FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > El Greco
El Greco

Portrait of An Old Man (so called self-portrait of El Greco), circa 1595–1600, oil on canvas, 52.7 × 46.7 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, U.S.
Birth name Doménikos Theotokópoulos
Born 1541
Crete, Republic of Venice
Died April 7, 1614
Toledo, Spain
Field Painting, sculpture and architecture
Movement Mannerism
Famous works El Espolio (1577–1579)
The Assumption of the Virgin (1577–1579)
The Burial of the Count of Orgaz (1586–1588)
View of Toledo (1596–1600)
Opening of the Fifth Seal (1608–1614)

El Greco ("The Greek"[a][b], 1541April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. He usually signed his paintings in Greek letters with his full name, Doménicos Theotokópoulos (Greek: Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος), underscoring his Greek origin. El Greco is a classical composition by Greek synth-composer Vangelis Papathanissiou (born March 29, 1943). ... For other uses, see El Greco (film). ... In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... This article is about building architecture. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... The Disrobing of Christ (or El Espolio), a painting begun in the summer of 1577 and completed in the spring of 1579 for the High Altar of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Toledo, where it still hangs, is one of El Grecos most renowned works. ... The Burial of the Count of Orgaz is widely considered to be El Grecos best-known work. ... View of Toledo, sometimes called Toledo in a Storm, is one of the two surviving landscapes painted by El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos). ... The Opening of the Fifth Seal (or The Fifth Seal of the Apocalypse or The Vision of Saint John) was painted in the last years of El Grecos life for a side-altar of the church of Saint John the Baptist outside the walls of Toledo. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... This article is about building architecture. ... The Spanish Renaissance was a movement in Spain, originating from the Italian Renaissance in Italy, that spread during the 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel...


El Greco was born in Crete, which was at that time part of the Republic of Venice, and the centre of Post-Byzantine art. He trained and became a master within that tradition before travelling at 26 to Venice, as other Greek artists had done.[1] In 1570 he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style with elements of Mannerism and of the Venetian Renaissance. In 1577 he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death. In Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best known paintings. For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the 15th, 16th and... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ...


El Greco's dramatic and expressionistic style was met with puzzlement by his contemporaries but found appreciation in the 20th century. El Greco is regarded as a precursor of both Expressionism and Cubism, while his personality and works were a source of inspiration for poets and writers such as Rainer Maria Rilke and Nikos Kazantzakis. El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school.[2] He is best known for tortuously elongated figures and often fantastic or phantasmagorical pigmentation, marrying Byzantine traditions with those of Western painting.[3] (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... Rainer Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926) is considered one of the German languages greatest 20th century poets. ... Nikos Kazantzakis (Greek: Νίκος Καζαντζάκης) (February 18, 1883, Heraklion, Crete, Greece - October 26, 1957, Freiburg, Germany), author of poems, novels, essays, plays, and travel books, was arguably the most important and most translated Greek writer and philosopher of the 20th century. ... In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition...

Contents

Life

Early years and family

Born in 1541 in either the village of Fodele or Candia (the Venetian name of Chandax, present day Heraklion) in Crete,[c] El Greco was descended from a prosperous urban family, which had probably been driven out of Chania to Candia after an uprising against the Venetians between 1526 and 1528.[4] El Greco's father, Geórgios Theotocópoulos (d. 1556), was a merchant and tax collector. Nothing is known about his mother or his first wife, a Greek woman.[5] El Greco's older brother, Manoússos Theotokópoulos (1531 – December 13, 1604), was a wealthy merchant and spent the last years of his life (1603–1604) in El Greco's Toledo home.[6] For other uses, see Heraklion (disambiguation). ... Chania (Greek Χανιά pronounced , also transliterated Hania, older form Chanea and Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: خانيه Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania Prefecture. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... A tax collector is a person who collects unpaid taxes from other people or corporations. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ...

The Dormition of the Virgin (before 1567, tempera and gold on panel, 61,4 × 45 cm, Holy Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin, Hermoupolis, Syros) was probably created near the end of the artist's Cretan period. The painting combines post-Byzantine and Italian mannerist stylistic and iconographic elements.
The Dormition of the Virgin (before 1567, tempera and gold on panel, 61,4 × 45 cm, Holy Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin, Hermoupolis, Syros) was probably created near the end of the artist's Cretan period. The painting combines post-Byzantine and Italian mannerist stylistic and iconographic elements.

El Greco received his initial training as an icon painter of the Cretan school, the leading centre of post-Byzantine art. In addition to painting, he probably studied the classics of ancient Greece, and perhaps the Latin classics also; he left a "working library" of 130 books at his death, including the Bible in Greek and an annotated Vasari.[1] Candia was a center for artistic activity where Eastern and Western cultures co-existed harmoniously, where around two hundred painters were active during the 16th century, and had organized a painters' guild, based on the Italian model.[4] In 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was described in a document as a "master" ("maestro Domenigo"), meaning he was already a master of the guild and presumably operating his own workshop.[1] Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, he signed his name as Master Menégos Theotokópoulos, painter (μαΐστρος Μένεγος Θεοτοκόπουλος σγουράφος).[d] Image File history File links Dormition_El_Greco. ... Image File history File links Dormition_El_Greco. ... The Dormition of the Virgin by El Greco was probably created near the end of the artists Cretan period (before 1567). ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ... Ermoupoli (Greek: Ερμούπολη - Ermoúpoli), also known with its formal name as Ermoupolis latinized Hermoupolis is a city in eastern Greece. ... Syros (Greek: Σύρος), or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the fifteenth, sixteenth and... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Jan Gossaert, , c. ...


Most scholars believe that the Theotocópoulos "family was almost certainly Greek Orthodox",[7] although some Catholic sources still claim him from birth.[e] Like many Orthodox emigrants to Europe, he apparently transferred to Catholicism after his arrival, and certainly practiced as a Catholic in Spain, where he described himself as a "devout Catholic" in his will. The extensive archival research conducted since the early 1960s by scholars, such as Nikolaos Panayotakis, Pandelis Prevelakis and Maria Constantoudaki, indicates strongly that El Greco's family and ancestors were Greek Orthodox. One of his uncles was an Orthodox priest, and his name is not mentioned in the Catholic archival baptismal records on Crete.[8] Prevelakis goes even further, expressing his doubt that El Greco was ever a practicing Roman Catholic.[9] Page from Book X of George of Trebizonds Commentary on the Almagest The migration of Byzantine-Greek scholars or Byzantine emigres from Byzantium during the decline of the Byzantine empire (1203-1453) and mainly after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 until the 16th century, is considered by modern...


Italy

Portrait of Giorgio Giulio Clovio, the earliest surviving portrait from El Greco (c. 1570, oil on canvas, 58 × 86 cm, Museo di Capodimonte, Naples). In the portrait of Clovio, friend and supporter in Rome of the young Cretan artist, the first evidence of El Greco's gifts as a portraitist are apparent.
Portrait of Giorgio Giulio Clovio, the earliest surviving portrait from El Greco (c. 1570, oil on canvas, 58 × 86 cm, Museo di Capodimonte, Naples). In the portrait of Clovio, friend and supporter in Rome of the young Cretan artist, the first evidence of El Greco's gifts as a portraitist are apparent.

