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Encyclopedia > Elam
History of Iran
edit
Ancient Mesopotamia
Euphrates · Tigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: Uruk · Ur · Eridu
Kish · Lagash · Nippur
Akkadian Empire: Akkad
Babylon · Isin · Susa
Assyria: Assur · Nineveh
Dur-Sharrukin · Nimrud
Babylonia · Chaldea
Elam · Amorites
Hurrians · Mitanni
Kassites · Urartu
Chronology
Kings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Language
Aramaic
Sumerian · Akkadian
Elamite · Hurrian
Mythology
Enûma Elish
Gilgamesh · Marduk

Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. Elam was centered in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran (Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). It lasted from around 2700 BC to 539 BC. It was preceded by what is known as the Proto-Elamite period, which began around 3200 BC when Susa (later capital of Elam) began to be influenced by the cultures of the Iranian plateau to the east. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... // The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) was an ancient civilization that existed in what is now Iran from roughly 3000 BCE to? BCE. Research into this civilization is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Ghurids (or Ghoris; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Iranian TājÄ«k[1][2] origin. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Khwarezmid Empire The Khwarezmid Empire (Persian: ‎ , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled in Central Asia and Iran, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and later as independent rulers in the 11th century, lasting until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Image File history File links Babylonlion. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian AÅ¡Å¡ur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or AmurrÅ«m (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This page lists the Kings of Assyria from earliest times. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Sumerian language ( EME.GIR15 native tongue) of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. Sumerian was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enûma EliÅ¡ is the Babylonian creation epic. ... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. He is also the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which says that his mother was Ninsun, (whom some call Ramat... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... // Introduction Ilam province is on the western edges of the Zagros range, bordering Iraq. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... (Redirected from 2700 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... (33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - 31st century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Ancient Egypt: Earliest known Egyptian hieroglyphs Crete: Rise of Minoan civilization Neolithic settlement built at Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands, Scotland New Stone Age people in Ireland build... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east The Iranian plateau is a major geologic formation in West Asia between Anatolian Plateau in the northwest and the Indian Subcontinent in the southeast. ...


Ancient Elam lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad (modern-day Iraq). In the Old Elamite period, it consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role in the Persian Empire, especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it, when the Elamite language remained in official use. The Elamite period is considered a starting point for the history of Iran (although there were older civilizations in Iranian plateau, such as the Mannaeans kingdom in Iranian Azarbaijan and Shahr-i Sokhta (Burned City) in Zabol, and the recently discovered Jiroft civilization to the east. The Elamite language was not related to any Iranian languages, but may be part of a larger group known as Elamo-Dravidian. Sumer (or Šumer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east The Iranian plateau is a major geologic formation in West Asia between Anatolian Plateau in the northwest and the Indian Subcontinent in the southeast. ... <math>Insert formula here</math>Link titleItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textBold textBold text:For the Chinese city, see Anshan Anšan or Anzan (Persian انشان Anšan, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east The Iranian plateau is a major geologic formation in West Asia between Anatolian Plateau in the northwest and the Indian Subcontinent in the southeast. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Long Live Azerbaijan. ... Shahr-i Sokhta or Shahr-e Sukhteh (literally Burnt City) is a Bronze Age urban settlement in the southeast of Iran, in Sistan. ... Zabol (&#1586;&#1575;&#1576;&#1604;) is a city in the province Sistan and Baluchistan, in Iran, on the border with both Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... // The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) was an ancient civilization that existed in what is now Iran from roughly 3000 BCE to? BCE. Research into this civilization is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated 150-200 million native speakers today. ... The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India and Pakistan, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. ...


Elam gives its name to one of the provinces of modern Iran (usually spelt Ilam). // Introduction Ilam province is on the western edges of the Zagros range, bordering Iraq. ...

Contents

Etymology

The Elamites called their country Haltamti (in later Elamite, Atamti), which the neighboring Akkadians rendered as Elam. Elam means "highland". Additionally, the Haltamti are known as Elam in the Hebrew Old Testament, where they are called the offspring of Elam, eldest son of Shem (see Elam in the Bible). Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish term) or Old Testament (Christian term). ... Shem (שֵׁם renown; prosperity; name, Standard Hebrew Šem, Tiberian Hebrew Šēm; Greek Σημ, Sēm; ) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible who adhered to the Noahide Laws. ... Elam (עֵילָם) in the Hebrew Bible is a name for the Elamites. ...


The high country of Elam was increasingly identified by its low-lying later capital, Susa. Geographers after Ptolemy called it Susiana. The Elamite civilization was primarily centered in the province of what is modern-day Khuzestan, however it did extend into the later province of Fars in prehistoric times. In fact, the modern provincial name Khuzestān is derived from the Old Persian root Hujiyā, meaning "Elam". Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ...


