FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Election" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Election

An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. This is the usual mechanism by which modern democracy fills offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This is also typically the case in a wide range of other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations. However, as Montesquieu points out in Book II, Chapter 2 of "The Spirit of Laws," in the case of elections in either a republic or a democracy, voters alternate between being the rulers of the country as well as being the subjects of the government, with the act of voting being the sovereign (or ruling) capacity, in which the people act as "masters" selecting their government "servants." While democracies and republics whatever. they should not let that happen. ystems that do. Rather, the unique characteristics of democracies and republics is the recognition that the only legitimate source of power for government "of the people, by the people, and for the people" is the consent of the governed -- the people themselves. Election is a 1999 film adapted from a critically acclaimed 1998 novel[1] of the same name by Tom Perrotta. ... Election (Chinese title: 黑社會 – literally Black Society, a common Cantonese reference to the society of triads) is a 2005 film directed by Johnnie To with a large ensemble cast. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Predestination and foreordination are religious concepts, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... The Calvinist doctrine of predestination, is the religious doctrine of double predestination, particular to Calvinism. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (4368 × 2912 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (4368 × 2912 pixel, file size: 4. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A voluntary association (also sometimes called an unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... A republic in its basic sense, is constitutional government. ... Consent of the governed is a political theory that says a governments legitimacy and moral right to use state power is, or ought to be, derived from the people or society over which that power is exercised. ...


The universal acceptance of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype, ancient Athens, where elections were considered an oligarchic institution and where most political offices were filled using sortition, also known as allotment, where officeholders are chosen by lot. An archetype is a generic, idealized model of a person, object, or concept from which similar instances are derived, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... The History of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Sortition is the method of random selection, particularly in relation to the selection of decision makers also known as allotment. ...


Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, or improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing systems. Psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections (especially with a view to predicting future results). Electoral reform projects seek to change the way that public desires are reflected in elections through electoral systems. ... Psephology is a term for the statistical study of elections. ... A graph of a normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ...

Contents

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Sortition is the method of random selection, particularly in relation to the selection of decision makers also known as allotment. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... A show election or a sham election is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose. ... A Fixed-term election is an election that occurs on a set date, and cannot be changed by the incumbent politician. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... Indirect election is a process in which voters in an election do not actually choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice. ... Rules for, and experience with, local elections vary widely across jurisdictions. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Apportionment, or reapportionment, is the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ... The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... Elections by country gives information on elections. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The List of election results by country gives information on elections. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This electoral calendar 2007 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2007 in the de jure and de facto sovereign states and their dependent territories. ... This electoral calendar 2007 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2007 in the de jure and de facto sovereign states and their dependent territories. ...

Definitions of the democratic elections

A poster for the European Parliament election 2004 in Italy, showing party lists

In political theory, the authority of the government in democracies derives solely from the consent of the governed. The principal mechanism for translating that consent into governmental authority is the holding of elections. It is agreed, that elections should be free and fair. Download high resolution version (553x678, 61 KB)announcement of elections in Brunate (near Como), Italy, 2004-06-07. ... Download high resolution version (553x678, 61 KB)announcement of elections in Brunate (near Como), Italy, 2004-06-07. ... Niccolò Machiavelli, ca 1500, became the key figure in realistic political theory, crucial to political science Political Science is the systematic study of the allocation and transfer of power in decision making. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ...


There is a broad consensus as to what kind of elections can be considered free and fair. Jeane Kirkpatrick, scholar and former United States ambassador to the United Nations, has offered this definition: "Democratic elections are not merely symbolic....They are competitive, periodic, inclusive, definitive elections in which the chief decision-makers in a government are selected by citizens who enjoy broad freedom to criticize government, to publish their criticism and to present alternatives." Jeane Kirkpatrick Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (November 19, 1926 â€“ December 7, 2006) was an American ambassador and an ardent anticommunist. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ...


The Democracy Watch (International) website, further defines fair democratic elections as, "Elections in which great care is taken to prevent any explicit or hidden structural bias towards any one candidate, aside from those beneficial biases that naturally result from an electorate that is equally well informed about the various assets and liabilities of each candidate". This was more formally stated in 2000 by Chief Justice Murray Gleeson of the Australian High Court as "The democratic and lawful means of securing change, if change be necessary, is an expression of the will of an informed electorate." Democracy Watch (International) is a service organization founded in 2003, based out of Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA with offices in the Washington D.C., area. ... In politics, an electorate is the group of people entitled to vote in an election. ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... Chief Justice Murray Gleeson, Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia Anthony Murray Gleeson (30 August 1938 – ) QC AC is the Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ...


