,26 km² Population 143 996 (2003) Population density 7476/km² Mayor ZdzisÅ‚aw Sipiera Notable landmarks PowÄ…zki Cemetery Wola Website For other meanings of the word, see WOLA. Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Interrex or inter-rex (Latin; plural, interreges) was literally a ruler between kings. ... Archbishops of Gniezno and simultaneously Primates of Poland since 1412. ... Election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland at Wola, outside Warsaw ( 1669). ...


In the Islamic World Caliphs, successors to Muhammad, were originally elected by consensus of the community. The first four Caliphs were elected in this fashion as Sunni Muslims believed Muhammad had originally intended before Muawiyah, the fifth caliph, turned the Caliphate into what is known as the Umayyad Dynasty. The first four elected caliphs were remembered as the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... The Four Righteously or Rightly Guided Caliphs or Khulifa Rashidoon in Arabic refers to the first four caliphs in the Sunni tradition of Islam who are seen as being model leaders. ...


At the start of the 20th century, the first monarchs of several newly-independent nations were elected by parliaments: Norway is the prime example. Previously, following precedent set in newly-independent Greece, new nations without a well-established hereditary royal family, often chose their own monarchs from among the established royal families of Europe rather than elevate a member of the local power establishment, in the hope that a stable hereditary monarchy would eventually emerge from the process. The now-deposed royal families of Greece, Bulgaria, Albania (unsuccessfully) and Romania were originally appointed in this manner. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the worlds existing monarchies. ...


A short-lived autonomous monarchy during World War II, the Principality of Pindus and Voivodship of Macedonia also was an elective monarchy. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Principality of Pindus and Voivodship of Macedonia (also Pindo or Pindos, sometimes Pindus and Moglena; Aromanian: Printsipat di la Pind, Macedonian: Војводство Македонија) was an autonomous state set up under fascist Italian control in northwest Greece during World War II. The Principalty was initially promoted by Alchiviad Diamandi di Samarina, since...


Other monarchs, such as the Shah of Iran, have been required to undergo a parliamentary vote of approval before being allowed to ascend to the throne. One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ...


An attempt to create an elective monarchy in the United States failed. Alexander Hamilton argued in a long speech before the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that the President of the United States should be, in effect, an elective monarch, ruling for "good behavior" (i.e., for life, unless impeached) and with extensive powers. His proposal was resoundingly voted down in favor of a four-year term with the possibility of reelection. In his later defense of the Constitution in the Federalist Papers, he often hints that a lifetime executive might be better, even as he praises the system with the four-year term. Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ...


The Empire of Haiti established in 1804 was also elective. Flag Capital Port-au-Prince Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1806 Jacques I History  - Haitian Independence January 1, 1804  - Established September 22, 1804  - Disestablished October 17, 1806 The Empire of Haiti was an elective monarchy in North America. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


When it was usual

Arguably the world's oldest method to determine succession was that for the military leader who ascended to power through some sort of election - although, as the kingdoms grew larger and the societies became less egalitarian, the right to vote was restricted to an ever smaller portion of the population (for example local chieftains and/or the nobility). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Many if not most kingdoms were officially elective into historic times, though the candidates were typically only from the family of the deceased monarch. Eventually, however, most elected monarchies introduced hereditary succession, guaranteeing that the title and office stayed within the royal family and specifying, more or less precisely, the order of succession. Hereditary systems probably came into being in order to ensure greater stability and continuity, since the election and the period of interregnum associated with it had often been an opportunity for several ambitious and powerful candidates to "try their chances" in the struggle for the throne, frequently resorting to violent means. In fact, the problem of interregna is typical for monarchy in general, and has only been ameliorated (with a varying degree of success) by the new principle of succession. A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the worlds existing monarchies. ... For other uses, see Interregnum (disambiguation). ...


Today, almost all monarchies are hereditary monarchies in which the monarchs come from one royal family with the office of sovereign being passed from one family member to another upon the death or abdication of the incumbent. A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the worlds existing monarchies. ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Interestingly, female rulers have almost never succeeded in an elective monarchy, while hereditary monarchy seems to have given females more opportunities.


