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Encyclopedia > Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Queen consort of England; Queen consort of France (more...)
Eleanor with her son King John
Eleanor with her son King John
Duchess of Aquitaine; Countess of Poitiers (more...)
Reign
Consort in
9 April 11371 April 1204
France: 1 August 113721 March 1152
England: 25 October 11546 July 1189
Predecessor William X of Aquitaine
Successor Louis VII of France
Consort to Louis VII of France
Henry II of England
Issue
Marie, Countess of Champagne
Alix, Countess of Blois
William, Count of Poitiers
Henry the Young King
Matilda, Duchess of Saxony
Richard I of England
Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany
Leonora, Queen of Castile
Joan, Queen of Sicily
John of England
Royal house House of Plantagenet
House of Capet
House of Poitiers
Father William X of Aquitaine
Mother Aenor de Châtellerault
Born 1122
Belin Castle, Aquitaine
Died 1 April 1204 (aged c. 81/82)
Fontevraud Abbey, Fontevraud
Burial Fontevraud Abbey

Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Among the men who have borne the title of Count of Poitiers (or Poitou, in what is now France but in the Middle Ages became part of the Aquitaine) are: Guerin (or Warin[us]) (638–677) Renaud (795–843) Bernard I (815–844) Ranulph I (835–875) Ranulph II (855... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... William X of Aquitaine (1099 – April 9, 1137), nicknamed the Saint was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VIII of Poitiers between 1126 and 1137. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Marie of France, or Marie Capet, Countess of Champagne (1145 – March 11, 1198), was the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Alix of France (summer 1151 – 1197/1198) was the second daughter born to Louis VII of France by his first wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... William (August 17, 1153 – 1156) was the first child of Henry Plantagenet (later Henry II of England) and Eleanor of Aquitaine, strangely born on the same day that his fathers rival Eustace IV of Boulogne died. ... Henry, the Young King Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155–June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Matilda of England (1156 - June 28, 1189), also known as Maud, was the eldest daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Geoffrey Plantagenet (September 23, 1158 – August 19, 1186) was Duke of Brittany between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. ... Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. ... Joan of England (October, 1165 – 4 September 1199) was the seventh child of King Henry II of England and his Queen consort, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... This article is about the King of England. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Plantagenet (IPA: ), also called the House of Anjou, or Angevin dynasty was originally a noble family from France, which ruled the County of Anjou. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Ramnulfids, or the House of Poitiers, were a French dynasty ruling the County of Poitou and Duchy of Aquitaine in the ninth through twelfth centuries. ... William X of Aquitaine (1099 – April 9, 1137), nicknamed the Saint was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VIII of Poitiers between 1126 and 1137. ... Aenor of Châtellerault, duchess of Aquitaine (c. ... Events Resolution of Investiture Controversy in the Concordat of Worms Pierre Abélard writes Sic et Non Births Ben Lancaster, Gradutate, Dynamite dancer. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... General view of the complex. ... Fontevraud-lAbbaye is a commune of the Maine-et-Loire département, in France. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Among the men who have borne the title of Count of Poitiers (or Poitou, in what is now France but in the Middle Ages became part of the Aquitaine) are: Guerin (or Warin[us]) (638-677) Renaud (795-843) Bernard I (815-844) Ranulph I (835-875) Ranulph II (855... Events Resolution of Investiture Controversy in the Concordat of Worms Pierre Abélard writes Sic et Non Births Ben Lancaster, Gradutate, Dynamite dancer. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ...


Eleanor was Queen consort of both France (to Louis VII) and England (to Henry II) in turn, and the mother of two kings of England, Richard I and John. She is well known for her participation in the Second Crusade. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... This article is about the King of England. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ...

Contents

Early life

Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine.
Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine.

Eleanor was the oldest of three children of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, and his duchess Aenor de Châtellerault, the daughter of Aimeric I, Vicomte of Chatellerault and countess Dangereuse, who was William IX of Aquitaine the Troubadour's longtime mistress as well as Eleanor's maternal grandmother. Her parents' marriage had been arranged by Dangereuse with her paternal grandfather, the Troubadour. Eleanor was named for her mother Aenor and called Aliénor, from the Latin alia Aenor, which means the other Aenor. It became Eléanor in the langues d'oïl and Eleanor in English. Image File history File links Blason_de_l'Aquitaine_et_de_la_Guyenne. ... Image File history File links Blason_de_l'Aquitaine_et_de_la_Guyenne. ... William X of Aquitaine (1099 – April 9, 1137), nicknamed the Saint was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VIII of Poitiers between 1126 and 1137. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... Aenor of Châtellerault, duchess of Aquitaine (c. ... William IX of Aquitaine (October 22, 1071 – February 10, 1126, also Guillaume or Guilhem dAquitaine), nicknamed the Troubador was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VII of Poitiers between 1086 and 1126. ... For other uses, see Troubadour (disambiguation). ... Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern...


She was reared in Europe's most cultured court of her time, the birthplace of courtly love. By all accounts, Eleanor's father ensured that she had the best possible education. Although her native tongue was Poitevin, she was taught to read and speak Latin, was well versed in music and literature, and schooled in riding, hawking, and hunting. Eleanor was extroverted, lively, intelligent, and strong willed. She was regarded as a great beauty by her contemporaries, none of whom left a surviving description that includes the color of her hair or eyes. Although the ideal beauty of the time was a silvery blonde with blue eyes, she may have inherited her coloring from her father and grandfather, who were both brown-eyed with copper locks. In the spring of 1130, when Eleanor was eight, her four-year-old brother William Aigret and their mother died at the castle of Talmont, on Aquitaine's Atlantic coast. Eleanor became the heir to her father's domains. Aquitaine was the largest and richest province of France; Poitou and Aquitaine together were almost one-third the size of modern France. Eleanor had only one other legitimate sibling, a younger sister named Aelith but always called Petronilla. Her half brothers, William and Joscelin, were acknowledged by William X as his sons—not as his heirs—and by his daughters as brothers. Later, during the first four years of Henry II's reign, all three siblings joined Eleanor's royal household. Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Petronilla of Aquitaine, (circa 1125 – 1153) born the daughter of William X of Aquitaine and Aenor of Châtellerault. ...


Inheritance and first marriage

In 1137, Duke William X set out from Poitiers to Bordeaux, taking his daughters with him. Upon reaching Bordeaux, he left Eleanor and Petronilla in the charge of the Archbishop of Bordeaux, one of the Duke's few loyal vassals who could be entrusted with the safety of the duke's daughters. The duke then set out for the Shrine of Saint James of Compostela in northwestern Spain, in the company of other pilgrims; however, on April 9th (Good Friday), 1137 he was stricken with sickness, probably food poisoning. He died that evening, having bequeathed Aquitaine to Eleanor. Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Saint James, son of Zebedee (d. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ...