While the requirement of free and fair election is easily obeservable, the requirement of an informed electorate is difficult to achieve. Only a small part of the electorate will be able to know the candidates on a personal level and thus the information of the electorate will be incomplete. The electorate has to rely on third party information and official programs of the respective candidates. The latter is especially unreliable, since there is only a moral but no legislative obligations to keep them in modern democracies. The party with the most immediate interest in having structural biases is the government conducting the election. One possible result is the 'show' elections described below.

A pre-election hustings at the Oxford West and Abingdon constituency, England.
A pre-election hustings at the Oxford West and Abingdon constituency, England.

Some other scholars argue that elections are at most secondary to a functioning democracy. They argue that the rule of law is more important. An example would be pre-unification Hong Kong, which was ruled by an unelected British administrator but was generally considered to be a free and open society due to its strong legal institutions. Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 561 KB) A husting in the Oxford West and Abingdon constituency, 2005-02-04 File links The following pages link to this file: Election Oxford United Kingdom general elections Political campaign Elections in the United Kingdom Husting Pre-election day events of the United Kingdom... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 561 KB) A husting in the Oxford West and Abingdon constituency, 2005-02-04 File links The following pages link to this file: Election Oxford United Kingdom general elections Political campaign Elections in the United Kingdom Husting Pre-election day events of the United Kingdom... Husting (Old English: hiesting; Old Norwegian: hzesthing), the thing or ting, i. ... Oxford West and Abingdon is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General. ...


Characteristics of elections

Who can vote

Campaigners working on posters in Milan, Italy, 2004
Further information: Suffrage

The question of who may vote is a central issue in elections. The electorate does not generally include the entire population; for example, many countries prohibit those judged mentally incompetent from voting, and all jurisdictions require a minimum age for voting. campaigners working on posters in Milan, Italy, 2004-06-10. ... campaigners working on posters in Milan, Italy, 2004-06-10. ... In law, competence is conerns the mental capacity of a individual to participate in legal proceedings. ...


Historically, many other groups of people have also been excluded from voting. For instance, the democracy of ancient Athens did not allow women, foreigners, or slaves to vote, and the original United States Constitution left the topic of suffrage to the states; usually only white male property owners were able to vote. Much of the history of elections involves the effort to promote suffrage for excluded groups. The women's suffrage movement gave women in many countries the right to vote, and securing the right to vote freely was a major goal of the American civil rights movement. Extending the right to vote to other groups which remain excluded in some places (such as convicted felons, members of certain minorities, and the economically disadvantaged) continues to be a significant goal of voting rights advocates. Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ...


Suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country. Further limits may be imposed: for example, in Kuwait, only people who have been citizens since 1920 or their descendants are allowed to vote, a condition that the majority of residents do not fulfill. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is a EU citizen; the nationality of the country of residence is not required. 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


In some countries, voting is required by law; if an eligible voter does not cast a vote, he or she may be subject to punitive measures such as a small fine. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Who can be eligible to hold an office

Normally there is a citizenship requirement, an age requirement, a residency requirement, and, perhaps, a non-felon requirement. Before the Second World War, in most countries, women were not eligible for public office. Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... Look up minor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training in North America which leads to eligibility for board certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ... A felony, in many common law legal systems, is the term for a very serious crime; misdemeanors are considered to be less serious. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Eligibility may refer to: Eligibility or passive suffrage in elections Category: ...


Nomination

Non-partisan systems tend to differ from partisan systems as concerns nominations. In a direct democracy, one type of non-partisan democracy, any eligible person can be nominated. In some non-partisan representative systems (e.g., administrative elections of the Bahá'í Faith), no nominations (or campaigning, electioneering, etc.) take place at all, with voters free to choose any person at the time of voting--with some possible exceptions such as through a minimum age requirement--in the jurisdiction. In such cases, it is not required (or even possible) that the members of the electorate be familiar with all of the eligible persons, though such systems may involve indirect elections at larger geographic levels to ensure that some first-hand familiarity among potential electees can exist at these levels (i.e., among the elected delegates). Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Non-partisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections (by secret ballot) take place without reference to political parties or even the speeches, campaigns, nominations, or other apparatus commonly associated with democracy. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís, in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is the religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th-century Persia (Iran). ...


As far as partisan systems, in some countries, only members of a particular political party can be nominated. Or, an eligible person can be nominated through a petition; thus allowing him or her to be listed on a ballot. In the United States, for example, typically party candidates are required to have fewer signatures on petitions than non-party candidates. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the town in France, see Ballots, Mayenne. ...