Crete having been a possession of the Republic of Venice since 1211, it was natural for the young El Greco to pursue his career in Venice.[2] Though the exact year is not clear, most scholars agree that El Greco went to Venice around 1567.[f] Knowledge of El Greco's years in Italy is limited. He lived in Venice until 1570 and, according to a letter written by his much older friend, the greatest miniaturist of the age, the Croatian Giulio Clovio, was a "disciple" of Titian, who was by then in his eighties but still vigorous. This may mean he worked in Titian's large studio, or not. Clovio characterized El Greco as "a rare talent in painting".[10] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1384x1000, 123 KB)Portrait of Julije Klovic by El Greco The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1384x1000, 123 KB)Portrait of Julije Klovic by El Greco The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Mona Lisa, Oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Palazzo Capodimonte. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Portrait (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Giorgio Giulio Clovio, pointing to his Farnese Hours, by El Greco. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ...


In 1570 El Greco moved to Rome, where he executed a series of works strongly marked by his Venetian apprenticeship.[10] It is unknown how long he remained in Rome, though he may have returned to Venice (c. 1575–1576) before he left for Spain.[11] In Rome, El Greco was received as a guest at the Palazzo Farnese, which Cardinal Alessandro Farnese had made a centre of the artistic and intellectual life of the city. There he came into contact with the intellectual elite of the city, including the Roman scholar Fulvio Orsini, whose collection would later include seven paintings by the artist (View of Mt. Sinai and a portrait of Clovio are among them).[12] A mid-18th century engraving of Palazzo Farnese by Giuseppe Vasi Palazzo Farnese, Rome (housing the French Embassy), is the most imposing Italian palace of the sixteenth century (Sir Banister Fletcher) (1). ... Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (Valentino, 5 October 1520–2 March 1589) was the grandson of Pope Paul III (who also bore the name Alessandro Farnese), and the son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma who was murdered in 1547. ... Fulvio Orsini was distinguished as a humanist, historian, and archæologist (born on December 11, 1529; died in Rome, May 18, 1600). ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ...


Unlike other Cretan artists who had moved to Venice, El Greco substantially altered his style and sought to distinguish himself by inventing new and unusual interpretations of traditional religious subject matter.[13] His works painted in Italy were influenced by the Venetian Renaissance style of the period, with agile, elongated figures reminiscent of Tintoretto and a chromatic framework that connects him to Titian.[2] The Venetian painters also taught him to organize his multi-figured compositions in landscapes vibrant with atmospheric light. Clovio reports visiting El Greco on a summer's day while the artist was still in Rome. El Greco was sitting in a darkened room, because he found the darkness more conducive to thought than the light of the day, which disturbed his "inner light".[14] As a result of his stay in Rome, his works were enriched with elements such as violent perspective vanishing points or strange attitudes struck by the figures with their repeated twisting and turning and tempestuous gestures; all elements of Mannerism.[10] Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... A cube in two-point perspective. ...


By the time El Greco arrived in Rome, Michelangelo and Raphael were dead, but their example continued to be paramount and left little room for different approaches. Although the artistic heritage of these great masters was overwhelming for young painters, El Greco was determined to make his own mark in Rome defending his personal artistic views, ideas and style.[15] He singled out Correggio and Parmigianino for particular praise,[16] but he did not hesitate to dismiss Michelangelo's Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel;[g] he extended an offer to Pope Pius V to paint over the whole work in accord with the new and stricter Catholic thinking.[17] When he was later asked what he thought about Michelangelo, El Greco replied that "he was a good man, but he did not know how to paint".[18] And thus we are confronted by a paradox: El Greco is said to have reacted most strongly or even condemned Michelangelo, but he had found it impossible to withstand his influence.[19] Michelangelo's influence can be seen in later El Greco works such as the Allegory of the Holy League.[20] By painting portraits of Michelangelo, Titian, Clovio and, presumably, Raphael in one of his works (The Purification of the Temple), El Greco not only expressed his gratitude but advanced the claim to rival these masters. As his own commentaries indicate, El Greco viewed Titian, Michelangelo and Raphael as models to emulate.[17] In his 17th century Chronicles, Giulio Mancini included El Greco among the painters who had initiated, in various ways, a re-evaluation of Michelangelo's teachings.[21] For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Correggio is the name of a town in Italy and of a famous painter who was born there. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... Pope St. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Because of his unconventional artistic beliefs (such as his dismissal of Michelangelo's technique) and personality, El Greco soon acquired enemies in Rome. Architect and writer Pirro Ligorio called him a "foolish foreigner", and newly discovered archival material reveals a skirmish with Farnese, who obliged the young artist to leave his palace.[21] On July 6, 1572, El Greco officially complained about this event. A few months later, on September 18, 1572, El Greco paid his dues to the Guild of Saint Luke in Rome as a miniature painter.[22] At the end of that year, El Greco opened his own workshop and hired as assistants the painters Lattanzio Bonastri de Lucignano and Francisco Preboste.[21] Pirro Ligori, (1510? - 1583) Italian architect, antiquarian and garden designer. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Jan Gossaert, , c. ... Look up miniature in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Spain

Immigration to Toledo

The Assumption of the Virgin (1577–1579, oil on canvas, 401 × 228 cm, Art Institute of Chicago) was one of the nine paintings El Greco completed for the church of Santo Domingo el Antiguo in Toledo, his first commission in Spain.
The Assumption of the Virgin (1577–1579, oil on canvas, 401 × 228 cm, Art Institute of Chicago) was one of the nine paintings El Greco completed for the church of Santo Domingo el Antiguo in Toledo, his first commission in Spain.

In 1577, El Greco emigrated first to Madrid, then to Toledo, where he produced his mature works.[23] At the time, Toledo was the religious capital of Spain and a populous city[h] with "an illustrious past, a prosperous present and an uncertain future".[24] In Rome, El Greco had earned the respect of some intellectuals, but was also facing the hostility of certain art critics.[25] During the 1570s the huge monastery-palace of El Escorial was still under construction and Philip II of Spain was experiencing difficulties in finding good artists for the many large paintings required to decorate it. Titian was dead, and Tintoretto, Veronese and Anthonis Mor all refused to come to Spain. Philip had had to rely on the lesser talent of Juan Fernándes de Navarrete, whose gravedad y decoro ("seriousness and decorum") the king approved. However he had just died in 1579; the moment should have been ideal for El Greco.[26] Through Clovio and Orsini, El Greco met Benito Arias Montano, a Spanish humanist and agent of Philip; Pedro Chacón, a clergyman; and Luis de Castilla, son of Diego de Castilla, the dean of the Cathedral of Toledo.[27] El Greco's friendship with Castilla would secure his first large commissions in Toledo. He arrived in Toledo by July 1577, and signed contracts for a group of paintings that was to adorn the church of Santo Domingo el Antiguo in Toledo and for the renowned El Espolio.[28] By September 1579 he had completed nine paintings for Santo Domingo, including The Trinity and The Assumption of the Virgin. These works would establish the painter's reputation in Toledo.[22] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1325, 172 KB) Summary Assumption of the Virgin (1577) was El Greco’s first commission in Spain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1325, 172 KB) Summary Assumption of the Virgin (1577) was El Greco’s first commission in Spain. ... The Art Institute of Chicago is a fine art museum located in Chicago, Illinois. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Monkeys as Judges of Art, 1889, Gabriel von Max. ... // El Escorial, the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo El Real (also known as the Monasterio de El Escorial or simply El Escorial) is located about 45 kilometres (28 miles) northwest of the Spanish capital, Madrid. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... Veronese means either of the following things: the painter Paolo Veronese someone or something from Verona, Italy. ... Categories: Stub | Dutch painters ... Juan Fernández Navarrete (1526-1579), or de Navarrete, called El Mudo (The Mute), was a Spanish Mannerist painter, born at Logroño. ... Benito Arias Montano or Benedictus Arias Montanus (1527-1598), Spanish orientalist and editor of the Antwerp Polyglot, was born at Fregenal de la Sierra, in Estremadura, in 1527. ... Diego de Castilla (1510/15-1584), dean of Toledo Cathedral. ... Façade of the Cathedral of Toledo The Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo, also called Primate Cathedral of Toledo, Spain, seat of the Archdiocese of Toledo, is one of the three 13th century High Gothic cathedrals in Spain and is considered to be the magnum opus of the Gothic... The Disrobing of Christ (or El Espolio), a painting begun in the summer of 1577 and completed in the spring of 1579 for the High Altar of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Toledo, where it still hangs, is one of El Grecos most renowned works. ...


