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Encyclopedia > Elderberry
Elderberry or Elder
Black Elder (Sambucus nigra)
Black Elder (Sambucus nigra)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Dipsacales
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Sambucus
Species

See text Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1601x1067, 459 KB) Sambucus nigra Foto von JeLuF Datum: 29. ... Species See text. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families may not be a complete list Adoxaceae (moschatel family) Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family) Diervillaceae Dipsacaceae (teasel family) Linnaeaceae (twinflower family) Morinaceae Valerianaceae (valerian family) The Dipsacales are an order of flowering plants, included within the asterid group of dicotyledons. ... Genera Adoxa - Moschatel Sambucus - Elder Viburnum - Viburnum The Adoxaceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Dipsacales, as now constituted comprising three genera and about 150-200 species. ...

Elder or Elderberry (Sambucus) is a genus of between 5–30 species of shrubs or small trees (two species herbaceous), formerly treated in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae, but now shown by genetic evidence to be correctly classified in the moschatel family Adoxaceae. The genus is native to temperate to subtropical regions of both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere; the genus is more widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, with Southern Hemisphere occurrence restricted to parts of Australasia and South America. A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Genera See text. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Genera Adoxa - Moschatel Sambucus - Elder Viburnum - Viburnum The Adoxaceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Dipsacales, as now constituted comprising three genera and about 150-200 species. ... The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planets surface (or celestial sphere) that is north of the equator (the word hemisphere literally means half ball). On the Earth, the Northern Hemisphere contains most of the land and about 90% of the human population. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The leaves are opposite, pinnate, with 5-9 leaflets (rarely 3 or 11), each leaf 5-30 cm long, the leaflets with a serrated margin. They bear large clusters of small white or cream coloured flowers in the late spring, that are followed by clusters of small red, bluish or black (rarely yellow or white) berries. Species have lifespans between 80 and 100 years. “Foliage” redirects here. ... Look up Pinnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... White is the combination of all the colors of the visible light spectrum. ... Cream is the colour of the cream produced by cattle grazing on natural pasture with plants rich in yellow carotenoid pigments, some of which are incorporated into the cream, to give a slight yellow tone to the white. ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms ( flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Several types of berries from the market. ...


The berries are a very valuable food resource for many birds. Elders are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail, Buff Ermine, Dot Moth, Emperor Moth, The Engrailed, Swallow-tailed Moth and The V-pug. The crushed foliage and immature fruit have a strong fetid smell. Dead elder wood is the preferred habitat of the mushroom Auricularia auricula-judae, also known as "Judas' ear fungus". who cares though]] island species, have also lost the ability to fly. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Binomial name Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linnaeus, 1758 The Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) is a moth of the family Lymantriidae. ... Binomial name Spilosoma luteum Hufnagel, 1766 The Buff Ermine (Spilosoma luteum) is a moth of the family Arctiidae. ... Binomial name Melanchra persicariae Linnaeus, 1761 The Dot Moth (Melanchra persicariae) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Pavonia pavonia Linnaeus, 1758 The Emperor Moth (Pavonia pavonia) is a moth of the family Saturniidae. ... Binomial name Ectropis crepuscularia Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Engrailed (Ectropis crepuscularia) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Ourapteryx sambucaria Linnaeus, 1758 The Swallow-tailed Moth (Ourapteryx sambucaria) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Chloroclystis v-ata Haworth, 1809 The V-Pug (Chloroclystis v-ata) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name (Fr. ...


Valley elderberry longhorn beetle in California are very often found around red or blue elderberry bushes. Females lay their eggs on the bark. Larvae hatch and burrow into the stems. Trinomial name Desmocerus californicus dimorphus Fisher, 1921 [1] The valley elderberry longhorn beetle, Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, is a subspecies of longhorn beetle native to the riparian forests of the Central Valley of California from Redding to Bakersfield. ...