Who is elected

The government positions for which elections are held vary depending on the locale. In a representative democracy, such as the United States, some positions are not filled through elections, especially those which are seen as requiring a certain competency or excellence. For example, judges are usually appointed rather than elected to help protect their impartiality. There are exceptions to this practice, however; some judges in the United States are elected, and in ancient Athens military generals were elected. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ...


In some cases, as for example, in soviet democracy -- there may exist an intermediate tier of electors between constituents and the elected figure. However, in most representative democracies, this level of indirection usually is nothing more than a formality. For example, the President of the United States is elected by the Electoral College, and in the Westminster System, the Prime Minister is formally chosen by the head of state (and in reality by the legislature or by their party). For the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union, see Republics of the Soviet Union. ... An elector can be: In the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, the collegiate of seven Electors (eight since 1648) (Kurfürsten) consisted of those lay or clerical princes who had the right to vote in the election of the king or Holy Roman Emperor; see prince-elector. ... Representative democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein voters choose (in free, secret, multi-party elections) representatives to act in their interests, but not as their proxies—i. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Head of state or Chief of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. ...


Types of elections

In most democratic political systems, there are a range of different types of election, corresponding to different layers of public governance or geographical jurisdiction. Some common types of election are:

A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) is a democratic tool related to elections in which the electorate votes for or against a specific proposal, law or policy, rather than for a general policy or a particular candidate or party. Referendums may be added to an election ballot or held separately and may be either binding or consultative, usually depending on the constitution. Referendums are usually called by governments via the legislature, however many democracies allow citizens to petition for referendums directly, called initiatives. This article is about the political process. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... A primary election is an election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election (nominating primary). ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Rules for, and experience with, local elections vary widely across jurisdictions. ... A co-option or more often co-optation is an election where members of a committee (or similar group) vote in order to fill a vacancy on that committee or group. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... initiative, see Initiative (disambiguation). ...


Referendums are particularly prevalent and important in direct democracies, such as Switzerland. The basic Swiss system, however, still works with representatives. In the most direct form of democracy, anyone can vote about anything. This is closely related to referendums and may take the form of consensus decision-making. Reminiscent of the ancient Greek system, anyone may discuss a particular subject until a consensus is reached. The consensus requirement means that discussions can go on for a very long time. The result will be that only those who are genuinely interested will participate in the discussion and therefore the vote. In this system there need not be an age limit because children will usually become bored. This system is however only feasible when implemented on a very small scale. Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Consensus decision-making is a decision-making process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also to resolve or mitigate the objections of the minority to achieve the most agreeable decision. ...


Electoral systems

Electoral systems refer to the detailed constitutional arrangements and voting systems which convert the vote into a determination of which individuals and political parties are elected to positions of power. A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ...


The first step is to tally the votes, for which various different vote counting systems and ballot types are used. Voting systems then determine the result on the basis of the tally. Most systems can be categorized as either proportional or majoritarian. Among the former are party-list proportional representation and additional member system. Among the latter are First Past the Post (FPP) (relative majority) and absolute majority. Many countries have growing electoral reform movements, which advocate systems such as approval voting, single transferable vote, instant runoff voting or a Condorcet method. There exist various methods through which the ballots cast at an election may be counted, prior to applying a voting system to obtain one or more winners. ... For the town in France, see Ballots, Mayenne. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system in which some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ... The First Past the Post electoral system, is a voting system for single-member districts. ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ... On an approval ballot, the voter can vote for any number of candidates. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... When the single transferable vote voting system is applied to a single-winner election it is sometimes called instant-runoff voting (IRV), as it is much like holding a series of runoff elections in which the lowest polling candidate is eliminated in each round until someone receives majority vote. ... A Condorcet method is a single winner election method in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ...


While openness and accountability are usually considered cornerstones of a democratic system, the act of casting a vote and the content of a voter's ballot are usually an important exception. The secret ballot is a relatively modern development, but it is now considered crucial in most free and fair elections, as it limits the effectiveness of intimidation. Accountability is a concept in ethics with several meanings. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ...


Scheduling

The nature of democracy is that elected officials are accountable to the people, and they must return to the voters at prescribed intervals to seek their mandate to continue in office. For that reason most democratic constitutions provide that elections are held at fixed regular intervals. In the United States, elections are held between every three and six years in most states, with exceptions such as the U.S. House of Representatives, which stands for election every two years. There is a variety of schedules, for example presidents: the President of Ireland is elected every seven years, the President of Finland every six years, the President of France every five years, the President of Russia and President of United States every four years. In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by an electorate to act as its representative. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... -1... The President of Finland is the Head of State of Finland. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ...