El Greco did not plan to settle permanently in Toledo, since his final aim was to win the favor of Philip and make his mark in his court.[29] Indeed, he did manage to secure two important commissions from the monarch: Allegory of the Holy League and Martyrdrom of St. Maurice. However, the king did not like these works and placed the St Maurice altarpiece in the chapter-house rather than the intended chapel. He gave no further commissions to El Greco.[30] The exact reasons for the king's dissatisfaction remain unclear. Some scholars have suggested that Philip did not like the inclusion of living persons in a religious scene;[30] some others that El Greco's works violated a basic rule of the Counter-Reformation, namely that in the image the content was paramount rather than the style.[31] Philip took a close interest in his artistic commissions, and had very decided tastes; a long sought-after sculpted Crucifixion by Benvenuto Cellini also failed to please when it arrived, and was likewise exiled to a less prominent place. Philip's next experiment, with Federigo Zuccaro was even less successful.[32] In any case, Philip's dissatisfaction ended any hopes of royal patronage El Greco may have had.[22] Saint-Maurice may refer to: Saint-Maurice, a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Quebec Saint-Maurice, VS (Roman Agaunum) is a commune and a district in the Valais, Switzerland. ... A chapter house is a building or room attached to a cathedral or collegiate church in which meetings are held. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Gold Salt cellar by Cellini. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ...


Mature works and later years

The Burial of Count Orgaz (1586–1588, oil on canvas, 480 × 360 cm, Santo Tomé, Toledo), now El Greco's best known work, illustrates a popular local legend. An exceptionally large painting, it is very clearly divided into two zones: the heavenly above and the terrestrial below. However, there is little feeling of duality, and the upper and lower zones are brought together compositionally.
The Burial of Count Orgaz (1586–1588, oil on canvas, 480 × 360 cm, Santo Tomé, Toledo), now El Greco's best known work, illustrates a popular local legend. An exceptionally large painting, it is very clearly divided into two zones: the heavenly above and the terrestrial below. However, there is little feeling of duality, and the upper and lower zones are brought together compositionally.

Lacking the favor of the king, El Greco was obliged to remain in Toledo, where he had been received in 1577 as a great painter.[33] According to Hortensio Félix Paravicino, a 17th-century Spanish preacher and poet, "Crete gave him life and the painter’s craft, Toledo a better homeland, where through Death he began to achieve eternal life."[34] In 1585, he appears to have hired an assistant, Italian painter Francisco Preboste, and to have established a workshop capable of producing altar frames and statues as well as paintings.[35] On March 12, 1586 he obtained the commission for The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, now his best-known work.[36] The decade 1597 to 1607 was a period of intense activity for El Greco. During these years he received several major commissions, and his workshop created pictorial and sculptural ensembles for a variety of religious institutions. Among his major commissions of this period were three altars for the Chapel of San José in Toledo (1597–1599); three paintings (1596–1600) for the Colegio de Doña María de Aragon, an Augustinian monastery in Madrid, and the high altar, four lateral altars, and the painting St. Ildefonso for the Capilla Mayor of the Hospital de la Caridad (Hospital of Charity) at Illescas (1603–1605).[2] The minutes of the commission of The Virgin of the Immaculate Conception (1607–1613), which were composed by the personnel of the municipality, describe El Greco as "one of the greatest men in both this kingdom and outside it".[37] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x1164, 213 KB) El Greco - The Burial of the Count of Orgaz (1586-88, Oil on canvas, 480 x 360 cm) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x1164, 213 KB) El Greco - The Burial of the Count of Orgaz (1586-88, Oil on canvas, 480 x 360 cm) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... The The Burial of the Count of Orgaz is now El Grecos best known work. ... Hortensio Félix Paravicino y Arteaga (October 12, 1580 - December 12, 1633), Spanish preacher and poet, was born at Madrid, was educated at the Jesuit college in Ocafra, and on April 18, 1600 joined the Trinitarian order. ... Famous Italian painters (in alphabetical order): Francesco Albani,(1578-1660) Mariotto Albertinelli, (1474-1515) Fra Angelico, (1387-1445) Fra Bartolommeo, (1472-1517) Gentile Bellini, (c. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... The Burial of the Count of Orgaz is widely considered to be El Grecos best-known work. ... Detail of St. ... Country Autonomous community Province Toledo Municipality Illescas Area  - Total 57 km² (22 sq mi) Elevation 583 m (1,913 ft) Population (2006)  - Total 15,830  - Density 277. ...


Between 1607 and 1608 El Greco was involved in a protracted legal dispute with the authorities of the Hospital of Charity at Illescas concerning payment for his work, which included painting, sculpture and architecture;[i] this and other legal disputes contributed to the economic difficulties he experienced towards the end of his life.[38] In 1608, he received his last major commission: for the Hospital of Saint John the Baptist in Toledo.[22] St. ...


El Greco made Toledo his home. Surviving contracts mention him as the tenant from 1585 onwards of a complex consisting of three apartments and twenty-four rooms which belonged to the Marquis de Villena.[39] It was in these apartments, which also served as his workshop, that he passed the rest of his life, painting and studying. He lived in considerable style, sometimes employing musicians to play whilst he dined. It is not confirmed whether he lived with his Spanish female companion, Jerónima de Las Cuevas, whom he probably never married. She was the mother of his only son, Jorge Manuel, born in 1578, who also became a painter, assisted his father, and continued to repeat his compositions for many years after he inherited the studio.[j] In 1604, Jorge Manuel and Alfonsa de los Morales gave birth to El Greco's grandson, Gabriel, who was baptized by Gregorio Angulo, governor of Toledo and a personal friend of the artist.[38]


During the course of the execution of a commission for the Hospital Tavera, El Greco fell seriously ill, and a month later, on April 7, 1614, he died. A few days earlier, on March 31, he had directed that his son should have the power to make his will. Two Greeks, friends of the painter, witnessed this last will and testament (El Greco never lost touch with his Greek origins).[40] He was buried in the Church of Santo Domingo el Antigua.[41] April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ...


Art

For more details on this topic, see Art of El Greco.

El Greco was a prominent painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ...

Technique and style

The primacy of imagination and intuition over the subjective character of creation was a fundamental principle of El Greco's style.[18] El Greco discarded classicist criteria such as measure and proportion. He believed that grace is the supreme quest of art, but the painter achieves grace only if he manages to solve the most complex problems with obvious ease.[18]

"I hold the imitation of color to be the greatest difficulty of art."
El Greco (notes of the painter in one of his commentaries)[42]

El Greco regarded color as the most important and the most ungovernable element of painting, and declared that color had primacy over form.[18] Francisco Pacheco, a painter and theoretician who visited El Greco in 1611, wrote that the painter liked "the colors crude and unmixed in great blots as a boastful display of his dexterity" and that "he believed in constant repainting and retouching in order to make the broad masses tell flat as in nature".[43] Francisco Pacheco (1564-1654) was a Spanish painter, best known as the teacher of Diego Velázquez and Alonso Cano, and for his textbook on painting that is an important source for the study of 17th-century practice in Spain. ...