History

Knowledge of Elamite history remains largely fragmentary, reconstruction being based on mainly Mesopotamian sources. The city of Susa was founded around 4000 BC, and during its early history, fluctuated between submission to Mesopotamian and Elamite power. Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... (5th millennium BC &#8211; 4th millennium BC &#8211; 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ...

The current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat site, showing the vicinity of the main structure as well.
The current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat site, showing the vicinity of the main structure as well.
relief resembles a fish tailed woman holding snakes
relief resembles a fish tailed woman holding snakes

The earliest levels (22-17 in the excavations conducted by Le Brun, 1978) exhibit pottery that has no equivalent in Mesopotamia, but for the succeeding period, the excavated material allows identification with the culture of Sumer of the Uruk period. Proto-Elamite influence from the Persian plateau in Susa becomes visible from about 3200 BC, and texts in the still undeciphered Proto-Elamite writing system continue to be present until about 2700 BC. The Proto-Elamite period ends with the establishment of the Awan dynasty. The earliest known historical figure connected with Elam is the king Enmebaragesi of Kish (c. 2650 BC?), who subdued it, according to the Sumerian king list. However, real Elamite history can only be traced from records dating to beginning of the Akkadian Empire in around 2300 BC onwards. Choghazanbil Ziggurat, Iran. ... Choghazanbil Ziggurat, Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1050 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1050 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sumer (or Šumer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... The Uruk period is a protohistoric sequence in the history of Mesopotamia which stretches from 4100 to 3300 BC, before the apparition of a writing system. ... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Iranian plateau covers much of Iran and Afghanistan. ... (33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - 31st century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Ancient Egypt: Earliest known Egyptian hieroglyphs Crete: Rise of Minoan civilization Neolithic settlement built at Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands, Scotland New Stone Age people in Ireland build... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... (Redirected from 2700 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam, founded by king Peli at the dawn of history. ... Enmebaragesi (Me-Baragesi, En-Men-Barage-Si, Enmebaragisi), according to the Sumerian king list, was a king of Kish who subdued Elam and reigned 900 years, but was captured single handedly by Dumuzid the fisherman of Uruk, predecessor of Gilgamesh. ... Kish, an ancient city in Sumer, now in Iraq Kish, an Iranian island and city in the Persian Gulf Kish, a person in Bible The Kish Bank is a shallow in the Irish Sea, a fishing ground. ... (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... (Redirected from 2300 BC) (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia...


Elamite civilization grew up east of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in the watershed of the river Karun. In modern terms, Elam included more than Khuzestan; it was a combination of the lowlands and the immediate highland areas to the north and east. Some Elamite sites, however, are found well outside this area, spread out on the Iranian plateau; examples of Elamite remains farther north and east in Iran are Sialk in Isfahan Province and Jiroft [1] in Kerman Province. Elamite strength was based on an ability to hold these various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of the natural resources unique to each region. Traditionally, this was done through a federated governmental structure. Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun (also Karoun) is Irans most effluent, and the only navigable, river. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east The Iranian plateau is a major geologic formation in West Asia between Anatolian Plateau in the northwest and the Indian Subcontinent in the southeast. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... Esfahān province (Persian: استان اصفهان (Ostan-e Esfahan); also transliterated as Isfahan, Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map of Iran showing the location of Jiroft. ... Kerman is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...

Map showing the area of the Elamite Empire (in red) and the neighboring areas. The approximate Bronze Age extension of the Persian Gulf is shown.
Map showing the area of the Elamite Empire (in red) and the neighboring areas. The approximate Bronze Age extension of the Persian Gulf is shown.

The history of Elam is conventionally divided into three periods, spanning more than two millennia. The period before the first Elamite period is known as the proto-Elamite period: Image File history File links Map of Elam (approximate extension of the Elamite Empire is shown in red, the size of the Persian Gulf in the Bronze Age is indicated in blue) by en:User:Dbachmann, based on [1], [2]. File links The following pages link to this file: Elam... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...

  • Proto-Elamite: c. 3200 BC – 2700 BC (Proto-Elamite script in Susa)
  • Old Elamite period: c. 2700 BC – 1600 BC (earliest documents until the Eparti dynasty)
  • Middle Elamite period: c. 1500 BC – 1100 BC (Anzanite dynasty until the Babylonian invasion of Susa)
  • Neo-Elamite period: c. 1100 BC – 539 BC (characterized by Iranian and Syrian influence. 539 BC marks the beginning of the Achaemenid period)