Current

Currently, the world's only true elective monarchies are:

  • The Holy See (Vatican City), where the Pope is elected to a life term by (and usually from) the College of Cardinals; in this instance, a hereditary monarchy is theoretically impossible because the Pope must be celibate.[2]
  • Malaysia, where the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected to a five-year term. Nine hereditary rulers from the Malay States form a Council of Rulers who will determine the next Agong. They use a system of rotation, originally based on seniority, and decisions are made via a secret ballot amongst the council members.
  • The Kingdom of Cambodia, in which kings are chosen for a life term by The Royal Council of the Throne from candidates of royal blood.
  • Kuwait, where the Emir must be ratified by a vote of the parliament.
  • The United Arab Emirates, where the President and the Prime Minister are elected by the Emirs, but had been in effect hereditary to the Al Nahyan clan of Abu Dhabi and the Al Maktoum clan of Dubai respectively.

In addition, Andorra could be considered a semi-elective monarchy (or more accurately principality). Andorra's two heads of state are Spain's Bishop of La Seu d'Urgell and, since 1589, the king of France. As the French monarchy has long been deposed, the position of co-prince of Andorra falls to the democratically elected President of France. For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ... The Conference of Rulers (also Council of Rulers, Malay: Majlis Raja-Raja) in Malaysia is a group comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, and the governors or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the other four states. ... The pair of gongs of the agung The Agungs are the largest gongs of the kulintang ensemble and represent the lowest pitch of all the instrumentation. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Abu Dhabi or Abu Zaby (Arabic language: أبوظبي) is the largest of the seven emirates that comprise the United Arab Emirates and was also the largest of the former Trucial States. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... The Diocese of Urgell is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical unit in Catalonia, Spain with origins in the fifth century AD or possibly earlier. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ...


Swaziland also has a form of quasi-elective monarchy. In Swaziland, no king can appoint his successor. Instead, the royal family decides which of his wives shall be "Great wife" and "Indovukazi" (She-Elephant / Queen Mother). The son of this "Great Wife" will automatically become the next king. The eldest son is never appointed successor as he has other ceremonial roles.


Traditional rulers (or "royal fathers", e.g., the Adebonojo, Eze) in Nigeria are usually chosen by a council of kingmakers. New Zealand, where the head of the Maori King Movement, the Maori monarch, is elected by the kaumatua of various New Zealand iwi (tribe). However, every Maori monarch to date had been succeeded by a son or daughter, making it hereditary in effect. The Dagburewe of Idowa is one of the major surviving royal titles which has survived within Southern Nigeria for over 300 years. ... Ministro Pistarini International Airport De Ezeiza, commonly known as Ezeiza, is located in a suburb of Buenos Aires and serves the city as Argentinas largest international and domestic gateway. ... The leader of the Tainui Māori is known as the Māori Queen or King. ... Kaumatua are respected male tribal elders in a Maori community who have been involved with their whanau for a number of years. ... Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) are the largest everyday social units in Māori society. ...


Samoa is widely considered to be either an elective monarchy or a form of aristocratic republic. Malietoa_Tanumafili_II was head of state until his death in 2007, the constitution stipulates that successors will be elected for five-year terms. The successors are likely to be chosen from one of Samoa's four paramount chiefs (including Malietoa and Tupua Tamasese). Malietoa Tanumafili II (born January 4, 1913) is the head of state (O le Ao o le Malo) of Samoa. ...