The Disrobing of Christ (El Espolio) (1577–1579, oil on canvas, 285 × 173 cm, Sacristy of the Cathedral, Toledo) is one of the most famous altarpieces of El Greco. El Greco's altarpieces are renowned for their dynamic compositions and startling innovations.
The Disrobing of Christ (El Espolio) (1577–1579, oil on canvas, 285 × 173 cm, Sacristy of the Cathedral, Toledo) is one of the most famous altarpieces of El Greco. El Greco's altarpieces are renowned for their dynamic compositions and startling innovations.

Art historian Max Dvořák was the first scholar to connect El Greco's art with Mannerism and Antinaturalism.[44] Modern scholars characterize El Greco's theory as "typically Mannerist" and pinpoint its sources in the Neo-Platonism of the Renaissance.[45] Jonathan Brown believes that El Greco endeavored to create a sophisticated form of art;[46] according to Nicholas Penny "once in Spain, El Greco was able to create a style of his own — one that disavowed most of the descriptive ambitions of painting".[47] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1438, 201 KB) Summary The Spoliation - 1577-79 - Oil on canvas, 285 x 173 cm - Sacristy of the Cathedral, Toledo - El Greco Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1438, 201 KB) Summary The Spoliation - 1577-79 - Oil on canvas, 285 x 173 cm - Sacristy of the Cathedral, Toledo - El Greco Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those... The Disrobing of Christ (or El Espolio), a painting begun in the summer of 1577 and completed in the spring of 1579 for the High Altar of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Toledo, where it still hangs, is one of El Grecos most renowned works. ... The Annunciation Triptych is an altarpiece, ca. ... Max Dvořák (June 4, 1874, Roudnice nad Labem (Raudnitz) - February 8, 1921, HruÅ¡ovany nad JeviÅ¡ovkou (Grusbach) near Znojmo) is a Czech-born Austrian art historian. ... Antinaturalism is a view in sociology which states that the natural world and the social world are different. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Nicholas Penny (born 1949) is a British art historian. ...


In his mature works El Greco demonstrated a characteristic tendency to dramatize rather than to describe.[2] The strong spiritual emotion transfers from painting directly to the audience. According to Pacheco, El Greco's perturbed, violent and at times seemingly careless-in-execution art was due to a studied effort to acquire a freedom of style.[43] El Greco's preference for exceptionally tall and slender figures and elongated compositions, which served both his expressive purposes and aesthetic principles, led him to disregard the laws of nature and elongate his compositions to ever greater extents, particularly when they were destined for altarpieces.[48] The anatomy of the human body becomes even more otherworldly in El Greco's mature works; for The Virgin of the Immaculate Conception El Greco asked to lengthen the altarpiece itself by another 1.5 feet "because in this way the form will be perfect and not reduced, which is the worst thing that can happen to a figure'". A significant innovation of El Greco's mature works is the interweaving between form and space; a reciprocal relationship is developed between the two which completely unifies the painting surface. This interweaving would re-emerge three centuries later in the works of Cézanne and Picasso.[48] Cezanne redirects here. ... Picasso redirects here. ...


Another characteristic of El Greco's mature style is the use of light. As Jonathan Brown notes, "each figure seems to carry its own light within or reflects the light that emanates from an unseen source".[49] Fernando Marias and Agustín Bustamante García, the scholars who transcribed El Greco's handwritten notes, connect the power that the painter gives to light with the ideas underlying Christian Neo-Platonism.[50]

View of Toledo (c. 1596–1600, oil on canvas, 47.75 × 42.75 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) is one of the two surviving landscapes of Toledo painted by El Greco.
View of Toledo (c. 1596–1600, oil on canvas, 47.75 × 42.75 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) is one of the two surviving landscapes of Toledo painted by El Greco.

Modern scholarly research emphasizes the importance of Toledo for the complete development of El Greco's mature style and stresses the painter's ability to adjust his style in accordance with his surroundings.[51] Harold Wethey asserts that "although Greek by descent and Italian by artistic preparation, the artist became so immersed in the religious environment of Spain that he became the most vital visual representative of Spanish mysticism". He believes that in El Greco's mature works "the devotional intensity of mood reflects the religious spirit of Roman Catholic Spain in the period of the Counter-Reformation".[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1145, 235 KB) Summary View of Toledo by El Greco a famous painting in Mannierism style. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1145, 235 KB) Summary View of Toledo by El Greco a famous painting in Mannierism style. ... View of Toledo, sometimes called Toledo in a Storm, is one of the two surviving landscapes painted by El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos). ... Harold Edwin Wethey (Port Byron, New York 1902 – Ann Arbor, Michigan, September 22, 1984) was a prominent art historian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


El Greco also excelled as a portraitist, able not only to record a sitter's features but also to convey their character.[52] His portraits are fewer in number than his religious paintings, but are of equally high quality. Wethey says that "by such simple means, the artist created a memorable characterization that places him in the highest rank as a portraitist, along with Titian and Rembrandt".[2] This article is about the Dutch artist. ...


Suggested Byzantine affinities

Since the beginning of the 20th century, scholars have debated whether El Greco's style had Byzantine origins. Certain art historians had asserted that El Greco's roots were firmly in the Byzantine tradition, and that his most individual characteristics derive directly from the art of his ancestors,[53] while others had argued that Byzantine art could not be related to El Greco's later work.[54]


The discovery of the Dormition of the Virgin on Syros, an authentic and signed work from the painter's Cretan period, and the extensive archival research in the early 1960s, contributed to the rekindling and reassessment of these theories. Although following many conventions of the Byzantine icon, aspects of the style certainly show Venetian influence, and the composition, showing the death of Mary, combines the different doctrines of the Orthodox Dormition of the Virgin and the Catholic Assumption of the Virgin.[55] Significant scholarly works of the second half of the 20th century devoted to El Greco reappraise many of the interpretations of his work, including his supposed Byzantinism.[56] Based on the notes written in El Greco's own hand, on his unique style, and on the fact that El Greco signed his name in Greek characters, they see an organic continuity between Byzantine painting and his art.[57] According to Marina Lambraki-Plaka "far from the influence of Italy, in a neutral place which was intellectually similar to his birthplace, Candia, the Byzantine elements of his education emerged and played a catalytic role in the new conception of the image which is presented to us in his mature work".[58] In making this judgement, Lambraki-Plaka disagrees with Oxford University professors Cyril Mango and Elizabeth Jeffreys, who assert that "despite claims to the contrary, the only Byzantine element of his famous paintings was his signature in Greek lettering".[59] Nikos Hadjinikolaou states that from 1570 El Greco's painting is "neither Byzantine nor post-Byzantine but Western European. The works he produced in Italy belong to the history of the Italian art, and those he produced in Spain to the history of Spanish art".[60] The Dormition of the Virgin by El Greco was probably created near the end of the artists Cretan period (before 1567). ... Syros (Greek: Σύρος), or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea. ... Icon of the Dormition Dormition of the Virgin redirects here. ... Welcome to Wikipedia. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Cyril A. Mango (born 14 April 1928 in Istanbul) is a British scholar in the history, art, and architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... Elizabeth Jeffreys is the Bywater and Sotheby Professor of Byzantine and Modern Greek Literature at the University of Oxford. ... El Greco was a Cretan-born painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome painted by Michelangelo, one of the most famous examples of Italian art Italian art describes the visual arts in Italy from ancient times to the present. ...