Old Elamite Period

The Old Elamite period began around 2700 BC. Historical records mention the conquest of Elam by Enmebaragesi of Kish. Three dynasties ruled during this period. We know of twelve kings of each of the first two dynasties, those of Awan (or Avan; c. 2400–2100 BC) and Simash (c. 2100–1970 BC), from a list from Susa dating to the Old Babylonian period. Two Elamite dynasties said to have exercised brief control over Sumer in very early times include Awan and Hamazi; and likewise, several of the stronger Sumerian rulers, such as Eannatum of Lagash and Lugal-anne-mundu of Adab, are recorded as temporarily dominating Elam. (Redirected from 2700 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... Enmebaragesi (Me-Baragesi, En-Men-Barage-Si, Enmebaragisi), according to the Sumerian king list, was a king of Kish who subdued Elam and reigned 900 years, but was captured single handedly by Dumuzid the fisherman of Uruk, predecessor of Gilgamesh. ... Kish, an ancient city in Sumer, now in Iraq Kish, an Iranian island and city in the Persian Gulf Kish, a person in Bible The Kish Bank is a shallow in the Irish Sea, a fishing ground. ... The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam, founded by king Peli at the dawn of history. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Eannatum was a Sumerian king of Lagash who established one of the first verifiable empires in history. ... The most important king of city-state Adab in Sumeria. ...

Relief of a woman being fanned by an attendant while she holds what may be a spinning device before a table with a bowl containing a whole fish
Relief of a woman being fanned by an attendant while she holds what may be a spinning device before a table with a bowl containing a whole fish

The Avan dynasty was partly contemporary with that of Sargon of Akkad, who not only defeated the Awan king Luhi-ishan and subjected Susa, but attempted to make Akkadian the official language there. From this time, Mesopotamian sources concerning Elam become more frequent, since the Mesopotamians had developed an interest in resources (such as wood, stone and metal) from the Iranian plateau, and military expeditions to the area became more common. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 784 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1530 pixel, file size: 648 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Elam Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 784 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1530 pixel, file size: 648 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Elam Metadata This... Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon the Great (Akkadian Šarukinu, the true king, reigned 2334 BC - 2279 BC, short chronology), founder of the Dynasty of Akkad. ...


However, with the collapse of Akkad under Sargon's great-grandson, Shar-kali-sharri, Elam declared independence under the last Avan king, Kutik-Inshushinak (c. 2240-2220 BC), and threw off the Akkadian language, promoting in its place the brief Linear Elamite script. Shar-Kali-Sharri was a king of the Akkadian Empire. ... Kutik-Inshushinak (also known as Puzur-Inshushinak) was king of Elam from about 2240 to 2220 BC (long chronology), and the last from the Awan dynasty. ... Linear Elamite is a Bronze Age writing system used in Elam, known from a few monumental inscriptions only. ...


Kutik-Inshushinnak conquered Susa and Anshan, and seems to have achieved some sort of political unity. Following his reign, the Awan dynasty collapsed as Elam was temporarily overrun by the Guti. <math>Insert formula here</math>Link titleItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textBold textBold text:For the Chinese city, see Anshan Anšan or Anzan (Persian انشان Anšan, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... The Gutians (also: Quti, Kuti, Gurti, Qurti, Kurti) were a people of ancient Mesopotamia who lived primarily in the central Zagros Range, most probably an Aryan people. ...


About a century later, Shulgi of Ur retook the city of Susa and the surrounding region. During the first part of the rule of the Simashki dynasty, Elam was under intermittent attack from Mesopotamians and Gutians, alternating with periods of peace and diplomatic approaches. Shu-Sin of Ur, for example, gave one of his daughters in marriage to a prince of Anshan. But the power of the Sumerians was waning; Ibbi-Sin in the 21st century did not manage to penetrate far into Elam, and in 2004 BC, the Elamites, allied with the people of Susa and led by king Kindattu, the sixth king of Simashk, managed to sack Ur and lead Ibbi-Sin into captivity -- thus ending the third dynasty of Ur. However, the kings of Isin, successor state to Ur, did manage to drive the Elamites out of Ur, rebuild the city, and to return the statue of Nanna that the Elamites had plundered. Shulgi of Urim is the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance. He reigned for 48 years, dated to 2047 BC&#8211;1999 BC short chronology (also tentatively dated to 2161 BC&#8211;2113 BC on the basis of a solar eclipse). ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Shu-sin succeded his brother Amar-Sin as the King of Ur, and he came into conflict with the Amorites. ... Ibbi-Sin, son of Shu-Sin, was king of Sumer and Akkad and last king of the Ur III dynasty, and reigned circa 2028 BC-2004 BC. During his reign, the Sumerian empire was attacked repeatedly by Amorites. ... (Redirected from 2004 BC) (22nd century BC - 21st century BC - 20th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2130 - 2080 BC -- Ninth Dynasty wars in Egypt 2112 - 2095 BC -- Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2049... The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ...

Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with linear-Elamite inscription on it. Late 3rd Millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.
Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with linear-Elamite inscription on it. Late 3rd Millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.