Pre-determined or fixed election dates have the advantage of fairness and predictability. However, they tend to greatly lengthen campaigns, and make dissolving the legislature (parliamentary system) more problematic if the date should happen to fall at time when dissolution is inconvenient (e.g. when war breaks out). Other states (e.g., the United Kingdom) only set maximum time in office, and the executive decides exactly when within that limit it will actually go to the polls. In practice, this means the government will remain in power for close to its full term, and choose an election date which it calculates to be in its best interests (unless something special happens, such as a motion of no-confidence). This calculation depends on a number of variables, such as its performance in opinion polls and the size of its majority. In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. ... A Motion of No Confidence, also called a Motion of Non Confidence, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


Elections are usually held on one day. There are also advance polls and absentee voting, which have a more flexible schedule. In Europe, a substantial proportion of votes are cast in advance voting. An advance poll (also advance voting) is held in some elections to allow participation by voters who may not be able to vote on the set election day(s). ... In the United States, an absentee ballot is a ballot that the voter receives and (usually) sends through the mail, rather than travelling to a polling place and marking the ballot at a voting booth. ...


Election campaigns

Main article: Political campaigns

When elections are called, politicians and their supporters attempt to influence policy by competing directly for the votes of constituents in what are called campaigns. Supporters for a campaign can be either formally organized or loosely affiliated, and frequently utilize campaign advertising. A political campaign is an effort to reach a certain political goal. ... A political campaign is an effort to reach a certain political goal. ... In politics, campaign advertising is the use of paid media (newspapers, radio, television, etc. ...


Difficulties with elections

The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved.

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ...

Show elections

While all modern democracies hold regular elections, the converse is not true—not all elections are held by true democracies. Some governments employ other 'behind-the-scenes' means of candidate selection but organise a sham process that appears to be a genuine electoral contest, in order to present the façade of popular consent and support.


Dictatorships, such as Iraq when Saddam Hussein was in power, have been known to hold such show elections. In the 'single candidate' type of show-election, there may only be one candidate for any one given position, with no alternative choices for voters beyond voting yes or no to this candidate. In the 'fixed vote' type of show-election such elections may offer several candidates for each office. In both cases, the government uses intimidation or vote-rigging to ensure a high yes vote or that only the government-approved candidates are chosen. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... A show election or a sham election is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose. ... Electoral fraud is the deliberate interference with the process of an election. ...


Another model is the 'false diversity' type of show-election in which there may be several choices, all of which support the status quo. In theory, 'false diversity' elections would be recognised by a truly informed electorate but as noted above this may be impossible, for example where a government conducting elections also controls the media by which most voters are informed.


Biased system

Further information: Criticisms of electoralism

Similar to the false diversity elections are those in which candidates are limited by undemocratic forces and biases. The Iranian form of government is one example of elections among limited options. In the 2004 Iranian parliamentary elections almost all of the reformist candidates were ruled unfit by the Guardian Council of religious leaders. According to the Iranian constitution this was fully within the Council's constitutional rights, and designed to prevent enemies of the Islamic Revolution from coming to power. Although highly controversial at various points in history, representative democracy (and electoral systems in general) have become the modern civics global-standard. ... (Redirected from 2004 Iranian parliamentary elections) Elections to the Majlis of Iran were held on February 20, 2004. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza...


Simply permitting the opposition access to the ballot is not enough. In order for democratic elections to be fair and competitive, opposition parties and candidates must enjoy the rights to freedom of speech, assembly, and movement as necessary to voice their criticisms of the government openly and to bring alternative policies and candidates to the voters. In states where these freedoms are not granted or where opposition party politicians are harassed and their events disrupted, elections may not reflect the legitimate views of the populace. A current example of such a state is Zimbabwe. In states with fragile democracies where there has been a history of political violence or blatantly unfair elections, international election observers are often called in by external bodies like the United Nations, and protected by foreign forces, to guarantee fairness. Freedom of speech is the concept of being able to speak freely without censorship. ... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... Election monitoring is the observing of an election by non-partisan, usually international observers. ...


In addition, elections in which opposition candidates are not given access to radio, newspaper and television coverage are also likely to be biased. An example of this kind of structural bias was the 2004 re-election of Russian president Vladimir Putin, in which the state controlled media consistently supported his election run, consistently condemned his opponents, provided virtually unlimited free advertising to Putin's campaign, and barred attempts by his opponents to run campaign advertisements. For this reason, many countries ensure equal air time to election ads from all sizable parties and have systems that help pay for election advertising or, conversely, limit the possibilities to advertise, to prevent rich parties or candidates from outstripping their opponents. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ...