Eleanor, about the age of 15, became the Duchess of Aquitaine, and thus the most eligible heiress in Europe. As these were the days when kidnapping an heiress was seen as a viable option for attaining title, William had dictated a will on the very day he died, bequeathing his domains to Eleanor and appointing King Louis VI (nicknamed "the Fat") as her guardian. William requested the king take care of both the lands and the duchess, and find a suitable husband for her. However, until a husband was found, the king had the right to Eleanor's lands. The duke also insisted to his companions that his death be kept a secret until Louis was informed — the men were to journey from Saint James across the Pyrenees as quickly as possible, to call at Bordeaux to notify the archbishop, and then to make all speed to Paris, to inform the king. In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was King of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


The King of France himself was also gravely ill at that time, suffering "a flux of the bowels" (dysentery) from which he seemed unlikely to recover. Despite his immense obesity and impending mortality, however, Louis the Fat remained clear-minded. To his concerns regarding his new heir, Prince Louis (the former heir, Philip, having died from a riding accident), was added joy over the death of one of his most cantankerous vassals — and the availability of the best Duchy in France. Presenting a solemn and dignified manner to the grieving Aquitainian messengers, upon their departure he became overjoyed, stammering in delight. Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ...


Rather than act as guardian to the duchess and duchy, he decided, he would marry the duchess to his heir and bring Aquitaine under the French crown, thereby greatly increasing the power and prominence of France and the Capets. Within hours, then, Louis had arranged for his son, Prince Louis, to be married to Eleanor, with Abbot Suger in charge of the wedding arrangements. Prince Louis was sent to Bordeaux with an escort of 500 knights, as well as Abbot Suger, Count Theobald II of Champagne and Count Ralph of Vermandois. The direct Capetian Dynasty followed the Carolingian rulers of France from 987 to 1328. ... Suger of Saint-Denis on a medieval window Suger (c. ... Theobald II of Champagne was Count of Champagne from 1125 to 1152. ... Vermandois was a French countship composed originally of the two burgraviates (chatellenies) of St Quentin (Aisne) and Peronne (Somme). ...


Louis arrived in Bordeaux on 11 July, and the next day, accompanied by the Archbishop of Bordeaux, Geoffrey de Lauroux (in whose keeping Eleanor and Petronilla had been left), the couple were married in the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux. It was a magnificent ceremony with almost a thousand guests. However, there was a catch: the land would remain independent of France and Eleanor's oldest son would be both King of France and Duke of Aquitaine. Thus, her holdings would not be merged with France until the next generation. She gave Louis a wedding present that is still in existence, a rock crystal vase, currently on display at the Louvre. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bordeaux Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-André de Bordeaux) is a Catholic cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Bordeaux-Bazas, located in Bordeaux. ... This is a family tree of the Dukes of Aquitaine, between 898 and 1204. ... A rock crystal vase is a vase made of rock crystal. ... This article is about the museum. ...


Something of a free spirit, Eleanor was not popular with the staid northerners (according to sources, Louis´ mother, Adélaide de Maurienne, thought her flighty and a bad influence) — she was not aided by memories of Queen Constance, the Provencial wife of Robert II, tales of whose immodest dress and language were still told with horror.[2] Adelasia of Moriana (fr. ... Gisant of Constance of Arles Constance of Arles (also known as Constance of Provence) (986 - July 25, 1034) was the third wife and queen of King Robert II of France. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ...


Her conduct was repeatedly criticized by Church elders (particularly Bernard of Clairvaux and Abbot Suger) as indecorous. The King, however, was madly in love with his beautiful and worldly bride and granted her every whim, even though her behavior baffled and vexed him to no end. Much money went into beautifying the austere Cite Palace in Paris for Eleanor's sake.[citation needed] Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ...


Conflict

Though Louis was a pious man he soon came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II. In 1141, the archbishopric of Bourges became vacant, and the king put forward as a candidate one of his chancellors, Cadurc, whilst vetoing the one suitable candidate, Pierre de la Chatre, who was promptly elected by the canons of Bourges and consecrated by the Pope. Louis accordingly bolted the gates of Bourges against the new Bishop; the Pope, recalling William X's similar attempts to exile Innocent's supporters from Poitou and replace them with priests loyal to himself, blamed Eleanor, saying that Louis was only a child and should be taught manners. Outraged, Louis swore upon relics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges. This brought the interdict upon the king's lands. Pierre de la Chatre was given refuge by Count Theobald II of Champagne. Pope Innocent II (died September 24, 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 1130 to 1143, and was probably one of the clergy in personal attendance on the antipope Clement III (Guibert of Ravenna). ... The Archdiocese of Bourges is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France. ... Canons, Bruges A Canon of the Seminary, Sint Niklaas, Flanders. ... Bourges Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Bourges) is a cathedral, dedicated to Saint Stephen, located in Bourges, France. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... For other meanings see Interdict The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Theobald II of Champagne was Count of Champagne from 1125 to 1152. ...


Louis became involved in a war with Count Theobald of Champagne by permitting Raoul I of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife (Leonora), Theobald's niece, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, Eleanor's sister. Eleanor urged Louis to support her sister's illegitimate marriage to Raoul of Vermandois. Champagne had also offended Louis by siding with the pope in the dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (1142–44) and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry. More than a thousand people (1300, some say) who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames. Raoul I of Vermandois (French: Raoul Ier le Vaillant) (1085 – 14 October 1152), Count of Vermandois. ... A seneschal was an officer in the houses of important nobles in the Middle Ages. ... Petronilla of Aquitaine, (circa 1125 – 1153) born the daughter of William X of Aquitaine and Aenor of Châtellerault. ... Vitry is part of the name of several communes in France: Vitry-aux-Loges, in the Loiret département Vitry-en-Artois, in the Pas-de-Calais département Vitry-en-Charollais, in the Saône-et-Loire département Vitry-en-Montagne, in the Haute-Marne département Vitry...


Horrified, and desiring an end to the war, Louis attempted to make peace with Theobald in exchange for supporting the lift of the interdict on Raoul and Petronilla. This was duly lifted for long enough to allow Theobald's lands to be restored; it was then lowered once more when Raoul refused to repudiate Petronilla, prompting Louis to return to the Champagne and ravage it once more.