The succeeding dynasty, the Eparti (c. 1970–1770 BC), also called "of the sukkalmahs" because of the title borne by its members, was contemporary with the Old Babylonian period in Mesopotamia. This period is confusing and difficult to reconstruct. It was apparently founded by Eparti I. During this time, Susa was under Elamite control, but Mesopotamian states such as Larsa continually tried to retake the city. Around 1850 BC Kudur-mabug, apparently king of another Elamite state to the north of Susa, managed to install his son, Warad-Sin, on the throne of Larsa, and Warad-Sin's brother, Rim-Sin, succeeded him and conquered much of Mesopotamia for Larsa. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (368x640, 111 KB) Photo is By Zereshk. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (368x640, 111 KB) Photo is By Zereshk. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: &#1605;&#1608;&#1586;&#1607; &#1575;&#1740;&#1585;&#1575;&#1606; &#1576;&#1575;&#1587;&#1578;&#1575;&#1606; Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ...


Notable Eparti dynasty rulers in Elam during this time include Sirukdukh (c. 1850 BC), who entered various military coalitions to contain the rising power of Babylon; Siwe-Palar-Khuppak, who for some time was the most powerful person in the area, respectfully addressed as "Father" by Mesopotamian kings such as Zimrilim of Mari, and even Hammurabi of Babylon, and Kudur-Nahhunte, who plundered the temples of Akkad. But Elamite influence in Mesopotamia did not last. Around 1760 BC, Hammurabi drove out the Elamites, overthrew Rim-Sin of Larsa, and established Babylonian dominance in Mesopotamia. Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... Tablet of Zimri-Lin, ca. ... Intendant Ebih-Il, found in the temple of Ishtar at Mari, Archaic Dynasties (ca. ... This diorite head is believed to represent Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, the kinsman is a healer, from ˤAmmu, paternal kinsman, and Rāpi, healer; 1810 BC?–1750 BC) also rarely transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ...


Little is known about the latter part of this dynasty, since sources again become sparse with the Kassite rule of Babylon (from c. 1595 BC). The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ...


Middle Elamite Period

The Middle Elamite period began with the rise of the Anshanite dynasties around 1500 BC. Their rule was characterized by an "Elamisation" of Susa, and the kings took the title "king of Anshan and Susa". While the first of these dynasties, the Kidinuids continued to use the Akkadian language frequently in their inscriptions, the succeeding Igihalkids and Shutrukids used Elamite with increasing regularity. Likewise, Elamite language and culture grew in importance in Susiana.


The Kidinuids (c. 1500–1400) are a group of five rulers of uncertain affiliation. They are identified by their use of the older title, "king of Susa and of Anshan", and by calling themselves "servant of Kirwashir", an Elamite deity, thereby introducing the pantheon of the highlands to Susiana.


Of the Igehalkids (c. 1400–1210), ten rulers are known, and there were possibly more. Some of them married Kassite princesses. The Kassite king Kurigalzu II temporarily occupied Elam c. 1320 BC, and later (c. 1230) another Kassite king, Kashtiliash IV, fought Elam unsuccessfully. Kiddin-Khutran I of Elam repulsed the Kassites by defeating Enlil-nadin-shumi in 1224 and Adad-shuma-iddina around 1222-17. Under the Igehalkids, Akkadian inscriptions were rare, and Elamite highland gods became firmly established in Susa. The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Kurigalzu is the name of at least two kings in the Kassite Dynasty of Babylonia. ... KaÅ¡tiliaÅ¡ IV was king of Babylon from 1232 until 1224 BC. KaÅ¡tiliaÅ¡ IV is featured heavily in S.M. Stirlings novels Against the Tide of Years and On the Oceans of Eternity. ...

Goatfishes
Goatfishes

Under the Shutrukids (c. 1210–1100), the Elamite empire reached the height of its power. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte and his three sons, Kutir-Nakhkhunte II, Shilhak-In-Shushinak, and Khutelutush-In-Shushinak were capable of frequent military campaigns into Kassite Mesopotamia, and at the same time were exhibiting vigorous construction activity -- building and restoring luxurious temples in Susa and across their Empire. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte raided Akkad, Babylon, and Eshnunna, carrying home to Susa trophies like the statues of Marduk and Manishtushu, the code of Hammurabi and the stela of Naram-Sin. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (1504 × 1000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixel Image in higher resolution (1504 × 1000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Shutruk-Nahhunte was the second king of the Middle Elamite Period (Shutrukid Dynasty). ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabis Code), created ca. ... Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... ...


In 1158 BC, Shutruk-Nakhkhunte defeated the Kassites permanently, killing the Kassite king of Babylon, Zababa-shuma-iddina, and replacing him with his eldest son, Kutir-Nakhkhunte, who held it no more than three years. Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC Events and trends 1159 BC - Global tree ring event (period of arrested tree growth) lasting for 18...