Elective monarchies in fiction

In the prequel trilogy of Star Wars films, there is a planet named Naboo which is an elected monarchy. Padmé Amidala, one of the series' main characters, was elected queen at the age of fourteen but was not the youngest ever to reign. She then went on to serve in the senate of the Galactic Republic. A system of elective monarchy was also present in the Galactic Empire. The next Galactic Emperor was, in theory, to be chosen by the Imperial Senate whenever the throne became vacant. However, the dissolution of the Senate by Palpatine prevented it from ever occurring. This article is about the series. ... Naboo is a fictitious planet in the fictional Star Wars universe with a mostly green terrain and which is the homeworld of two societies: the Gungans who dwell in underwater cities and the humans who live in colonies on the surface. ... Padmé Amidala is a fictional character in George Lucas science fiction saga Star Wars. ... - Senator Palpatine Form of Government Federal Republic Official language Basic Capital Coruscant Head of Government Chancellor Establishment c. ... Form of Government Empire Official language Galactic Basic Capital Coruscant (Imperial Center) Head of State Emperor Palpatine Supreme Military Executor/Supreme Commander of the Imperial Forces Darth Vader Head of Government Grand Vizier Sate Pestage Executive Branch Imperial Inner Circle Legislative Branch Imperial Senate, Council of Moffs Establishment 19 BBY... Form of Government Empire Official language Galactic Basic Capital Coruscant (Imperial Center) Head of State Emperor Palpatine Supreme Military Executor Darth Vader Head of Government Grand Vizier Sate Pestage Executive Governing Body Imperial Inner Circle Legislative Branch Imperial Senate, Council of Moffs Establishment 19 BBY Fragmentation 4 ABY Final Dissolution... In the fictional Star Wars saga, the Imperial Senate replaced the Galactic Senate of the Old Republic, run by power hungry bureaucrats, with Palpatine as Emperor. ... Palpatine is a fictional character in George Lucas science fiction saga Star Wars. ...


In the Lord Darcy universe, set out in a series of works by Randall Garrett, the Kings of the Anglo-French Empire are elected by Parliament from a small group of eligible members of the Royal Plantagenet family. See Michael Kurland's additions to the canon. Lord Darcy is a detective in an alternate history, created by Randall Garrett. ... Randall Garrett (December 16, 1927 - December 31, 1987) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Michael Joseph Kurland (born 1938) is an American author, best known for his works of (in chronological order) science fiction and detective fiction. ...


Shakespeare's Hamlet is often staged with the assumption that Denmark is or was an elective monarchy (which technically was true of Denmark at the time Hamlet was written). A similar system can be read into Macbeth to explain why the title character ascended to the throne. For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... This article is about Shakespeares play. ...


In Hiroyuki Morioka's Crest of the Stars series of science fiction novels, the Abh Empire (Frybarec Gloerh gor Bari) is an elective monarchy. While the ruling monarch (speunaigh) is absolute, he or she is elected by the Dynasty Council from eight eligible royal families and usually doesn't rule for life. Hiroyuki Morioka ) (born March 2, 1962, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan) is a Japanese sci-fi novelist. ... Crest of the Stars (Japanese: 星界の紋章 Seikai no Monshō) is a trilogy of space opera (some parts could classify as military science fiction/military space opera) science fiction novels written by Morioka Hiroyuki. ... For information on the Hebrew month, see Ab. ...


See also

Election of Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki as king of Poland at Wola, outside Warsaw ( 1669). ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... The Papal conclave of 2005 was convened due to the death of Pope John Paul II on April 2, 2005. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ the Holy Roman Empire
  2. ^ Thomas Dexter Lynch, Todd J. Dicker (1998). Handbook of Organization Theory and Management: The Philosophical Approach. ISBN 0824701135. 

External links

  • Worsøe, Hans H.. Official Denmark - The Royal House. The Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2008-1-2.
  • The Noble Republic, 1572-1795. Poland - The Historical Setting. Polish Academic Information Center, University at Buffalo. Retrieved on 2008-1-2.
  • Jędruch, Jacek (1998). Constitutions, Elections and Legislatures of Poland, 1493-1993. EJJ Books. ISBN 0-7818-0637-2. Retrieved on 2008-1-2. 
  • "Norway's elective monarchy", The New York Times, November 16, 1905. Retrieved on 2008-1-3. 
It has been suggested that The Poetry Collection be merged into this article or section. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 323, MONARCHY: Library of Economics and Liberty (6760 words)
Monarchy itself is a precaution taken against the sum of error and evil contained in societies which it proposes to protect against the outburst of ambitious and disorderly passions.
The founders of these monarchies, benefactors of nations, either by enlightening them through the arts, or in guiding them to victory, by uniting them or winning for them permanent states, were called kings out of gratitude, and transmitted their power to their sons.
Monarchies, therefore, follow in their way, which, in a certain number of cases, is the best, the same end as republics and other governments of every class, which is to permit and assure the free development of all useful action, and to confine evil within the narrowest limits without curtailing legitimate and fruitful liberty.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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