Contents

Species groups

  • The common elder complex is variously treated as a single species Sambucus nigra found in the warmer parts of Europe and North America with several regional varieties or subspecies, or else as a group of several similar species. The flowers are in flat corymbs, and the berries are black to glaucous blue; they are larger shrubs, reaching 5–8 m tall, occasionally small trees up to 15 m tall and with a stem diameter of up to 30–60 cm.
    • Sambucus australis (Southern Elder; temperate eastern South America)
    • Sambucus canadensis (American Elder; eastern North America; with blue-black berries)
    • Sambucus cerulea (syn. S. caerulea, S. glauca; Blueberry Elder; western North America; with blue berries)
    • Sambucus javanica (Chinese Elder; southeastern Asia)
    • Sambucus mexicana (Mexican Elder; Mexico and Central America; with blue-black berries)
    • Sambucus nigra (Black Elder; Europe and western Asia; with black berries)
    • Sambucus palmensis (Canary Islands Elder; Canary Islands; with black berries)
    • Sambucus peruviana (Peruvian Elder; northwest South America; with black berries)
    • Sambucus simpsonii (Florida Elder; southeastern United States; with blue-black berries)
    • Sambucus peruviana (Andean Elder; northern South America; with blue-black berries)
    • Sambucus velutina (Velvet Elder; southwestern North America; with blue-black berries)
  • The Blackberry Elder Sambucus melanocarpa of western North America is intermediate between the preceding and next groups. The flowers are in rounded panicles, but the berries are black; it is a small shrub, rarely exceeding 3–4 m tall. Some botanists include it in the red-berried elder group.
  • The red-berried elder complex is variously treated as a single species Sambucus racemosa found throughout the colder parts of the Northern Hemisphere with several regional varieties or subspecies, or else as a group of several similar species. The flowers are in rounded panicles, and the berries are bright red; they are smaller shrubs, rarely exceeding 3–4 m tall.
    • Sambucus callicarpa (Pacific Coast Red Elder; west coast of North America)
    • Sambucus chinensis (Chinese Red Elder; eastern Asia, in mountains)
    • Sambucus latipinna (Korean Red Elder; Korea, southeast Siberia)
    • Sambucus microbotrys (Mountain Red Elder; southwest North America, in mountains)
    • Sambucus pubens (American Red Elder; northern North America)
    • Sambucus racemosa (European Red Elder or Red-berried Elder; northern Europe, northwest Asia)
    • Sambucus sieboldiana (Japanese Red Elder; Japan and Korea)
    • Sambucus tigranii (Caucasus Red Elder; southwest Asia, in mountains)
    • Sambucus williamsii (North China Red Elder; northeast Asia)
  • The Australian elder group comprises two species from Australasia. The flowers are in rounded panicles, and the berries white or yellow; they are shrubs growing to 3 m high.
    • Sambucus australasica (Yellow Elder; New Guinea, eastern Australia)
    • Sambucus gaudichaudiana (Australian Elder or White Elder; shady areas of south eastern Australia)
  • The dwarf elders are, by contrast to the other species, herbaceous plants, producing new stems each year from a perennial root system; they grow to 1.5–2 m tall, each stem terminating in a large flat umbel which matures into a dense cluster of glossy berries.
    • Sambucus adnata (Asian Dwarf Elder; Himalaya and eastern Asia; berries red)
    • Sambucus ebulus (European Dwarf Elder; central and southern Europe, northwest Africa and southwest Asia; berries black)

World map showing the location of Europe. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structure A panicle is a compound raceme; a branched, indeterminate inflorescence with pedicellate flowers (and fruit) attached along the secondary branches (in another words, a branched cluster of flowers in which the branches are racemes). ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... Sambucus canadensis, the American Elderberry is a suckering shrub native to a large area of North America east of the Rocky Mountains. ... Species See text. ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planets surface (or celestial sphere) that is north of the equator (the word hemisphere literally means half ball). On the Earth, the Northern Hemisphere contains most of the land and about 90% of the human population. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... Binomial name Sambucus ebulus L. Danewort (Sambucus ebulus), also known as Dwarf Elder or European Dwarf Elder, is a herbaceous species of elder, native to southern and central Europe and southwest Asia. ...

Uses

Both flowers and berries can be made into elderberry wine, and in Hungary an elderberry brandy is produced (requiring 50 kg of fruit to produce 1 litre of brandy). The alcoholic drink sambuca is made by infusing elderberries and anise into alcohol. The berries are best not eaten raw as they are mildly poisonous, causing vomiting (particularly if eaten unripe). The mild cyanide toxicity is destroyed by cooking. The berries can also be made into jam, pies or Pontack sauce. All green parts of the plant are poisonous, containing cyanogenic glycosides (Vedel & Lange 1960). Elderberry Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from brewed elderberries. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Brandy (short for brandywine, from Dutch brandewijn—burnt wine[1]) is a general term for distilled wine, usually 40–60% ethyl alcohol by volume. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Sambuca is an Italian aniseed-flavored, usually colorless liqueur. ... Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Raw Food is a term most commonly used in the food industry to describe food that has not been cooked or otherwise processed. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... The cyanide ion, CN−. From the top: 1. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Jam from berries Fruit preserves refers to fruit, or vegetables, that have been prepared and canned for long term storage. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, glycosides are certain molecules in which a sugar part is bound to some other part. ...