In June of 1144, the King and Queen visited the newly built cathedral at Saint-Denis. Whilst there, the Queen met with Bernard of Clairvaux, demanding that he have the excommunication of Petronilla and Raoul lifted through his influence on the Pope, in exchange for which King Louis would make concessions in Champagne, and recognise Pierre de la Chatre as archbishop of Bourges. Dismayed at her attitude, Bernard scolded her for her lack of penitence and her interference in matters of state. In response, Eleanor broke down, and meekly excused her behaviour, claiming to be embittered through her lack of children. In response to this, Bernard became more kindly towards her: "My child, seek those things which make for peace. Cease to stir up the King against the Church, and urge upon him a better course of action. If you will promise to do this, I in return promise to entreat the merciful Lord to grant you offspring." Events Louis VII capitulates to Pope Celestine II and so earns the popes absolution Pope Celestine II is succeeded by Pope Lucius II December 24 - Edessa falls to Zengi Montauban, France, is founded First recorded example of an anti-Semitic blood libel in England Normandy comes under Angevin control... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ...


In a matter of weeks, peace had returned to France: Theobald's provinces had been returned, and Pierre de la Chatre was installed as Archbishop of Bourges. And in 1145, Eleanor gave birth to a daughter, Marie. Marie of France, or Marie Capet, Countess of Champagne (1145 – March 11, 1198), was the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ...


Louis, however still burned with guilt over the massacre at Vitry-le-Brûlé, and desired to make a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land in order to atone for his sins. Fortuitously for him, in the Autumn of 1145, Pope Eugenius requested Louis to lead a Crusade to the Middle East, to rescue the Frankish Kingdoms there from disaster. Accordingly, Louis declared on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade.


Crusade

Eleanor of Aquitaine took up the crusade during a sermon preached by Bernard of Clairvaux. She was followed by some of her royal ladies-in-waiting as well as 300 non-noble vassals. She insisted on taking part in the Crusades as the feudal leader of the soldiers from her duchy. The story that she and her ladies dressed as Amazons is disputed by serious historians; however, her testimonial launch of the Second Crusade from Vézelay, the rumored location of Mary Magdalene´s burial, dramatically emphasized the role of women in the campaign. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... Vézelay is a commune in the Yonne département in the Bourgogne région of France. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ...


The Crusade itself achieved little. Louis was a weak and ineffectual military leader with no concept of maintaining troop discipline or morale, or of making informed and logical tactical decisions. In eastern Europe, the French army was at times hindered by Manuel I Comnenus, the Byzantine Emperor, who feared that it would jeopardize the tenuous safety of his empire; however, during their 3-week stay at Constantinople, Louis was fêted and Eleanor was much admired. She is compared with Penthesilea, mythical queen of the Amazons, by the Greek historian Nicetas Choniates; he adds that she gained the epithet chrysopous (golden-foot) from the cloth of gold that decorated and fringed her robe. Louis and Eleanor stayed in the Philopation palace, just outside the city walls. Manuel I Comnenus (Greek: Μανουήλ Α ο Κομνηνός; November 28, 1118 – September 24, 1180), was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... In Greek mythology, Penthesilea (also spelled Penthesilia) was an Amazonian queen, daughter of Ares and Otrera, sister of Hippolyte, Antiope and Melanippe. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Nicetas Choniates (c. ...


From the moment the Crusaders entered Asia Minor, the Crusade went badly. The King and Queen were optimistic — the Byzantine Emperor had told them that the German Emperor Conrad had won a great victory against a Turkish army (where in fact the German army had been massacred), and the company was still eating well. However, whilst camping near Nicea, the remnants of the German army, including a dazed and sick Emperor Conrad, began to straggle into the French camp, bringing news of their disaster. The French, with what remained of the Germans, then began to march in increasingly disorganized fashion, towards Antioch. Their spirits were buoyed on Christmas Eve — when they chose to camp in the lush Dercervian valley near Ephesus, they were ambushed by a Turkish detachment; the French proceeded to slaughter this detachment and appropriate their camp.


Louis then decided to directly cross the Phrygian mountains, in the hope of speeding his approach to take refuge with Eleanor's uncle Raymond in Antioch. As they ascended the mountains, however, the army and the King and Queen were left horrified by the unburied corpses of the previously slaughtered German army.


On the day set for the crossing of Mount Cadmos, Louis chose to take charge of the rear of the column, where the unarmed pilgrims and the baggage trains marched. The vanguard, with which Queen Eleanor marched, was commanded by her Aquitainian vassal, Geoffrey de Rancon; this, being unencumbered by baggage, managed to reach the summit of Cadmos, where de Rancon had been ordered to make camp for the night. De Rancon however chose to march further, deciding in concert with the Count of Maurienne (Louis´ uncle) that a nearby plateau would make a better camp: such disobedience was reportedly common in the army, due to the lack of command from the King.


Accordingly, by midafternoon, the rear of the column — believing the day's march to be nearly at an end — was dawdling; this resulted in the army becoming divided, with some having already crossed the summit and others still approaching it. It was at this point that the Turks, who had been following and feinting for many days, seized their opportunity and attacked those who had not yet crossed the summit. The Turks, having seized the summit of the mountain, and the French (both soldiers and pilgrims) having been taken by surprise, there was little hope of escape: those who tried were caught and killed, and many men, horses and baggage were cast into the canyon below the ridge. William of Tyre placed the blame for this disaster firmly on the baggage — which was considered to have belonged largely to the women.


The King, ironically, was saved by his lack of authority — having scorned a King's apparel in favour of a simple solder's tunic, he escaped notice (unlike his bodyguards, whose skulls were brutally smashed and limbs severed). He reportedly "nimbly and bravely scaled a rock by making use of some tree roots which God had provided for his safety," and managed to survive the attack. Others were not so fortunate: "No aid came from Heaven, except that night fell."[citation needed]


The official scapegoat for the disaster was Geoffrey de Rancon, who had made the decision to continue, and it was suggested that he be hanged (a suggestion which the King ignored). Since he was Eleanor's vassal, many believed that it was she who had been ultimately responsible for the change in plan, and thus the massacre. This did nothing for her popularity in Christendom — as did the blame affixed to her baggage, and the fact that her Aquitainian soldiers had marched at the front, and thus were not involved in the fight. Eleanor's reputation was further sullied by her supposed affair with her uncle Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch. This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... Raymond of Poitiers (c. ... The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ...


While in the eastern Mediterranean, Eleanor learned about maritime conventions developing there, which were the beginnings of what would become admiralty law. She introduced those conventions in her own lands, on the island of Oleron in 1160 and later in England as well. She was also instrumental in developing trade agreements with Constantinople and ports of trade in the Holy Lands. Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... Île dOléron (English: Island of Oleron) is an island off the Atlantic coast of France (due west of Rochefort), on the southern side of the Pertuis dAntioche straight. ... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ...