Kutir-Nakhkhunte's son Khutelutush-In-Shushinak was probably of an incestuous relation of Kutir-Nakhkhunte's with his own daughter, Nakhkhunte-utu. He ended up temporarily yielding Susa to the forces of Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon, who returned the statue of Marduk. He fled to Anshan, but later returned to Susa, and his brother Shilhana-Hamru-Lagamar may have succeeded him as last king of the Shutrukid dynasty. Following Khutelutush-In-Shushinak, the power of the Elamite empire began to wane seriously, for with this ruler, Elam disappears into obscurity for more than three centuries. Nebuchadnezzar I.(also Nebuchadrezzar) (Nabû-kudurri-ussur = god Nabû, protect my eldest son), king of Babylon 1125 BC -1104 BC, is the fourth king of the Isin-dynasty that achieved independence from Assyria. ...


Neo-Elamite Period

Neo-Elamite I (c. 1100–770)

Very little is known of this period. Anshan was still at least partially Elamite. There appear to have been alliances of Elam and Babylonia against the Assyrians; the Babylonian king Mar-biti-apla-ushur (984—79) was of Elamite origin, and Elamites are recorded to have fought with the Babylonian king Marduk-balassu-iqbi against the Assyrian forces under Shamshi-Adad V (823–11). Shamshi-Adad V was the King of Assyria from 823 to 811 BC. He was the son and successor of Shalmaneser III, the husband of Sammuramat, and the father of Adad-nirari III, who succeeded him as king. ...


Neo-Elamite II (c. 770–646)

Ashurbanipal's campaign against Susa is triumphantly recorded in this relief showing the sack of Susa in 647 BC. Here, flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils.
Ashurbanipal's campaign against Susa is triumphantly recorded in this relief showing the sack of Susa in 647 BC. Here, flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils.

The later Neo-Elamite period is characterized by a significant migration of Iranians to the Iranian plateau. Assyrian sources beginning around 800 BC distinguish the "powerful Medes", ie the actual Medes, and the "distant Medes" that would later enter history under their proper names, (Parthians, Sagartians, Margians, Bactrians, Sogdians etc). Among these pressuring tribes were the Parsu, first recorded in 844 BC as living on the southeastern shore of Lake Urmiah, but who by the end of this period would cause the Elamites' original home, the Iranian Plateau, to be renamed Persia proper. Image File history File links The destruction of Susa of Elam by Ashurbanipal, 647 BC, relief. ... Image File history File links The destruction of Susa of Elam by Ashurbanipal, 647 BC, relief. ... Assyrian may refer to: List of Assyrian settlements Anything from Assyria, an ancient empire in Mesopotamia Anything from Assyria (Roman province), a province of the Roman Empire Assyrian people, a present-day Middle Eastern ethnic group Several Christian denominations: Assyrian Church of the East Assyrian Church of the Easts... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Sagartians were ancient Iranian (Aryan) tribes, dwelling in Iranian plateau, whose exact location is unknown, but possibly south of Alborz Mountains and north of Yazd in central Iran. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... Satellite image of Lake Urmia, taken in November 2003 Lake Urmia (Persian: &#1583;&#1585;&#1740;&#1575;&#1670;&#1607;&#1620; &#1575;&#1585;&#1608;&#1605;&#1740;&#1607;) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran, in Iranian Azarbaijan (between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan), west of the Caspian Sea. ...


More details are known from the late 8th century BC, when the Elamites were allied with Merodach-baladan to defend the cause of Babylonian independence from Assyria. Khumbanigash (743–17) supported Merodach-baladan against Sargon II, apparently with limited success; while his successor, Shutruk-Nakhkhunte II (716–699), was routed by Sargon's troops during an expedition in 710, and another Elamite defeat by Sargon's troops is recorded for 708. The Assyrian victory over Babylon was completed by Sargon's son Sennacherib, who dethroned Merodach-baladan for a second time, finally installing his own son Ashur-nadin-shumi on the Babylonian throne in 700. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Marduk-apal-iddina II (the biblical Merodach-baladan, also called Marduk-baladan, Baladan and Berodach-baladan) (722&#8211;702 BCE), Chaldean prince, who usurped the Babylonian throne in 721. ... Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitary Sargon II (ܣܪܓܘܢ in Syriac) (r. ... It has been proposed that Sennacherib be renamed and moved to Sin-ahhe-eriba. ... Ashur-nadin-shumi (d. ...


Shuttir-Nakhkhunte was murdered by his brother Khallushu, who managed to capture Ashur-nadin-shumi and Babylon in 694, and was in turn assassinated by Kutir-Nakhkhunte -- who succeeded him, but soon abdicated in favor of Khumma-Menanu III (692–89). Khumma-Menanu recruited a new army to help the Babylonians against the Assyrians at the battle of Halule in 691 BC. The battle was indecisive, or at least both sides claimed the victory in their annals, but Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib only two years later. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC Events and Trends 699 BC - Khallushu succeeds Shuttir-Nakhkhunte as king of the Elamite Empire 697 BC...