The Adoration of the Magi (1565–1567, 56 × 62 cm, Benaki Museum, Athens). The icon, signed by El Greco ("Χείρ Δομήνιχου", Created by the hand of Doménicos), was painted in Candia on part of an old chest.
The Adoration of the Magi (1565–1567, 56 × 62 cm, Benaki Museum, Athens). The icon, signed by El Greco ("Χείρ Δομήνιχου", Created by the hand of Doménicos), was painted in Candia on part of an old chest.

The English art historian David Davies seeks the roots of El Greco's style in the intellectual sources of his Greek-Christian education and in the world of his recollections from the liturgical and ceremonial aspect of the Orthodox Church. Davies believes that the religious climate of the Counter-Reformation and the aesthetics of mannerism acted as catalysts to activate his individual technique. He asserts that the philosophies of Platonism and ancient Neo-Platonism, the works of Plotinus and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, the texts of the Church fathers and the liturgy offer the keys to the understanding of El Greco's style.[61] Summarizing the ensuing scholarly debate on this issue, José Álvarez Lopera, curator at the Museo del Prado, Madrid, concludes that the presence of "Byzantine memories" is obvious in El Greco's mature works, though there are still some obscure issues concerning his Byzantine origins needing further illumination.[62] Image File history File links Adoration_of_the_Magi. ... Image File history File links Adoration_of_the_Magi. ... the Benaki Museum, Athens, Greece The Benaki Museum was established and endowed in 1930 by Antonis Benakis in memory of his father Emmanuel Benakis, at the Benakis family mansion in downtown Athens. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, also known as pseudo-Denys, refers to the anonymous theologian and philosopher of the 5th century whose Corpus Areopagiticum was falsely ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite of Acts 17:34. ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ...


Architecture and sculpture

El Greco was highly esteemed as an architect and sculptor during his lifetime.[63] He usually designed complete altar compositions, working as architect and sculptor as well as painter – at, for instance, the Hospital de la Caridad. There he decorated the chapel of the hospital, but the wooden altar and the sculptures he created have in all probability perished.[64] For El Espolio the master designed the original altar of gilded wood which has been destroyed, but his small sculptured group of the Miracle of St. Ildefonso still survives on the lower centre of the frame.[2] A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ...

"I would not be happy to see a beautiful, well-proportioned woman, no matter from which point of view, however extravagant, not only lose her beauty in order to, I would say, increase in size according to the law of vision, but no longer appear beautiful, and, in fact, become monstrous."
El Greco (marginalia the painter inscribed in his copy of Daniele Barbaro's translation of Vitruvius)[65]

His most important architectural achievement was the church and Monastery of Santo Domingo el Antiguo, for which he also executed sculptures and paintings.[66] El Greco is regarded as a painter who incorporated architecture in his painting.[67] He is also credited with the architectural frames to his own paintings in Toledo. Pacheco characterized him as "a writer of painting, sculpture and architecture".[18]


In the marginalia that El Greco inscribed in his copy of Daniele Barbaro's translation of Vitruvius' De Architectura, he refuted Vitruvius' attachment to archaeological remains, canonical proportions, perspective and mathematics. He also saw Vitruvius's manner of distorting proportions in order to compensate for distance from the eye as responsible for creating monstrous forms. El Greco was averse to the very idea of rules in architecture; he believed above all in the freedom of invention and defended novelty, variety, and complexity. These ideas were, however, far too extreme for the architectural circles of his era and had no immediate resonance.[67] Marginalia is the general term for notes, scribbles, doodles and editorial comments made in the margin of a book. ... Daniele Barbaro (Daniele Matteo Alvise Barbaro; Barbarigo, Barberigo: the -igo suffix is typically Venetian; 1513-70) was an Italian translator of, and commentator on, Vitruvius. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... De architectūra (Latin: On architecture) was a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus. ...


Legacy

For more details on this topic, see Posthumous fame of El Greco.

Portrait of An Old Man (so called self-portrait of El Greco, circa 1595-1600, oil on canvas, 52. ...

Posthumous critical reputation

It was a great moment. A pure righteous conscience stood on one tray of the balance, an empire on the other, and it was you, man's conscience, that tipped the scales. This conscience will be able to stand before the Lord as the Last Judgement and not be judged. It will judge, because human dignity, purity and valor fill even God with terror … Art is not submission and rules, but a demon which smashes the moulds … Greco's inner-archangel's breast had thrust him on savage freedom's single hope, this world's most excellent garret.
 
Nikos Kazantzakis, Report to Greco
The Holy Trinity (1577–1579, 300 × 178 cm, oil on canvas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain) was part of a group of works created for the church "Santo Domingo el Antiguo".

El Greco was disdained by the immediate generations after his death because his work was opposed in many respects to the principles of the early baroque style which came to the fore near the beginning of the 17th century and soon supplanted the last surviving traits of the 16th-century Mannerism.[2] El Greco was deemed incomprehensible and had no important followers.[68] Only his son and a few unknown painters produced weak copies of his works. Late 17th- and early 18th-century Spanish commentators praised his skill but criticized his antinaturalistic style and his complex iconography. Some of these commentators, such as Acislo Antonio Palomino de Castro y Velasco and Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, described his mature work as "contemptible", "ridiculous" and "worthy of scorn".[69] The views of Palomino and Bermúdez were frequently repeated in Spanish historiography, adorned with terms such as "strange", "queer", "original", "eccentric" and "odd".[70] The phrase "sunk in eccentricity", often encountered in such texts, in time developed into "madness".[j] Nikos Kazantzakis (Greek: Νίκος Καζαντζάκης) (February 18, 1883, Heraklion, Crete, Greece - October 26, 1957, Freiburg, Germany), author of poems, novels, essays, plays, and travel books, was arguably the most important and most translated Greek writer and philosopher of the 20th century. ... Image File history File links Greco_Trinity. ... Image File history File links Greco_Trinity. ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Antinaturalism is a view in sociology which states that the natural world and the social world are different. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Acislo Antonio Palomino de Castro y Velasco (1653-1726), Spanish painter and writer on art, was born of good family at Bujalance, near Córdoba, in 1653, and studied philosophy, theology and law at Córdoba, receiving also lessons in painting from Juan de Valdés Leal, who visited there... (Goya, 1792-93) Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez (September 17, 1749, Gijón – December 3, 1829, Madrid) was a Spanish writer on art. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ...


With the arrival of Romantic sentiments in the late 18th century, El Greco's works were examined anew.[68] To French writer Theophile Gautier, El Greco was the precursor of the European Romantic movement in all its craving for the strange and the extreme.[71] Gautier regarded El Greco as the ideal romantic hero (the "gifted", the "misunderstood", the "mad"[k]), and was the first who explicitly expressed his admiration for El Greco's later technique.[70] French art critics Zacharie Astruc and Paul Lefort helped to promote a widespread revival of interest in his painting. In the 1890s, Spanish painters living in Paris adopted him as their guide and mentor.[71] Romantics redirects here. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 31, 1811 - October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist and literary critic. ... Zacharie Astruc (Angers, 1835- Paris, 1907) was a sculptor, painter and art critic. ...


In 1908, Spanish art historian Manuel Bartolomé Cossío published the first comprehensive catalogue of El Greco's works; in this book El Greco was presented as the founder of the Spanish School.[72] The same year Julius Meier-Graefe, a scholar of French Impressionism, travelled in Spain and recorded his experiences in The Spanische Reise, the first book which established El Greco as a great painter of the past. In El Greco's work, Meier-Graefe found foreshadowing of modernity.[73] These are the words Meier-Graefe used to describe El Greco's impact on the artistic movements of his time: Julius Meier-Graefe (June 10, 1867 - June 5, 1935) was a German art critic and novellist. ... This article is about the art movement. ... An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement more or less strictly so restricted (usually a few months, years or...