Elections around the world

Further information: List of election results

Elections by country gives information on elections. ...

See also

The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Referenda Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology... Appointment may refer to a number of things, including the following: Look up appointment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A two-party system is a form of party system where two major political parties dominate the voting in nearly all elections. ... No voting system can guarantee a clear result all the time, even FPTP. Some close elections, where the winner won a bare majority, or where a third party or independents hold the balance of power include: // 1901-1913 party system yet to crystalise. ... Demarchy is a term coined by Australian philosopher John Burnheim to describe a political system without the state or bureaucracies, and based instead on randomly selected groups of decision makers. ... Election Administration is the term used to denote the steps which are undertaken when organizing an election. ... This electoral calendar lists the national/federal direct elections in the countries listed in the list of countries. ... Election law is a discipline falling at the juncture of constitutional law and political science. ... Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... Although highly controversial at various points in history, representative democracy (and electoral systems in general) have become the modern civics global-standard. ... Electoral reform projects seek to change the way that public desires are reflected in elections through electoral systems. ... In politics, a full slate is an offering of a candidate for every single position available in an election. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Garrat Elections were a carnival of mock elections in 18th century Surrey, England. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Public Choice Theory the majority alternative is that alternative, which in pairwise comparison is preferred by a majority to each of the other alternatives. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism (political philosophy) This article is about pluralism in politics. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political campaign is an organized effort to influence the decision making process within a group. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... A polling station situated inside a suburban library in the north of Cambridge during the United Kingdom general election, 2005. ... Sortition is the method of random selection, particularly in relation to the selection of decision makers also known as allotment. ... Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. ...

Bibliography

  • Abizadeh, Arash. 2005. "Democratic Elections without Campaigns? Normative Foundations of National Baha'i Elections." World Order 37.1: 7-49.
  • Corrado Maria, Daclon. 2004. US elections and war on terrorism – Interview with professor Massimo Teodori Analisi Difesa, n. 50
  • Arrow, Kenneth J. 1963. Social Choice and Individual Values. 2nd ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Benoit, Jean-Pierre and Lewis A. Kornhauser. 1994. "Social Choice in a Representative Democracy." American Political Science Review 88.1: 185-192.
  • Farquharson, Robin. 1969. A Theory of Voting. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Mueller, Dennis C. 1996. Constitutional Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Riker, William. 1980. Liberalism Against Populism: A Confrontation Between the Theory of Democracy and the Theory of Social Choice. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Ware, Alan. 1987. Citizens, Parties and the State. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

William Harrison Riker (September 22, 1920 - June 26, 1993) was an influential political scientist, who advanced the field of political science through his application of game theory and mathematics to the field. ...

References

Image File history File links Information. ...

External links

Look up election in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • research the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election. Research teh 2008 U.S. Presidential Election.
  • PARLINE database on national parliaments. Results for all parliamentary elections since 1966
  • ElectionGuide.org — Worldwide Coverage of National-level Elections
  • parties-and-elections.de: Database for all European elections since 1945
  • ACE Electoral Knowledge Network — electoral encyclopedia and related resources from a consortium of electoral agencies and organizations.
  • Angus Reid Consultants: Election Tracker
  • CNN.com World News: Election Watch
  • IDEA's Table of Electoral Systems Worldwide
  • European Election Law Association (Eurela)
  • A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825
  • Women´s suffrage in Germany - January 19th, 1919 - first suffrage (active and passive) for women in Germany
  • PoliticosLatinos.com Videos of 2008 US Presidential Election Candidates' Positions regarding Immigration

  Results from FactBites:
 
Election (1999) (799 words)
Reese Witherspoone turns in what I consider to be a career-best, and Chris Klein is wonderfully endearing as a jock with a heart of gold.
What I really love about Election is the way its pace doesn't let up at all.
But Election also doesn't take itself too seriously.
Election Protection 365 - Home EP365 (275 words)
The coalition identified problems, worked with election officials of all levels to address thorny issues, and, most of all, provided voters one-to-one assistance.
PFAW Foundation is proud of the job we did to protect our election and are already analyzing all we learned on Tuesday in order to follow up on specific problems – and seek more robust voter safeguards for future elections.
A voting judge in Washington state telephoned to say that he received a voicemail from a woman purporting to be Maria Cantwell which instructed him to vote in the wrong precinct.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m