Annulment of first marriage

Even before the Crusade, Eleanor and Louis were becoming estranged. The city of Antioch had been annexed by Bohemond of Hauteville in the First Crusade, and it was now ruled by Eleanor's flamboyant uncle, Raymond of Antioch, who had gained the principality by marrying its reigning Princess, Constance of Antioch. Clearly, Eleanor supported his desire to re-capture the nearby County of Edessa, the cause of the Crusade; in addition, having been close to him in their youth, she now showed excessive affection towards her uncle — whilst many historians today dismiss this as familial affection (noting their early friendship, and his similarity to her father and grandfather), most at the time firmly believed the two to be involved in an incestuous and adulterous affair. Louis was directed by the Church to visit Jerusalem instead. When Eleanor declared her intention to stand with Raymond and the Aquitaine forces, Louis had her brought out by force. His long march to Jerusalem and back north debilitated his army, but her imprisonment disheartened her knights, and the divided Crusade armies could not overcome the Muslim forces. For reasons unknown, likely the Germans' insistence on conquest, the Crusade leaders targeted Damascus, an ally until the attack. Failing in this attempt, they retired to Jerusalem, and then home. Raymond of Poitiers (c. ... Constance of Antioch (1127-1163) was the ruler of the principality of Antioch (a crusader state) from 1130 to her death. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


Home, however, was not easily reached. The royal couple, on separate ships due to their disagreements, were first attacked in May by Byzantine ships attempting to capture both (in order to take them to Byzantium, according to the orders of the Emperor). Although they escaped this predicament unharmed, stormy weather served to drive Eleanor's ship far to the south (to the Barbary Coast), and to similarly lose her husband. Neither was heard of for over two months: at which point, in mid-July, Eleanor's ship finally reached Palermo in Sicily, where she discovered that she and her husband had both been given up for dead. The King still lost, she was given shelter and food by servants of King Roger of Sicily, until the King eventually reached Calabria, and she set out to meet him there. Later, at King Roger's court in Potenza, she learnt of the death of her uncle Raymond; this appears to have forced a change of plans, for instead of returning to France from Marseilles, they instead sought the Pope in Tusculum, where he had been driven five months before by a Roman revolt.


Pope Eugenius III did not, as Eleanor had hoped, grant a divorce; instead, he attempted to reconcile Eleanor and Louis, confirming the legality of their marriage, and proclaiming that no word could be spoken against it, and that it might not be dissolved under any pretext. Eventually, he arranged events so that Eleanor had no choice but to sleep with Louis in a bed specially prepared by the Pope. Thus was conceived their second child — not a son, but another daughter, Alix of France. The marriage was now doomed. Still without a son and in danger of being left with no male heir, facing substantial opposition to Eleanor from many of his barons and her own desire for divorce, Louis had no choice but to bow to the inevitable. On March 11, 1152, they met at the royal castle of Beaugency to dissolve the marriage. Archbishop Hugh Sens, Primate of France, presided, and Louis and Eleanor were both present, as were the Archbishops of Bordeaux and Rouen. Archbishop Samson of Reims acted for Eleanor. On March 21 the four archbishops, with the approval of Pope Eugenius, granted an annulment due to consanguinity within the fourth degree (Eleanor and Louis were third cousins, once removed and shared common ancestry with Robert II of France). Their two daughters were declared legitimate and custody of them awarded to King Louis. Archbishop Sampson received assurances from Louis that Eleanor's lands would be restored to her. The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ... Alix of France (summer 1151 – 1197/1198) was the second daughter born to Louis VII of France by his first wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Samson of Mauvoisin (died 1161) was the French archbishop of Reims from 1140 to 1161. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ...


Marriage to Henry II of England

Henry II of England
The marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry of Anjou and Henry's subsequent succession to the throne of England created an empire.
The marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry of Anjou and Henry's subsequent succession to the throne of England created an empire.

Two lords — Theobald of Blois, son of the Count of Champagne, and Geoffrey of Anjou (brother of Henry, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy) — tried to kidnap Eleanor to marry her and claim her lands on Eleanor's way to Poitiers. As soon as she arrived in Poitiers, Eleanor sent envoys to Henry Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy, asking him to come at once and marry her. On Whit Sunday, May 18, 1152, six weeks after her annulment, Eleanor married Henry 'without the pomp and ceremony that befitted their rank'.[3] She was about 11 years older than he, and related to him more closely than she had been to Louis. Eleanor and Henry were half, third cousins through their common ancestor Ermengarde of Anjou (wife to Robert I, Duke of Burgundy and Geoffrey, Count of Gâtinais); they were also both descendants of Robert II of Normandy. A marriage between Henry and Eleanor's daughter, Marie, had indeed been declared impossible for this very reason. One of Eleanor's rumoured lovers had been Henry's own father, Geoffrey of Anjou, who had advised his son to avoid any involvement with her. Image File history File links Henry_II_of_England. ... Image File history File links Henry_II_of_England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (968x1541, 497 KB) Summary From University of Texas web site. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (968x1541, 497 KB) Summary From University of Texas web site. ... Theobald V of Blois (-1191), also known as Theobald the Good (French: Thibaut le Bon), was count of Blois from 1151 to 1191, as well as count of Chartres. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... The name of the Jewish holiday Shavuot is commonly translated as Pentecost. Pentecost is the Christian festival that commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, fifty days after the Resurrection of Jesus at Easter, and ten days after the Ascension. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Robert I Capet (1011 – March 21, 1076) was duke of Burgundy between 1032 to his death. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Geoffrey V (August 24, 1113 – September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy, called Le Bel (The Fair) or Geoffrey Plantagenet, was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the Plantagenet dynasty of English kings. ...


Over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry five sons and three daughters: William, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey, John, Matilda, Eleanor, and Joanna. John Speed, in his 1611 work History of Great Britain, mentions the possibility that Eleanor had a son named Philip, who died young. His sources no longer exist and he alone mentions this birth.[4] William (August 17, 1153 – 1156) was the first child of Henry Plantagenet (later Henry II of England) and Eleanor of Aquitaine, strangely born on the same day that his fathers rival Eustace IV of Boulogne died. ... Henry, the Young King Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155–June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Geoffrey Plantagenet (September 23, 1158 – August 19, 1186) was Duke of Brittany between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. ... John of England depicted in Cassells History of England (1902) John (French: Jean) (December 24, 1166/67–October 18/19, 1216) reigned as King of England from 1199 to 1216. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Matilda of England (1156 - June 28, 1189), also known as Maud, was the eldest daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Leonora of Aquitaine (October 13, 1162 - October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England and became Leonora, Queen of Castile. ... Joan of England (October, 1165 – 4 September 1199) was the seventh child of King Henry II of England and his Queen consort, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ...


Henry was by no means faithful to his wife and had a reputation for philandering. Their son, William, and Henry's illegitimate son, Geoffrey, were born just months apart. Henry fathered other illegitimate children throughout the marriage. Eleanor appears to have taken an ambivalent attitude towards these affairs: for example, Geoffrey of York, an illegitimate son of Henry and a prostitute named Ykenai, was acknowledged by Henry as his child and raised at Westminster in the care of the Queen.