He [El Greco] has discovered a realm of new possibilities. Not even he, himself, was able to exhaust them. All the generations that follow after him live in his realm. There is a greater difference between him and Titian, his master, than between him and Renoir or Cézanne. Nevertheless, Renoir and Cézanne are masters of impeccable originality because it is not possible to avail yourself of El Greco's language, if in using it, it is not invented again and again, by the user.[74]

To the English artist and critic Roger Fry in 1920, El Greco was the archetypal genius who did as he thought best "with complete indifference to what effect the right expression might have on the public". Fry described El Greco as "an old master who is not merely modern, but actually appears a good many steps ahead of us, turning back to show us the way".[16] During the same period, other researchers developed alternate, more radical theories. Doctors August Goldschmidt and Germán Beritens argued that El Greco painted such elongated human figures because he had vision problems (possibly progressive astigmatism or strabismus) that made him see bodies longer than they were, and at an angle to the perpendicular.[l] English writer W. Somerset Maugham attributed El Greco's personal style to the artist's "latent homosexuality", and doctor Arturo Perera to the use of marijuana.[75] River with Poplars, circa 1912, Tate Gallery. ... An Old Master (or old master) is one of the great European painters who lived 1500 through 1800, or a painting by one of these painters. ... In optics, astigmatism (from Greek: α- a- without + στίγματος stigmatos, gen. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... W. Somerset Maugham as photographed in 1934 by Carl Van Vechten. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ...

"As I was climbing the narrow, rain-slicked lane

—nearly three hundred years have gone by—
I felt myself seized by the hand of a Powerful Friend
and indeed I came to see myself lifted on the two
enormous wings of Doménicos up to his skies


which this time were full of
orange trees and water speaking of the homeland."

Odysseas Elytis, Diary of an Unseen April

Michael Kimmelman, a reviewer for The New York Times, stated that "to Greeks [El Greco] became the quintessential Greek painter; to the Spanish, the quintessential Spaniard".[16] As was proved by the campaign of the National Art Gallery in Athens to raise the funds for the purchase of Saint Peter in 1995, El Greco is loved not just by experts and art lovers but also by ordinary people; thanks to the donations mainly of individuals and public benefit foundations the National Art Gallery raised 1.2 million dollars and purchased the painting.[76] Epitomizing the general consensus of El Greco's impact, Jimmy Carter, the 39th President of the United States, said in April 1980 that El Greco was "the most extraordinary painter that ever came along back then" and that he was "maybe three or four centuries ahead of his time".[71] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...


Influence on other artists

The Opening of the Fifth Seal (1608–1614, oil, 225 × 193 cm., New York, Metropolitan Museum) has been suggested to be the prime source of inspiration for Picasso's Les Demoiselles d' Avignon.
The Opening of the Fifth Seal (1608–1614, oil, 225 × 193 cm., New York, Metropolitan Museum) has been suggested to be the prime source of inspiration for Picasso's Les Demoiselles d' Avignon.
Picasso's Les Demoiselles d' Avignon (1907, oil on canvas, 243.9 × 233.7 cm., New York, Museum of Modern Art) appears to have certain morphological and stylistic similarities with The Opening of the Fifth Seal.
Picasso's Les Demoiselles d' Avignon (1907, oil on canvas, 243.9 × 233.7 cm., New York, Museum of Modern Art) appears to have certain morphological and stylistic similarities with The Opening of the Fifth Seal.

El Greco's re-evaluation was not limited to scholars. According to Efi Foundoulaki, "painters and theoreticians from the beginning of the 20th century 'discovered' a new El Greco but in process they also discovered and revealed their own selves".[77] His expressiveness and colors influenced Eugène Delacroix and Édouard Manet.[78] To the Blaue Reiter group in Munich in 1912, El Greco typified that mystical inner construction that it was the task of their generation to rediscover.[79] The first painter who appears to have noticed the structural code in the morphology of the mature El Greco was Paul Cézanne, one of the forerunners of cubism.[68] Comparative morphological analyses of the two painters revealed their common elements, such as the distortion of the human body, the reddish and (in appearance only) unworked backgrounds and the similarities in the rendering of space.[80] According to Brown, "Cézanne and El Greco are spiritual brothers despite the centuries which separate them".[81] Fry observed that Cézanne drew from "his great discovery of the permeation of every part of the design with a uniform and continuous plastic theme".[82] Image File history File links 2205grec. ... Image File history File links 2205grec. ... The Opening of the Fifth Seal (or The Fifth Seal of the Apocalypse or The Vision of Saint John) was painted in the last years of El Grecos life for a side-altar of the church of Saint John the Baptist outside the walls of Toledo. ... Pablo Picasso. ... Pablo Picasso. ... This article is about the museum in New York City. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... “Manet” redirects here. ... Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of expressionist artists that was established in Munich in 1911. ... Cezanne redirects here. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism...


The symbolists, and Pablo Picasso during his Blue Period, drew on the cold tonality of El Greco, utilizing the anatomy of his ascetic figures. While Picasso was working on Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he visited his friend Ignacio Zuloaga in his studio in Paris and studied El Greco's Opening of the Fifth Seal (owned by Zuloaga since 1897).[83] The relation between Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and the Opening of the Fifth Seal was pinpointed in the early 1980s, when the stylistic similarities and the relationship between the motifs of both works were analysed.[84] Symbolism is the applied use of symbols: iconic representations that carry particular conventional meanings. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Self-portrait with Cloak (1901) The Blue Period of Picasso, between 1901 and 1904, was when the style of Pablo Picassos paintings were heavily emotional, often in the form of blue colors. ... Les Demoiselles dAvignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon in English) is a celebrated painting by Pablo Picasso that depicts five prostitutes in a brothel, in the Avignon Street of Barcelona. ... Ignacio Zuloaga (July 26, 1870 - October 31, 1945) was a Spanish painter, born at Eibar, in the Basque country, the son of the metalworker and damascener Plácido Zuloaga, and grandson of the organizer and director of the royal armoury in Madrid. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Opening of the Fifth Seal (or The Fifth Seal of the Apocalypse or The Vision of Saint John) was painted in the last years of El Grecos life for a side-altar of the church of Saint John the Baptist outside the walls of Toledo. ...

"In any case, only the execution counts. From this point of view, it is correct to say that Cubism has a Spanish origin and that I invented Cubism. We must look for the Spanish influence in Cézanne. Things themselves necessitate it, the influence of El Greco, a Venetian painter, on him. But his structure is Cubist."
Picasso speaking of "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" to Dor de la Souchère in Antibes.[85]

The early cubist explorations of Picasso were to uncover other aspects in the work of El Greco: structural analysis of his compositions, multi-faced refraction of form, interweaving of form and space, and special effects of highlights. Several traits of cubism, such as distortions and the materialistic rendering of time, have their analogies in El Greco's work. According to Picasso, El Greco's structure is cubist.[86] On February 22, 1950, Picasso began his series of "paraphrases" of other painters' works with The Portrait of a Painter after El Greco.[87] Foundoulaki asserts that Picasso "completed … the process for the activation of the painterly values of El Greco which had been started by Manet and carried on by Cézanne".[88] is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The expressionists focused on the expressive distortions of El Greco. According to Franz Marc, one of the principal painters of the German expressionist movement, "we refer with pleasure and with steadfastness to the case of El Greco, because the glory of this painter is closely tied to the evolution of our new perceptions on art".[89] Jackson Pollock, a major force in the abstract expressionist movement, was also influenced by El Greco. By 1943, Pollock had completed sixty drawing compositions after El Greco and owned three books on the Cretan master.[90] Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was one of the principal painters and printmakers of the German Expressionist movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ...

