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Encyclopedia > Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry


In office
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814
President James Madison
Preceded by George Clinton
Succeeded by Daniel D. Tompkins

In office
June 10, 1810 – March 4, 1812
Lieutenant(s) William Gray
Preceded by Christopher Gore
Succeeded by Caleb Strong

Born July 17, 1744(1744-07-17)
Marblehead, Massachusetts
Died November 23, 1814 (aged 70)
Washington, D.C.
Political party Democratic-Republican
Spouse Ann Thompson Gerry

Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced /ˈgɛɹi/) (July 17, 1744November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he was elected the fifth Vice President of the United States, serving under James Madison, from March 4, 1813 until his death a year and a half later.[1] mind your manders! This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Daniel D. Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... William Gray (June 27, 1750 - November 4, 1825) was a Massachusetts merchant and politician. ... Christopher Gore (September 21, 1758 - March 1, 1827) was a prominent Massachusetts lawyer, Federalist politician, and diplomat. ... Caleb Strong (January 9, 1745 - November 7, 1819) was a U.S. political figure. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Democratic-Republican Party, also known as the Republican Party (not related to the present-day Republican Party), was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Gerry was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He was one of the three men who refused to sign the Constitution because it did not have a Bill of Rights. Gerry later became Governor of Massachusetts. He is most famous for being the namesake of gerrymandering — a process by which electoral districts are drawn with the aim of aiding the party in power. The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of Great Britain. ... The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Marblehead, Massachusetts, the third of twelve children, he was a graduate of Harvard College, where he studied to be a merchant, attending there from age fourteen. He worked in his father's shipping business and came to prominence over his opposition to commerce taxes. He was elected to the General Court of the province of Massachusetts in May 1772 on an anti-British platform. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, founded in 1636. ...


Career

Gerry was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress from February 1776 to 1780. He also served from 1783 to September 1785 and was married in 1786 to Ann Thompson, the daughter of a wealthy New York merchant, 21 years his junior. In 1787 he attended the United States Constitutional Convention and was one of the delegates voting against the new constitution (joining Mengson and Randolph in not signing it). He was elected to the U.S. House under the new national government, and served in Congress from 1789 to 1793. The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... The Philadelphia Convention—also known as the Constitutional Convention—took place in May through September, 1787, to address problems in the government of the United States of America following independence from Britain. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ...


He surprised his friends by becoming a strong supporter of the new government, and so vigorously supported Alexander Hamilton's reports on public credit, including the assumption of state debts, and supported Hamilton's new Bank of the United States, that he was considered a leading champion by the Federalists. He did not stand for reelection in 1792. He was a presidential elector for John Adams in the 1796 election, and was appointed by Adams to the critical delegation to France that was humiliated by the French in the XYZ Affair. He stayed in France after his two colleagues returned, and Federalists accused him of supporting the French. He returned in October 1798, and switched his affiliation to Democratic-Republican party in 1800. Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... The First Bank of the United States was a bank chartered by Congress on February 25, 1791. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... John Adams, Jr. ... This article is about the diplomatic situation between the United States and France in 1798. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the...


He was the unsuccessful Democratic-Republican nominee for governor of Massachusetts in 1800, 1801, 1802 and 1803. In 1810 he was finally elected Governor of Massachusetts as a Democratic-Republican. He was re-elected in 1811 but defeated in 1812 over his support for the redistricting bill that created the word gerrymander. He was chosen as vice president to James Mengison. He died in office in Washington, D.C. and is buried there in the Congressional Cemetery. The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Redrawing electoral districts in this example creates a guaranteed 3-to-1 advantage for Party 1. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Congressional Cemetery is an historic cemetery located at 1801 E Street, SE, in Washington, D.C., on the bank of the Anacostia River. ...


Legacy

Gerry's longtime house, Elmwood Mansion in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the birthplace of noted poet James Russell Lowell, who was born there a few years after Gerry's death. His grandson, Elbridge Gerry (1813–1886), was a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Maine; his great grandson, Peter G. Gerry, was a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives and United States Senator from Rhode Island. Elmwood, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ... James Russell Lowell (b. ... Peter Goelet Gerry (1879-1957), also known as Peter G. Gerry, was a U.S. Senator from Rhode Island. ...


Quotes

  • "The evils we experience flow from the excess of democracy. The people do not want virtue, but are dupes of pretended patriots"[2]
  • As a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, Elbridge Gerry argued against maintaining a large standing army by comparing it to a large standing penis: "An excellent assurance of domestic tranquility, but a dangerous temptation to foreign adventure."[3]

Notes

  1. ^ He was the second Vice President to die in office.The first to die in office was Gerry's immediate predecessor, George Clinton.
  2. ^ Government By The People, The Dynamics of American National, State, and Local Government, James MacGregor Burns & Jack Walter Peltason, 6th edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1963. pg 50.
  3. ^ Farrand's Records of Convention, 3:85; Samuel Eliot Morison, Oxford History of the American People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), 1:398.

This page is for the Vice President George Clinton. ...

References

  • Austin, James, Life of Elbridge Gerry 1970; Da Capo Press (ISBN 0-306-71841-3).
  • Billias, George, Elbridge Gerry, Founding Father and Republican Statesman 1976, McGraw-Hill Publishers (ISBN 0-07-005269-7).
  • Kramer, Eugene F. "Some New Light on the XYZ Affair: Elbridge Gerry's Reasons for Opposing War with France." New England Quarterly 1956 29(4): 509-513. ISSN 0028-4866
  • Trees, Andy. "Private Correspondence for the Public Good: Thomas Jefferson to Elbridge Gerry, 26 January 1799" Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 2000 108(3): 217-254. ISSN 0042-6636 shows Gerry ignored Jefferson's 1799 letter inviting him to switch parties.

External links

  • Appleton's Biography edited by Stanley L. Klos
  • Official Commonwealth of Massachusetts Governor Biography
  • Elbridge Gerry at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  • Biography by Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, 1856
  • Delegates to the Constitutional Convention: Masachusetts (Brief Biography of Gerry)
  • Gerry family archive at Hartwick College
  • Find-A-Grave profile for Elbridge Gerry
Preceded by
(none)
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district

March 4, 1789 - March 4, 1793
Succeeded by
Shearjashub Bourne, Peleg Coffin, Jr. and David Cobb (General ticket)
Preceded by
Christopher Gore
Governor of Massachusetts
June 10, 1810June, 1812
Succeeded by
Caleb Strong
Preceded by
George Clinton
Democratic-Republican vice presidential candidate
1812 (won)
Succeeded by
Daniel D. Tompkins
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814

  Results from FactBites:
 
Colonial Hall: Biography of Elbridge Gerry (3123 words)
Gerry, "one was to seize the persons of some of the influential members of Congress, and to hold them as hostages for the moderation of their colleagues, or send them to England for trial as traitors, and thus strike dismay and terror into the minds of their associates and friends.
Gerry was chairman of the committee appointed to prepare the act to authorize privateering, and to establish admiralty courts.
Gerry, that gentleman himself was appointed a judge, for the counties of Suffolk, Middlesex, and Essex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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