The period between Henry's accession and the birth of Eleanor's youngest son was turbulent: Aquitaine, as was the norm, defied the authority of Henry as Eleanor's husband; attempts to claim Toulouse, the rightful inheritance of Eleanor's grandmother and father, were made, ending in failure; the news of Louis of France's widowhood and remarriage was followed by the marriage of Henry's son (young Henry) to Louis' daughter Marguerite; and, most climactically, the feud between the King and Thomas à Becket, his Chancellor, and later his Archbishop of Canterbury. Little is known of Eleanor's involvement in these events. By late 1166, and the birth of her final child, however, Henry's notorious affair with Rosamund Clifford had become known, and her marriage to Henry appears to have become terminally strained. Saint Thomas Becket, St. ... Rosamund Clifford (born about 1150; died about 1176), often called The Fair Rosamund or the Rose of the World, was the long-time mistress of King Henry II of England, famous in English folklore. ...


1167 saw the marriage of Eleanor's third daughter, Matilda, to Henry the Lion of Saxony; Eleanor remained in England with her daughter for the year prior to Matilda's departure to Normandy in September. Afterwards, Eleanor proceeded to gather together her movable possessions in England and transport them on several ships in December to Argentan. At the royal court, celebrated there that Christmas, she appears to have agreed to a separation from Henry. Certainly, she left for her own city of Poitiers immediately after Christmas. Henry did not stop her; on the contrary, he and his army personally escorted her there, before attacking a castle belonging to the rebellious Lusignan family. Henry then went about his own business outside Aquitaine, leaving Earl Patrick (his regional military commander) as her protective custodian. When Patrick was killed in a skirmish, Eleanor (who proceeded to ransom his captured nephew, the young William Marshal), was left in control of her inheritance. William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146–1219) was an English aristocrat and statesman. ...


Myth of the "Court of Love" in Poitiers

Of all her influence on culture, Eleanor's time in Poitier was perhaps the most critical and yet the least is known of what happened. Away from Henry, Eleanor was able to develop her own court in Poitier. At a small cathedral still stands the stained glass commemorating Eleanor and Henry with a family tree growing from their prayers. Her court style was to encourage the cult of courtly love. Apparently, however, both King and church expunged the records of the actions and judgments taken under her authority. A small fragment of the court letters, codes and practices were written by Andreas Capellanus. It appears that one activity in the court style was for 12 men and women to hear cases of love between individuals. This forum was the forerunner of the jury system that she would implement in England after releasing all prisoners upon Henry's death. The proceedings of the court are speculative, though the legends of the court have endured. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... Andreas Capellanus (Capellanus meaning chaplain) was the 12th century author of a treatise commonly entitled De amore (On Love), and often known in English as The Art of Courtly Love. ...


Henry concentrated on controlling his increasingly-large empire, badgering Eleanor's subjects in attempts to control her patrimony of Aquitaine and her court at Poitiers. Straining all bounds of civility, Henry caused Archbishop Thomas Becket to be murdered at the altar of the church in 1170 (though there is considerable debate as to whether it was truly Henry's intent to be permanently rid of his archbishop). This aroused Eleanor's horror and contempt, along with most of Europe's. 1. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... Saint Thomas Becket, St. ... December 29: Assassination of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sailed to North America and founded a colony. ...


Eleanor's marriage to Henry was tumultuous and argumentative. However, despite his mistresses and Eleanor's imprisonment, Eleanor once remarked, "My marriage to Henry was a much happier one than my marriage to Louis." Eleanor and Henry did deeply love and respect one another and they did all they could to keep their family together as a whole. In their years together they raised their children and saw their grandchildren grow up. Eleanor and Henry, despite the rebellion of their children, and the times in which they lived, lived out their years with relative happiness.


Revolt and capture

In March 1173, aggrieved at his lack of power and egged on by his father's enemies, the younger Henry launched the Revolt of 1173–1174. He fled to Paris. From there 'the younger Henry, devising evil against his father from every side by the advice of the French King, went secretly into Aquitaine where his two youthful brothers, Richard and Geoffrey, were living with their mother, and with her connivance, so it is said, he incited them to join him'.[5] The Queen sent her younger sons to France 'to join with him against their father the King'.[6] Once her sons had left for Paris, Eleanor encouraged the lords of the south to rise up and support them.[7] Sometime between the end of March and the beginning of May, Eleanor left Poitiers to follow her sons to Paris but was arrested on the way and sent to the King in Rouen. The King did not announce the arrest publicly. For the next year, her whereabouts are unknown. On July 8, 1174, Henry took ship for England from Barfleur. He brought Eleanor on the ship. As soon as they disembarked at Southampton, Eleanor was taken away either to Winchester Castle or Sarum Castle and held there. The Revolt of 1173–1174 was a rebellion against Henry II of England by three of his sons, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine and rebel supporters. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Barfleur is a small picturesque fishing-port and commune in north-western France, in the Manche département in the Basse-Normandie région. ... A castle in Winchester called Winchester Castle ...


Years of imprisonment 1173–1189

Eleanor was imprisoned for the next fifteen years, much of the time in various locations in England. During her imprisonment, Eleanor had become more and more distant with her sons, especially Richard (who had always been her favorite). She did not have the opportunity to see her sons very often during her imprisonment, though she was released for special occasions such as Christmas. About four miles from Shrewsbury and close by Haughmond Abbey is "Queen Eleanor's Bower," the remains of a triangular castle which is believed to have been one of her prisons.


Henry lost his great love, Rosamund Clifford, in 1176. He had met her in 1166 and began the liaison in 1173, supposedly contemplating divorce from Eleanor. Rosamund/Rosamond was one among Henry's many mistresses, but although he treated earlier liaisons discreetly, he flaunted Rosamond. This notorious affair caused a monkish scribe with a gift for Latin to transcribe Rosamond's name to "Rosa Immundi", or "Rose of Unchastity". Likely, Rosamond was one weapon in Henry's efforts to provoke Eleanor into seeking an annulment (this flared in October 1175). Had she done so, Henry might have appointed Eleanor abbess of Fontevrault (Fontevraud), requiring her to take a vow of poverty, thereby releasing her titles and nearly half their empire to him, but Eleanor was much too wily to be provoked into this. Nevertheless, rumours persisted, perhaps assisted by Henry's camp, that Eleanor had poisoned Rosamund. No one knows what Henry believed, but he did donate much money to the Godstow Nunnery in which Rosamund was buried. Rosamund Clifford (born about 1150; died about 1176), often called The Fair Rosamund or the Rose of the World, was the long-time mistress of King Henry II of England, famous in English folklore. ... The ruined Godstow Abbey. ...