Portrait of Jorge Manuel Theotocopoulos (1600–1605, oil on canvas, 81 × 56 cm, Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes, Seville)
Portrait of Jorge Manuel Theotocopoulos (1600–1605, oil on canvas, 81 × 56 cm, Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes, Seville)
The Portrait of a Painter after El Greco (1950, oil on plywood, 100.5 × 81 cm, Angela Rosengart Collection, Lucerne) is Picasso's version of the Portrait of Jorge Manuel Theotocopoulos.
The Portrait of a Painter after El Greco (1950, oil on plywood, 100.5 × 81 cm, Angela Rosengart Collection, Lucerne) is Picasso's version of the Portrait of Jorge Manuel Theotocopoulos.

Contemporary painters are also inspired by El Greco's art. Kysa Johnson used El Greco's paintings of the Immaculate Conception as the compositional framework for some of her works, and the master's anatomical distortions are somewhat reflected in Fritz Chesnut's portraits.[91] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (484x721, 14 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): El Greco ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (484x721, 14 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): El Greco ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Picasso_Painter_El_Greco. ... Image File history File links Picasso_Painter_El_Greco. ... For other uses, see Lucerne (disambiguation). ... Kysa Johnson is a modern painter, drawing from scientific sources and theories, such as string theory and the mapping of the subatomic decay of particles. ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ...


El Greco's personality and work were a source of inspiration for poet Rainer Maria Rilke. One set of Rilke's poems (Himmelfahrt Mariae I.II., 1913) was based directly on El Greco's Immaculate Conception.[92] Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis, who felt a great spiritual affinity for El Greco, called his autobiography Report to Greco and wrote a tribute to the Cretan-born artist.[93]


In 1998, the Greek electronic composer and artist Vangelis published El Greco, a symphonic album inspired by the artist. This album is an expansion of an earlier album by Vangelis, Foros Timis Ston Greco (A Tribute to El Greco, Φόρος Τιμής Στον Γκρέκο). The life of the Cretan-born artist is the subject of a recent Greek-Spanish film. Directed by Yannis Smaragdis, the film began shooting in October 2006 on the island of Crete and debuted on the screen one year later;[94] British actor Nick Ashdon has been cast to play El Greco.[95] See also: 1998 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1998 Record labels established in 1998 // 1998 - The single Iris by the Goo Goo Dolls sets a new hot 100 airplay record, 18 weeks at number one. ... Evangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou (Greek: Ευάγγελος Οδυσσέας Παπαθανασίου IPA: ) is a world-renowned Greek composer of electronic, new age and classical music and musical performer, under the artist name Vangelis Papathanassiou (Βαγγέλης Παπαθανασίου) or just Vangelis (a diminutive of Evangelos) [IPA: or ]. He is best known for his Academy Award winning score for the film Chariots... El Greco is a classical composition by Greek synth-composer Vangelis Papathanissiou (born March 29, 1943). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Φόρος Τιμής Στον Γκρέκο (Foros Timis Ston Greco, lit. ... Yannis Smaragdis is a Greek film director. ...


Debates on attribution

For more details on this topic, see Works of El Greco.
The Modena Triptych (1568, tempera on panel, 37 × 23,8 cm (central), 24 × 18 cm (side panels), Galleria Estense, Modena) is a small-scale composition attributed to El Greco .
The Modena Triptych (1568, tempera on panel, 37 × 23,8 cm (central), 24 × 18 cm (side panels), Galleria Estense, Modena) is a small-scale composition attributed to El Greco .

The exact number of El Greco's works has been a hotly contested issue. In 1937 a highly influential study by art historian Rodolfo Pallucchini had the effect of greatly increasing the number of works accepted to be by El Greco. Pallucchini attributed to El Greco a small triptych in the Galleria Estense at Modena on the basis of a signature on the painting on the back of the central panel on the Modena triptych ("Χείρ Δομήνιχου", Created by the hand of Doménikos).[96] There was consensus that the triptych was indeed an early work of El Greco and, therefore, Pallucchini's publication became the yardstick for attributions to the artist.[97] Nevertheless, Wethey denied that the Modena triptych had any connection at all with the artist and, in 1962, produced a reactive catalogue raisonné with a greatly reduced corpus of materials. Whereas art historian José Camón Aznar had attributed between 787 and 829 paintings to the Cretan master, Wethey reduced the number to 285 authentic works and Halldor Sœhner, a German researcher of Spanish art, recognized only 137.[98] Wethey and other scholars rejected the notion that Crete took any part in his formation and supported the elimination of a series of works from El Greco's oeuvre.[99] El Greco was a Cretan-born painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1369x900, 170 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): El Greco ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1369x900, 170 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): El Greco ... The Raising of the Cross, Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp A triptych (from the Greek tri- three + ptychÄ“ fold) is a work of art (usually a panel painting) which is divided into three sections, or three carved panels which are hinged together. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Spanish art is an important and influential type of art in Europe. ...

«Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος (Doménicos Theotocópoulos) ἐποία». The words El Greco used to sign his paintings. El Greco appended after his name the word "epoia" (ἐποία, "he made it"). In The Assumption the painter used the word "deixas" (δείξας, "he displayed it") instead of "epoia".
«Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος (Doménicos Theotocópoulos) ἐποία». The words El Greco used to sign his paintings. El Greco appended after his name the word "epoia" (ἐποία, "he made it"). In The Assumption the painter used the word "deixas" (δείξας, "he displayed it") instead of "epoia".

Since 1962 the discovery of the Dormition and the extensive archival research has gradually convinced scholars that Wethey's assessments were not entirely correct, and that his catalogue decisions may have distorted the perception of the whole nature of El Greco's origins, development and oeuvre. The discovery of the Dormition led to the attribution of three other signed works of "Doménicos" to El Greco (Modena Triptych, St. Luke Painting the Virgin and Child, and The Adoration of the Magi) and then to the acceptance of more works as authentic – some signed, some not (such as The Passion of Christ (Pietà with Angels) painted in 1566),[100] – which were brought into the group of early works of El Greco. El Greco is now seen as an artist with a formative training on Crete; a series of works illuminate the style of early El Greco, some painted while he was still in Crete, some from his period in Venice, and some from his subsequent stay in Rome.[56] Even Wethey accepted that "he [El Greco] probably had painted the little and much disputed triptych in the Galleria Estense at Modena before he left Crete".[101] Nevertheless, disputes over the exact number of El Greco's authentic works remain unresolved, and the status of Wethey's catalogue raisonné is at the centre of these disagreements.[102] Image File history File links ElGreco_signature. ... Image File history File links ElGreco_signature. ...