an elderberry-cultivation in Styria, Austria

The flowers may be used to make an herbal tea, which is believed as a remedy for colds and fever. In Europe, the flowers are made into a syrup or cordial (in Romanian: Socată), which is diluted with water before drinking. The popularity of this traditional drink has recently encouraged some commercial soft drink producers to introduce elderflower-flavoured drinks (Fanta Shokata). The flowers can also be used to make a mildly alcoholic, sparkling elderflower 'champagne'. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1752 KB) Beschreibung Description: de: Holunderkultur in der Oststeiermark en: cultivation of elderberry in Eastern Styria Source: picture made by myself Date: created 13. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1752 KB) Beschreibung Description: de: Holunderkultur in der Oststeiermark en: cultivation of elderberry in Eastern Styria Source: picture made by myself Date: created 13. ... Herbal tea An herbal tea, tisane, or ptisan is an herbal infusion not made from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. ... Look up cordial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about a beverage. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... Fanta is a brand of fruit-flavored soft drink from the Coca-Cola Company, introduced for the first time in Germany in 1940. ...


A few clinical studies have shown effectiveness of Sambucol, a formulation based on an extract of elderberry, in the treatment of both adults and children with either type A or B influenza. Sambucol reduced both the severity and duration of flu symptoms in otherwise healthy subjects, but should not be considered a substitute for influenza vaccination in high risk individuals [1]. An in vitro study of Sambucol showed possible effectivness against the H5N1 avian influenza virus [2]. Avian influenza (also known as bird flu, avian flu, influenzavirus A flu, type A flu, or genus A flu) is a flu (influenza) due to a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. ...


Folklore

The elder was formerly held to be unlucky to have in the garden. If an elder tree was cut down, a spirit known as the Elder Mother would be released and take her revenge; shown in one way by a poem known as the Wiccan Rede where one line reads, "Elder be the Lady's tree, burn it not or cursed you'll be." This may derive from ancient Pagan beliefs, which held the elder sacred to the Moon Goddess. The tree could only safely be cut while chanting a rhyme to the Elder Mother.[1] Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon In mythology, a lunar deity is a god or goddess associated with or symbolizing the moon: see moon (mythology). ...


Trivia

Binominal name Acer negundo Manitoba Maple (Acer negundo), also known as Ash-leaved Maple or (confusingly) Boxelder, is a species of maple, which occurs throughout most of North America. ... Binomial name Acer negundo L. Manitoba Maple (Acer negundo), as the species is called in Canada, also known as Ash-leaved Maple or Boxelder in the United States, is a species of maple, which occurs throughout most of North America. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819–March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... Dont Shoot Me Im Only the Piano Player is the seventh album by British singer/songwriter Elton John, released in 1973 (see 1973 in music). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “HP7” redirects here. ... The Sign of the Deathly Hallows represents all three objects symbolically: the wand, the stone and the cloak. ... Lord Voldemort (né Tom Marvolo Riddle) is a fictional character and the archvillain in the Harry Potter book series written by J. K. Rowling. ...

References and external links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sambucus
  1. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987); pp. 134-5
  • Germplasm Resources Information Network: Sambucus
  • National Institute of Health - Medline page on Sambucus nigra L.
  • Vedel, H., & Lange, J. (1960). Trees and Bushes in Wood and Hedgerow. Methuen & Co Ltd.
  • Elder bush info and recipes from the BBC Guide to Life, the Universe, and Everything website.
  • Grieve, 'A Modern Herbal' (1931)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Programmatic Consultations (4531 words)
As outlined in Table 1, the numbers of elderberry seedlings/cuttings and associated riparian native trees/shrubs to be planted as replacement habitat are determined by stem size class of affected elderberry shrubs, presence or absence of exit holes, and whether a proposed project lies in a riparian or non-riparian area.
Elderberry plants with no stems measuring 1.0 inch or greater in diameter at ground level are unlikely to be habitat for the beetle because of their small size and/or immaturity.
Each elderberry stem measuring 1.0 inch or greater in diameter at ground level that is adversely affected (i.e., transplanted or destroyed) must be replaced, in the conservation area, with elderberry seedlings or cuttings at a ratio ranging from 1:1 to 8:1 (new plantings to affected stems).
Homestead Farm's FAQs - Elderberry (2045 words)
Elderberry focuses on the nutritional needs of the immune system offering the body additional amounts of vitamin C, fruit acids and traces of essential oils and anthocyanci pigments.
Warm elderberry wine is a remedy for sore throat, influenza and induces perspiration to reverse the effects of a chill.
Elderberries are the size of cultivated currants but very strongly flavored, crunchy, and not as sweet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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