The reigns of Khumma-Khaldash I (688–81) and Khumma-Khaldash II (680–75) saw a deterioration of Elamite-Babylonian relations, and both of them raided Sippar. At the beginning of Esarhaddon's reign in Assyria (681-669), Nabu-zer-kitti-lišir, an ethnically Elamite governor in the south of Babylonia, revolted and besieged Ur, but fled to Elam where "the king of Elam took him prisoner and put him to the sword" (ABC 1 Col.3:39-42). Sippara (Zimbir in Sumerian, Sippar in Assyro-Babylonian) was an ancient Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon. ... Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form; Akkadian Aššur-aha-iddina Ashur has given a brother to me), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 BC-669 BC), the youngest son of Sennacherib and the Aramaic queen Naqia (Zakitu), Sennacheribs second wife. ...


Urtaku (674–64) for some time maintained good relations with Assurbanipal (668–27), who sent wheat to Susiana during a famine. But these friendly relations were only temporary, and Urtaku died during another Elamite attack on Mesopotamia. Assurbanipal in a relief from the north palace at Nineveh There were several Assyrian kings named Assur-bani-pal, also spelled Asurbanipal, Assurbanipal (most commonly), Ashurbanipal and Ashshurbanipal, but the best known was Assurbanipal IV.  Ashurbanipal, or Assurbanipal, (reigned 668 - 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon and Naqia-Zakutu...


His successor Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak (664–53) was counter-attacked by Assurbanipal, and was killed following the battle of the Ulaï in 653 BC; and Susan was occupied by the Assyrians. In this same year the Mede state to the north fell to the Scythians, immediately displacing the Parsu tribe to Anshan, which their king Teispes captured that same year. The Elamite kings, apart from the last three, nevertheless continued to claim the title of "king of Anshan and Susa". Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Events and Trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala 657 BC - Cypselus becomes the... The Medes were an Iranian people of Aryan origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ...


During a brief respite provided by the civil war between Assurbanipal and his brother Shamash-shum-ukin, the Elamites too indulged in fighting among themselves, so weakening the Elamite kingdom that in 646 BC Assurbanipal devastated Susiana with ease, and sacked Susa. A succession of brief reigns continued in Elam from 651 to 640, each of them ended either due to usurpation, or because of capture of their king by the Assyrians. In this manner, the last Elamite king, Khumma-Khaldash III, was captured in 640 BC by Ashurbanipal, who devastated the country. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic...


In a tablet unearthed in 1854 by Henry Austin Layard, Ashurbanipal boasts of the destruction he had wrought:

"Susa, the great holy city, abode of their Gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed...I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur. I devastated the provinces of Elam and on their lands I sowed salt." (Persians: Masters of Empire, p7-8, ISBN 0-8094-9104-4)

A model of the current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat, showing the other buildings in the vicinity of the main structure. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...

Neo-Elamite III (646–539)

The devastation was however less complete than Assurbanipal boasted, and Elamite rule was resurrected soon after with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of III (not to be confused with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of Indada, a petty king in the first half of the 6th century). Elamite royalty in the final century preceding the Achaemenids was fragmented among different small kingdoms. The three kings at the close of the 7th century (Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, Khallutush-In-Shushinak and Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak ) still called themselves "king of Anzan and of Susa" or "enlarger of the kingdom of Anzan and of Susa", at a time when the Achaemenids were already ruling Anshan. Their successors Khumma-Menanu and Shilhak-In-Shushinak II bore the simple title "king," and the final king Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak boasted no title altogether. In 539 BC, Achaemenid rule begins in Susa. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...


Elamite religion

A "two horned" figure wrestling with serpents. The Elamite artifact was discovered by Iran's border police from Historical Heritage traffickers, en route to Turkey, and was confiscated. Style is determined to be from Jiroft
A "two horned" figure wrestling with serpents. The Elamite artifact was discovered by Iran's border police from Historical Heritage traffickers, en route to Turkey, and was confiscated. Style is determined to be from Jiroft

In terms of religion, the Elamites practised idolatry and polytheism. One of the most important figures in their early pantheon was a goddess named Kiririsha, a name with cognates found in the belief systems of other peoples throughout the region. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (418x800, 280 KB) Summary I took this photo with a digital camera. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (418x800, 280 KB) Summary I took this photo with a digital camera. ... Map of Iran showing the location of Jiroft. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture A goddess is a female deity, in contrast with a male deity known as a god. Many cultures have goddesses. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Elamite language

Main article: Elamite language

Elamite is unrelated to the neighboring Semitic, Sumerian and Indo-European languages. It was written in a cuneiform adapted from Akkadian script, although the very earliest documents were written in the quite different "Linear Elamite" script. In 2006, two even older inscriptions in a similar script were discovered at Jiroft to the east, leading archaeologists to speculate that Linear Elamite had spread from there to Susa[2]. It seems to have developed from an even earlier writing known as "proto-Elamite", but scholars are not unanimous on whether or not this script was used to write Elamite or another language, and it has not yet been deciphered. Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Sumerian language ( EME.GIR15 native tongue) of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. Sumerian was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated 150-200 million native speakers today. ... Linear Elamite is a Bronze Age writing system used in Elam, known from a few monumental inscriptions only. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... // The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) was an ancient civilization that existed in what is now Iran from roughly 3000 BCE to? BCE. Research into this civilization is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ...