In 1183, Young Henry tried again. In debt and refused control of Normandy, he tried to ambush his father at Limoges. He was joined by troops sent by his brother Geoffrey and Philip II of France. Henry's troops besieged the town, forcing his son to flee. Henry the Young wandered aimlessly through Aquitaine until he caught dysentery. On Saturday, 11 June 1183, the Young King realized he was dying and was overcome with remorse for his sins. When his father's ring was sent to him, he begged that his father would show mercy to his mother, and that all his companions would plead with Henry to set her free. The King sent Thomas of Earley, Archdeacon of Wells, to break the news to Eleanor at Sarum.[8] Eleanor had had a dream in which she foresaw her son Henry's death. In 1193 she would tell Pope Celestine III that she was tortured by his memory. For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French commune. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... Pope Celestine III (Rome, c. ...


In 1183, Philip of France claimed that certain properties in Normandy belonged to The Young Queen but Henry insisted that they had once belonged to Eleanor and would revert to her upon her son's death. For this reason Henry summoned Eleanor to Normandy in the late summer of 1183. She stayed in Normandy for six months. This was the beginning of a period of greater freedom for the still supervised Eleanor. Eleanor went back to England probably early in 1184.[9] Over the next few years Eleanor often traveled with her husband and was sometimes associated with him in the government of the realm, but still had a custodian so that she was not free. Marguerite of France (1158 - 1197) was the eldest daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile. ...


Regent of England

Upon Henry's death on July 6, 1189, just days after suffering an injury from a jousting match, Richard was his undisputed heir. One of his first acts as king was to send William the Marshal to England with orders to release Eleanor from prison, but her custodians had already released her when he demanded this.[10] Eleanor rode to Westminster and received the oaths of fealty from many lords and prelates on behalf of the King. She ruled England in Richard's name, signing herself as 'Eleanor, by the grace of God, Queen of England'. On August 13, 1189, Richard sailed from Barfleur to Portsmouth, and was received with enthusiasm. She ruled England as regent while Richard went off on the Third Crusade. She personally negotiated his ransom by going to Germany. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... William Marshal was the greatest jouster of his age. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Later life

Eleanor survived Richard and lived well into the reign of her youngest son King John. In 1199, under the terms of a truce between King Philip II of France and King John, it was agreed that Philip's twelve-year-old heir Louis would be married to one of John's nieces of Castile. John deputed Eleanor to travel to Castile to select one of the princesses. Now 77, Eleanor set out from Poitiers. Just outside Poitiers she was ambushed and held captive by Hugh IX of Lusignan, which had long ago been sold by his forebears to Henry II. Eleanor secured her freedom by agreeing to his demands and journeyed south, crossed the Pyrenees, and travelled through the Kingdoms of Navarre and Castile, arriving before the end of January, 1200. This article is about the King of England. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Hugh IX of Lusignan was the grandson of Hugh VIII. His father, Hugh, married Orengarde about 1167 and died in 1169 leaving a one-year-old son. ...


King Alfonso VIII and Queen Leonora of Castile had two remaining unmarried daughters, Urraca and Blanche. Eleanor selected the younger daughter, Blanche. She stayed for two months at the Castilian court. Late in March, Eleanor and her granddaughter Blanche journeyed back across the Pyrenees. When she was at Bordeaux where she celebrated Easter, the famous warrior Mercadier came to her and it was decided that he would escort the Queen and Princess north. "On the second day in Easter week, he was slain in the city by a man-at-arms in the service of Brandin",[11] a rival mercenary captain. This tragedy was too much for the elderly Queen, who was fatigued and unable to continue to Normandy. She and Blanche rode in easy stages to the valley of the Loire, and she entrusted Blanche to the Archbishop of Bordeaux, who took over as her escort. The exhausted Eleanor went to Fontevrault, where she remained. In early summer, Eleanor was ill and John visited her at Fontevrault. Alfonso VIII (November 11, 1155 _ October 5, 1214), king of Castile only, and grandson of Alfonso VII, is a great name in Spanish history, for he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohades at the battle of the Navas de... Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. ... Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France. ... Mercadier (d. ...


Eleanor was again unwell in early 1201. When war broke out between John and Philip, Eleanor declared her support for John, and set out from Fontevrault for her capital Poitiers to prevent her grandson Arthur, John's enemy, from taking control. Arthur learned of her whereabouts and besieged her in the castle of Mirabeau. As soon as John heard of this he marched south, overcame the besiegers and captured Arthur. Eleanor then returned to Fontevrault where she took the veil as a nun. By the time of her death she had outlived all of her children except for King John and Queen Leonora. Arthur I, Duke of Brittany (1187 – 1203), was the posthumous son of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance, Duchess of Brittany, and designated heir to the throne of England, originally intended to succeed Richard I. While Richard was away on crusade, Constance took more independence for Brittany, and in 1194 had the...


Eleanor died in 1204 and was entombed in Fontevraud Abbey next to her husband Henry and her son Richard. Her tomb effigy shows her reading a Bible and is decorated with magnificent jewelry. She was the patroness of such literary figures as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-More, and Chrétien de Troyes. [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... General view of the complex. ... This article is about figure. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Wace (c. ... Benoît de Sainte-Maure (1154 - 1173) was a twelth century French poet and trouvere. ... Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ...


In historical fiction

On the stage and in film

Eleanor and Henry are the main characters in James Goldman's play The Lion in Winter, which was made into a film starring Peter O'Toole and Katharine Hepburn, and remade for television in 2003 with Patrick Stewart and Glenn Close. The depiction of her in the play and film Becket contains historical inaccuracies, as acknowledged by the author, Jean Anouilh. In 2004, Catherine Muschamp's one-woman play, Mother of the Pride, toured the UK with Eileen Page in the title role. In 2005, Chapelle Jaffe played the same part in Toronto. James Goldman (June 30, 1929 - October 28, 1998) was an American playwright, and screenwriter, and brother of William Goldman. ... The Lion in Winter is a 1966 Broadway play by James Goldman, who also cinematically adapted it in 1968 for the film directed by Anthony Harvey and a 2003 film by Andrei Konchalovsky. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Katharine Houghton Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an American actress of film, television and stage. ... This article is about the actor. ... Glenn Close (born March 19, 1947) is an American film and stage actress and singer, perhaps best known for her role as a deranged stalker in Fatal Attraction (1987). ... Becket is a 1964 film adaptation of the play Becket or the Honour of God by Jean Anouilh made by Hal Wallis Productions and released by Paramount Pictures. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The character "Queen Elinor" appears in William Shakespeare's King John, along with other members of the family. Although never portrayed directly onscreen, nor mentioned by name, Eleanor is referenced often in the Disney animated film Robin Hood. The comically spoiled Prince John (Peter Ustinov) is constantly being reminded of his mother by his scribe, Sir Hiss. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Life and Death of King John is one of the Shakespearean histories, plays written by William Shakespeare and based on the history of England. ... “Robin Hood (Disney film)” redirects here. ... Sir Peter Alexander Ustinov, CBE (IPA: ; April 16, 1921 – March 28, 2004), born Peter Alexander Baron von Ustinov, was an Academy Award-winning English actor, writer, dramatist and raconteur of French, Italian, Swiss, Russian, German and Ethiopian ancestry. ...


Television

Eleanor appears briefly in the BBC production of Ivanhoe portrayed by Sian Phillips. Eleanor does appear (played by Jill Esmond) as a recurring character in several episodes of the classic television program The Adventures of Robin Hood, whom Robin aids in her efforts to raise King Richard's ransom and thwart Prince John's schemes. She has also appeared in one episode of the recent Robin Hood BBC TV series "Treasure of the Nation", played by Lynda Bellingham, in which she is portrayed as the "titular treasure of the nation", and as a middle-aged woman who flirts with Little John. For other uses, see Ivanhoe (disambiguation). ... Siân Phillips, CBE is a Welsh actress who was born Jane Elizabeth Ailwên Phillips in Betws, Carmarthenshire, Wales, on May 14, 1934. ... Jill Esmond (January 26, 1908 – July 28, 1990) was a British actress. ... A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... The Adventures of Robin Hood was a popular, long-running British television series (143 half-hour, black and white episodes, 1955 - 1960) starring Richard Greene as Robin Hood. ... Robin Hood is a British television programme, produced by independent production company Tiger Aspect Productions for BBC One, with co-funding from the BBC America cable television channel in the United States. ... Lynda Bellingham (born May 31, 1948 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is an English actress best known for her appearances on British television. ...


Novels and children's books

She is the subject of E. L. Konigsburg's children's book A Proud Taste for Scarlet and Miniver. Her life is chronicled in three books by Sharon Kay Penman When Christ and His Saints Slept, Time and Chance, and The Devil's Brood. She also appears in Penman's novel Here Be Dragons and in her Justin de Quincy mysteries. The novel The Book of Eleanor by Pamela Kaufman tells the story of Eleanor's life from her own point of view. She dictates her memoirs in Power of a Woman by Robert Fripp. Beloved Enemy, a novel by Ellen Jones, portrays her marriage to Louis VII and the first decade of her marriage to Henry II. Kristiana Gregory explored Eleanor's early life in her 2002 juvenile work Eleanor: Crown Jewel of Aquitaine — France, 1136, part of the Royal Diaries series of biographical novels for girls, whilst Margaret Ball's 2006 novel Duchess of Aquitaine also treated her life. Elaine Lobl Konigsburg (born on February 10, 1930) is an American author of childrens books, and two time winner of the Newbery Medal for childrens literature. ... Sharon Kay Penman (born 1945) is an American author of fiction, born in New York, but her ancestors were Anglo-Irish. ... Kristiana Gregory (b. ... The Royal Diaries is a series of twenty books published by Scholastic Press from 1999 to 2005. ...


A number of historical novels about the life of Eleanor have been written in French, including Mireille Calmel's Le lit d'Aliénor. Susan Howatch transplanted the relationships between Eleanor and her children to early twentieth-century Cornwall as the plot of her 1971 bestseller Penmarric. Susan Howatch (born 1940) is an author. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


Children

With Louis VII of France: Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ...

With Henry II of England: Marie of France, or Marie Capet, Countess of Champagne (1145 – March 11, 1198), was the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Henry I of Champagne (died March 17, 1181), known as the Liberal, was count of Champagne from 1152 to 1181. ... Alix of France (summer 1151 – 1197/1198) was the second daughter born to Louis VII of France by his first wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Theobald V of Blois (d. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ...

William (August 17, 1153 – 1156) was the first child of Henry Plantagenet (later Henry II of England) and Eleanor of Aquitaine, strangely born on the same day that his fathers rival Eustace IV of Boulogne died. ... Henry, the Young King Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155–June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Marguerite of France (1158 - 1197) was the eldest daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Matilda of England (1156 - June 28, 1189), also known as Maud, was the eldest daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Henry the Lion (statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral). ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony comprised lands in the north-westen part of present-day Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and to Westphalia. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Berengaria of Navarre Berengaria (Spanish: Berenguela, French: Bérengère) (c. ... Geoffrey Plantagenet (September 23, 1158 – August 19, 1186) was Duke of Brittany between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. ... Constance of Brittany (1161 – September 5, 1201) was Duchess of Brittany between 1186 and 1196. ... Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. ... Alfonso VIII, centre, and Queen Eleanor, left. ... Joan of England (October, 1165 – 4 September 1199) was the seventh child of King Henry II of England and his Queen consort, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... William II (1153 – November 11, 1189 Palermo), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189. ... Raymond VI of Toulouse (October 27, 1156 – August 2, 1222) was count of Toulouse and marquis of Provence from 1194 to 1222. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Statue of Isabella of Angoulême, in front of the city hall of Angoulême Isabella of Angoulême (fr. ...

References

The Times Kings & Queens of The British Isles, by Thomas Cussans (page 73) ISBN 0-0071-4195-5


Notes

  1. ^ The exact date of Eleanor's birth is not known, but the year is known from the fact that the lords of Aquitaine swore fealty to her on her fourteenth birthday in 1136. Some chronicles give her date of birth as 1120, but her parents almost certainly married in 1121.
  2. ^ Meade, Marion (2002). Eleanor of Aquitaine. Phoenix Press, 51. “...[Adelaide] perhaps [based] her preconceptions on another southerner, Constance of Provence...tales of her allegedly immodest dress and language still continued to circulate amongst the sober Franks.” 
  3. ^ Chronique de Touraine
  4. ^ Weir, Alison, Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, pages 154-155, Ballantine Books, 1999
  5. ^ William of Newburgh
  6. ^ Roger of Hoveden
  7. ^ Eleanor of Aquitaine. Alison Weir 1999
  8. ^ Ms. S. Berry, Senior Archivist at the Somerset Archive and Record Service, identified this "archdeacon of Wells" as Thomas of Earley, noting his family ties to Henry II and the Earleys' philanthropies (Power of a Woman, ch. 33, and endnote 40).
  9. ^ Eleanor of Aquitaine. Alison Weir 1999
  10. ^ Eleanor of Aquitaine. Alison Weir 1999.
  11. ^ Roger of Hoveden