Some linguists believe Elamite may be related to the living Dravidian languages (of southern India, and Brahui in Pakistan). The hypothesized family of Elamo-Dravidian languages may further prove to be connected with the Indus Valley Civilization somewhat to the East, possibly corresponding to Meluhha in Sumerian records. However, such links are at best conjectural, and Harappan pictographs have also yet to be deciphered. The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages[1] that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and by overseas Dravidians in other countries... Brahui may refer to: The Brahui language The Brahui people This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India and Pakistan, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Meluhha refers to one of ancient Sumers prominent trading partners, but precisely which one remains an open question. ...   An Indus Valley seal with the seated figure termed pashupati. ...


Several stages of the language are attested; the earliest date back to the third millennium BC, the latest to the Achaemenid Empire. The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ...


The Elamite language may have survived as late as the early Islamic period. Ibn al-Nadim among other Arab medieval historians, for instance, wrote that "The Iranian languages are Fahlavi (Pahlavi), Dari, Khuzi, Persian and Suryani", and Ibn Moqaffa noted that Khuzi was the unofficial language of the royalty of Persia, "Khuz" being the corrupted name for Elam. See Origin of the name Khuzestan for details. Ibn al-Nadim (Abu al-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq), (died September 17, 995 or 998) was an muslim scholar (of either Arab or Persian origin) and bibliographer and the author of the Kitab al-Fihrist. ... Another map from the same author, Khuzestan is overlined in red. ... Abdullah Ibn Dhadawayh, also known as Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. ... Another map from the same author, Khuzestan is overlined in red. ...


The Elamite legacy

The Assyrians thought that they had utterly destroyed the Elamites, but new polities emerged in the area after Assyrian power faded. However, they never again exercised the power of the earlier Elamite empires; they controlled the watershed of the Karun and little beyond. Among the nations that benefited from the decline of the Assyrians were the Persians, whose presence around Lake Urmia to the north of Elam is attested from the 9th century BC in Assyrian texts. Some time after that region fell to Madius the Scythian (653 BC), Teispes son of Achaemenes conquered Elamite Anshan in the mid 7th century BC, forming a nucleus that would expand into the Persian Empire. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun (also Karoun) is Irans most effluent, and the only navigable, river. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ... This article concerns Achaemenes, founder of the first Persian dynasty. ... <math>Insert formula here</math>Link titleItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textBold textBold text:For the Chinese city, see Anshan Anšan or Anzan (Persian انشان Anšan, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


Elamite influence on the Achaemenids

A 4.5 inch long lapis lazuli dove is studded with gold pegs. Dated 1200BCE from Susa, a city later on shared with the Achaemenids.
A 4.5 inch long lapis lazuli dove is studded with gold pegs. Dated 1200BCE from Susa, a city later on shared with the Achaemenids.

The rise of the Achaemenids in the 6th century BC brought an end to the existence of Elam as an independent political power "but not as a cultural entity" (Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University). Indigenous Elamite traditions, such as the use of the title "king of Anshan" by Cyrus the Great; the "Elamite robe" worn by Cambyses I of Anshan and seen on the famous winged genii at Pasargadae; some glyptic styles; the use of Elamite as the first of three official languages of the empire used in thousands of administrative texts found at Darius’ city of Persepolis; the continued worship of Elamite deities; and the persistence of Elamite religious personnel and cults supported by the crown, formed an essential part of the newly emerging Achaemenid culture in Persian Iran. The Elamites thus became the conduit by which achievements of the Mesopotamian civilizations were introduced to the tribes of the Iranian plateau. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Pigeons (which are also known as rock doves) and doves comprise the family Columbidae within the order Columbiformes, including some 300 species of near passerine birds. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KÅ«ruÅ¡[1], modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (ca. ... Cambyses I the Elder (c. ... Genii is the plural form of genius (when the word is used in the mythological sense) and genie. Genii can also refer to any of the following: Genii (Stargate), a fictional race of humans in the series Stargate Atlantis Genii (magazine) (The Conjurers magazine), an international magazine for magicians... Pasargadae was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archaeological site and one of Irans UNESCO World Heritage Sites. ... Persepolis aerial view. ...


According to the editors of Persians, Masters of Empire: "The Elamites, fierce rivals of the Babylonians, were precursors of the royal Persians" (ISBN 0-8094-9104-4). This view is widely accepted today, as experts unanimously recognize the Elamites to have "absorbed Iranian influences in both structure and vocabulary" by 500 BC. (Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University) Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ...