Biographies and printed works

  • Eleanor of Aquitaine: Lord and Lady, John Carmi Parsons & Bonnie Wheeler (2002)
  • Queen Eleanor: Independent Spirit of the Medieval World, Polly Schover Brooks (1983) (for young readers)
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Biography, Marion Meade (1977)
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings, Amy Kelly (1950)
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine: The Mother Queen, Desmond Seward (1978)
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, Alison Weir (1999)
  • Le lit d'Aliénor, Mireille Calmel (2001)
  • "The Royal Diaries, Eleanor Crown Jewel of Aquitaine", Kristiana Gregory (2002)
  • Women of the Twelfth Century, Volume 1 : Eleanor of Aquitaine and Six Others, Georges Duby
  • A Proud Taste For Scarlet and Miniver, E. L. Konigsburg
  • The Book of Eleanor: A Novel of Eleanor of Aquitaine, Pamela Kaufman (2002)
  • The Courts of Love, Jean Plaidy (1987)
  • Power of a Woman. Memoirs of a turbulent life: Eleanor of Aquitaine, Robert Fripp (2006)

Alison Weir (born 1951) is a British writer of history books for the general public, mostly in the form of biographies about British kings and queens. ... Georges Duby Georges Duby (October 7, 1919 - December 3, 1996) was a French historian specializing in the Middle Ages. ... Elaine Lobl Konigsburg (born on February 10, 1930) is an American author of childrens books, and two time winner of the Newbery Medal for childrens literature. ...

External links

  • The Eleanor Vase preserved at the Louvre Images of Medieval Art and Architecture
  • RoyaList Online interactive family tree (en)
French nobility
Preceded by
William X
Duchess of Aquitaine
with Louis and Henry I
(1137–1168)
Succeeded by
Richard I
Countess of Poitiers
with Louis and Henry I
(1137–1153)
Succeeded by
William
French royalty
Preceded by
Adelaide de Maurienne
Queen of France
11371152
Succeeded by
Constance of Castile
English royalty
Preceded by
Matilda of Boulogne
Queen Consort of England
25 October 11546 July 1189
Succeeded by
Berengaria of Navarre
Preceded by
Emma of Normandy
Queen mother
11891204
Succeeded by
Isabella of Angoulême

! This article is about the museum. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... William X of Aquitaine (1099 – April 9, 1137), nicknamed the Saint was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VIII of Poitiers between 1126 and 1137. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Among the men who have borne the title of Count of Poitiers (or Poitou, in what is now France but in the Middle Ages became part of Aquitaine) are: Guerin (or Warin[us]) (638–677) Renaud (795–843) Bernard I (815–844) Emenon or Emeno (828 – 839), Ranulph I (835... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... William (August 17, 1153 – 1156) was the first child of Henry Plantagenet (later Henry II of England) and Eleanor of Aquitaine, strangely born on the same day that his fathers rival Eustace IV of Boulogne died. ... It has been suggested that Regents: France and French States be merged into this article or section. ... Adélaide de Maurienne (c. ... This is a list of the women who have been Queens consort or Empresses consort of the realm of France. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Constance of Castile, (1141-4 October 1160), was a daughter of Alfonso VII of León and Berenguela of Barcelona. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Berengaria of Navarre Berengaria (Spanish: Berenguela, French: Bérengère) (c. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... A Queen Mother is a person satisfying the following criteria: She is the mother of the current monarch, or possibly of the consort of the monarch (though this would not be normal practice). ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... Statue of Isabella of Angoulême, in front of the city hall of Angoulême Isabella of Angoulême (fr. ... Prince George of Denmark Prince George of Denmark (April 2, 1653 - October 28, 1708) was the Prince consort of Queen Anne of Great Britain. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Year 1688 (MDCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Guilford Dudley (1536 - 12 February 1554) was a son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and Jane Guilford; and the younger brother of Robert Dudley, the future earl of Leicester. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Catherine Parr (c. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Cathrine Howard (between 1520 and 1525 – 13 February 1542), also called Katherine Howard[1] was the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England (1540-1542), and sometimes known by his reference to her as the rose without a thorn. Her birth date and place of birth is unknown, (occasionally cited... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Anne of Cleves (22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557) was the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England from 6 January 1540 to 9 July 1540. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For the actress, see Jane Seymour (actress). ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marquess of Pembroke[1] (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) (Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla), was the Queen of England as the first wife of Henry VIII of England. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Anne Neville (June 11, 1456–March 16, 1485) was Queen consort of King Richard III of England 1483-1485. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Margaret of Anjou (Marguerite dAnjou, March 23, 1429 – August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and led the Lancastrian contingent, in the Wars of the Roses. ... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Catherine of Valois (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437) was the Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Joanna of Navarre (1370? - 1437) was the daughter of Charles the Bad, King of Navarre. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... Isabella of Valois (9 November 1389 – 13 September 1409) was a Princess of France, daughter of King Charles VI and Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Anne of Bohemia Anne of Bohemia (1366 - 1394) was the daughter of Emperor Charles IV, King of Bohemia and Elisabeth of Pomerania. ... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Philippa of Hainault Philippa of Hainault (~1314 - August 15, 1369) was the Queen consort of Edward III of England. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... Marguerite of France (1282 – 14 February 1317) was a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... January 18 - German king Albrecht I makes his son Rudolf king of Bohemia. ... For other Eleanors of England, see Eleanor of England (disambiguation) Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 28 November 1290) was the first Queen consort of Edward I of England. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... // March 1 - The University of Coimbra is founded in Lisbon, Portugal by King Denis of Portugal; it moves to Coimbra in 1308. ... For other Eleanors of England, see Eleanor of England (disambiguation). ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Statue of Isabella of Angoulême, in front of the city hall of Angoulême Isabella of Angoulême (fr. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Berengaria of Navarre Berengaria (Spanish: Berenguela, French: Bérengère) (c. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Geoffrey of Anjou Geoffrey V (Godefroi) (August 24, 1113 – September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy by marriage, called Le Bel (The Fair), Martel (The Hammer) or Plantagenet, was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the... Events February 2 - Battle of Lincoln. ... Adeliza of Louvain (1103-1151) was queen consort of England from 1121 to 1135, the second wife of King Henry I of England. ... Events Concordat of Worms condemns Pierre Abélards writings on the Holy Trinity. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Events Sancho I of Aragon conqueres Graus. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Royalty.nu - Angevin Royal History - Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England and France (2466 words)
Eleanor of Aquitaine by Marion Meade is a biography with a feminist point of view.
Eleanor of Aquitaine: Queen of the Troubadours by Jean Markale.
Eleanor of Aquitaine: Heroine of the Middle Ages by Rachel A. Koestler-Grack.
Eleanor of Aquitaine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3303 words)
Eleanor's reputation was further sullied by her supposed affair with her uncle Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch.
Eleanor and Henry were half, third cousins through their common ancestor Ermengarde of Anjou (wife to Robert I, Duke of Burgundy and Geoffrey, Count of Gâtinais).
Eleanor died in 1204 and was entombed in Fontevraud Abbey near her husband Henry and son Richard.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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