The Elamite civilization's originality, coupled with studies carried out at Elamite sites well spread out over the Iranian plateau, have led modern historians to conclude that "The Elamites are the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense". (Elton Daniel, The History of Iran, p. 26) Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east The Iranian plateau is a major geologic formation in West Asia between Anatolian Plateau in the northwest and the Indian Subcontinent in the southeast. ...


Most experts go even further and establish a clear chain of cultural continuity between the Elamites and later dynasties of Iran. Elamologist DT Potts verifies this in writing, "There is much evidence, both archaeological and literary/epigraphic, to suggest that the rise of the Persian empire witnessed the fusion of Elamite and Persian elements already present in highland Fars". (The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State, Cambridge World Archaeology, Chap 9 Introduction.).


Thus, not only was "Elam absorbed into the new empire" (Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University), becoming part of the millennia old imperial heritage of Iran, but the Elamite civilization is now recognized to be "the earliest civilization of Persia", in the words of Sir Percy Sykes. (A History of Persia, p38, ISBN 0-415-32678-8). Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ...


Post Achaemenid influence

Traditional histories have ended Elamite history with its submergence in the Achaemenids, but Greek and Latin references to "Elymais" attest to cultural survival, according to Daniel Potts. "Elamite" is mentioned in Acts 2:8 in the New Testament as one of the languages heard at the Pentecost, and the traditional name "Elam" appears as late as 1300 in the records of the Nestorian Christians. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Elymais were a people who were subject to Parthian control from 200bce to 200ce. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Pentecost (Greek: [], pentekostē [hēmera], the fiftieth day) is the fiftieth day after Easter Sunday, which corresponds to the tenth day after Ascension Thursday. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Elamite studies

In a 2001 talk, Basello Gian Pietro (Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples) stated:

While even today the languages play a basic role in our schematisation and teaching of the past, this stepchild shows us how frail the boundaries of our academic subjects are. While ancient Elamites fought against Assyrians and rebelled against Persians, Elamite studies are strictly bound to Assyriology and Iranian studies. As ancient Elam stood and represented a meeting place between Mesopotamian lowland and Iranian highland, so Elamite studies need to grab and grasp data both from Assyriology and Iranian studies and through many fields of work.
Unfortunately, missing an independent academic subject, we have little specific teaching of Elamite studies. As we employ a foreign designation in referring to ancient Anšan and Susiana, Elamite scholars are often Assyriologists, Iranists or Linguists in their academic background, i.e. they have approached Elam later and from an external point of view. [3]

As opposed to the typical view that Elam is of interest only for its contributions to Iranian or Assyrian culture, or for its unique language, some scholars feel that Elam should be studied in its own right, and not annexed to another cultural tradition.


See also: Historiography and nationalism Historiography is the study of how history is written. ...


See also

Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India and Pakistan, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... This is a list of rulers of Elam. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... // Introduction Ilam province is on the western edges of the Zagros range, bordering Iraq. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Another map from the same author, Khuzestan is overlined in red. ... Ghirshmans team in Sialk in 1934: Sitting from R to L: Roman Ghirshman, Tania Ghirshman, and Dr. Contenau. ... Elymais were a people who were subject to Parthian control from 200bce to 200ce. ...

External links

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Elam
  • Quintana Cifuentes, E., Historia de Elam el vecino mesopotámico, Murcia, 1997. Estudios Orientales. IPOA-Murcia.
  • QUINTANA CIFUENTES, E., Textos y Fuentes para el estudio del Elam, Murcia, 2000.Estudios Orientales. IPOA-Murcia.
  • Khačikjan, Margaret: The Elamite Language, Documenta Asiana IV, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto per gli Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici, 1998 ISBN 88-87345-01-5
  • Persians: Masters of Empire, Time-Life Books, Alexandria, VA (1995) ISBN 0-8094-9104-4
  • Potts, Daniel T.: The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State, Cambridge University Press (1999) ISBN 0-521-56496-4 and ISBN 0-521-56358-5
  • McAlpin, David W., Proto Elamo Dravidian: The Evidence and Its Implications, American Philosophy Society (1981) ISBN 0-87169-713-0

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Elam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3308 words)
Elam was centered in the far west and southwest of modern day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan).
There appear to have been alliances of Elam and Babylonia against the Assyrians; the Babylonian king Mar-biti-apla-ushur (984—79) was of Elamite origin, and Elamites are recorded to have fought with the Babylonian king Marduk-balassu-iqbi against the Assyrian forces under Shamshi-Adad V (823–11).
Among the nations that benefited from the decline of the Assyrians were the Persians, whose presence around Lake Urmia to the north of Elam is attested from the 9th century BC in Assyrian texts.
Elam - definition of Elam in Encyclopedia (243 words)
In 1 Chronicles 8:24 Elam is a son of Shashak of the tribe of Benjamin.
In 1 Chronicles 26:3 Elam is the son of Meshelemiah, a Levite of the family of Kohath.
In Ezra 10:3 Elam is the grandfather of Shechaniah.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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