A few sculptures, including Epimetheus and Pandora, have been attributed to El Greco. This doubtful attribution is based on the testimony of Pacheco (he saw in El Greco's studio a series of figurines, but these may have been merely models). There are also four drawings among the surviving works of El Greco; three of them are preparatory works for the altarpiece of Santo Domingo el Antiguo and the fourth is a study for one of his paintings, The Crucifixion.[103]




Notes

a. ^  Theotocópoulos acquired the name "El Greco" in Italy, where the custom of identifying a man by designating a country or city of origin was a common practice. The curious form of the article (El) may be from the Venetian dialect or more likely from the Spanish, though in Spanish his name would be "El Griego".[2] The Cretan master was generally known in Italy and Spain as Dominico Greco, and was called only after his death El Greco.[56]


b. ^  According to a contemporary, El Greco acquired his name, not only for his place of origin, but also for the sublimity of his art: "Out of the great esteem he was held in he was called the Greek (il Greco)" (comment of Giulio Cesare Mancini about El Greco in his Chronicles, which were written a few years after El Greco's death).[104]


c. ^  There is an ongoing dispute about El Greco's birthplace. Most researchers and scholars give Candia as his birthplace.[105] Nonetheless, according to Achileus A. Kyrou, a prominent Greek journalist of the 20th century, El Greco was born in Fodele and the ruins of his family's house are still extant in the place where old Fodele was (the village later changed location because of the raids of the pirates).[39] Candia's claim to him is based on two documents from a trial in 1606, when the painter was 65. Fodele natives argue that El Greco probably told everyone in Spain he was from Heraklion because it was the closest known city next to tiny Fodele[106]


d. ^  This document comes from the notarial archives of Candia and was published in 1962.[107] Menegos is the Venetian dialect form of Doménicos, and Sgourafos (σγουράφος=ζωγράφος) is a Greek term for painter.[56]


e. ^  The arguments of these catholic sources are based on the lack of Orthodox archival baptismal records on Crete and on a relaxed interchange between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic rites during El Greco's youth.[108] Based on the assessment that his art reflects the religious spirit of Roman Catholic Spain, and on a reference in his last will and testament, where he described himself as a "devout Catholic", some scholars assume that El Greco was part of the vibrant Catholic Cretan minority or that he converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Roman Catholicism before leaving the island.[109] This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ...


f. ^  According to archival research in the late 1990s, El Greco was still in Candia at the age of twenty-six. It was there where his works, created in the spirit of the post-Byzantine painters of the Cretan School, were greatly esteemed. On December 26, 1566 El Greco sought permission from the Venetian authorities to sell a "panel of the Passion of Christ executed on a gold background" ("un quadro della Passione del Nostro Signor Giesu Christo, dorato") in a lottery.[56] The Byzantine icon by young Doménicos depicting the Passion of Christ, painted on a gold ground, was appraised and sold on December 27, 1566 in Candia for the agreed price of seventy gold ducats (The panel was valued by two artists; one of them was icon-painter Georgios Klontzas. One valuation was eighty ducats and the other seventy), equal in value to a work by Titian or Tintoretto of that period.[110] Therefore, it seems that El Greco traveled to Venice sometime after December 27, 1566.[111] In one of his last articles, Wethey reassessed his previous estimations and accepted that El Greco left Crete in 1567.[101] According to other archival material — drawings El Greco sent to a Cretan cartographer — he was in Venice by 1568.[110] is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ...


g. ^  Mancini reports that El Greco said to the Pope that if the whole work was demolished he himself would do it in a decent manner and with seemliness.[112]


h. ^  Toledo must have been one of the largest cities in Europe during this period. In 1571 the population of the city was 62,000.[27]


i. ^ El Greco signed the contract for the decoration of the high altar of the church of the Hospital of Charity on June 18, 1603. He agreed to finish the work by August of the following year. Although such deadlines were seldom met, it was a point of potential conflict. He also agreed to allow the brotherhood to select the appraisers.[113] The brotherhood took advantage of this act of good faith and did not wish to arrive at a fair settlement.[114] Finally, El Greco assigned his legal representation to Preboste and a friend of him, Francisco Ximénez Montero, and accepted a payment of 2,093 ducats.[115] is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The ducat (IPA: ) is a gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Its weight is 3. ...


j. ^ Doña Jerónima de Las Cuevas appears to have outlived El Greco, and, although the master acknowledged both her and his son, he never married her. That fact has puzzled researchers, because he mentioned her in various documents, including his last testament. Most analysts assume that El Greco had married unhappily in his youth and therefore could not legalize another attachment.[2]


k. ^  The myth of El Greco's madness came in two versions. On the one hand Gautier believed that El Greco went mad from excessive artistic sensitivity.[116] On the other hand, the public and the critics would not possess the ideological criteria of Gautier and would retain the image of El Greco as a "mad painter" and, therefore, his "maddest" paintings were not admired but considered to be historical documents proving his "madness".[70]


l. ^  This theory enjoyed surprising popularity during the early years of the twentieth century and was opposed by the German psychologist David Kuntz.[117] Whether or not El Greco had progressive astigmatism is still open to debate.[118] Stuart Anstis, Professor at the University of California (Department of Psychology), concludes that "even if El Greco were astigmatic, he would have adapted to it, and his figures, whether drawn from memory or life, would have had normal proportions. His elongations were an artistic expression, not a visual symptom."[119] According to Professor of Spanish John Armstrong Crow, "astigmatism could never give quality to a canvas, nor talent to a dunce".[120] A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ...



Citations

  1. ^ a b c J. Brown, El Greco of Toledo, 75-77
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Greco, El". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
  3. ^ M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 60
  4. ^ a b M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 40–41
  5. ^ M. Scholz-Hansel, El Greco, 7
    * M. Tazartes, El Greco, 23
  6. ^ M. Scholz-Hansel, El Greco, 7
    * "Theotocópoulos, Doménicos". Encyclopaedia The Helios. (1952). 
  7. ^ X. Bray, El Greco, 8
    * M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 40–41
  8. ^ P. Katimertzi, El Greco and Cubism
  9. ^ H.E. Wethey, Letters to the Editor, 125–127
  10. ^ a b c M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 42
  11. ^ A.L. Mayer, Notes on the Early El Greco, 28
  12. ^ M. Scholz-Hansel, El Greco, 19
  13. ^ R.G. Mann, Tradition and Originality in El Greco's Work, 89
  14. ^ M. Acton, Learning to Look at Paintings, 82
  15. ^ M. Scholz-Hänsel, El Greco, 20
    * M. Tazartes, El Greco, 31–32
  16. ^ a b c M. Kimmelman, El Greco, Bearer Of Many Gifts
  17. ^ a b M. Scholz-Hänsel, El Greco, 20
  18. ^ a b c d e M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 47–49
  19. ^ A. Braham, Two Notes on El Greco and Michelangelo, 307–310
    * J. Jones, The Reluctant Disciple
  20. ^ L. Boubli, Michelangelo and Spain, 217
  21. ^ a b c M. Tazartes, El Greco, 32
  22. ^ a b c d Brown-Mann, Spanish Paintings, 42
  23. ^ "Greco, El". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
    * M. Tazartes, El Greco, 36
  24. ^ Brown-Kagan, View of Toledo, 19
  25. ^ M. Tazartes, El Greco, 36
  26. ^ Trevor-Roper, Hugh; Princes and Artists, Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg Courts 1517-1633, Thames & Hudson, London, 1976, pp. 62-68
  27. ^ a b M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 43–44
  28. ^ M. Irving, How to beat the Spanish Inquisition
  29. ^ M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 45
  30. ^ a b M. Scholz-Hansel, El Greco, 40
  31. ^ M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 45
    * J. Brown, El Greco and Toledo, 98
  32. ^ Trevor-Roper, op cit pp. 63, 66-69
  33. ^ J. Pijoan, El Greco—A Spaniard, 12
  34. ^ L. Berg, El Greco in Toledo
  35. ^ Brown-Mann, Spanish Paintings, 42
    * J. Gudiol, Iconography and Chronology, 195
  36. ^ M. Tazartes, El Greco, 49
  37. ^ J. Gudiol, El Greco, 252
  38. ^ a b M. Tazartes, El Greco, 61
  39. ^ a b "Theotocópoulos, Doménicos". Encyclopaedia The Helios. (1952). 
  40. ^ M. Scholz-Hansel, El Greco, 81
  41. ^ Hispanic Society of America, El Greco, 35–36
    * M. Tazartes, El Greco, 67
  42. ^ Marias-Bustamante, Las Ideas Artísticas de El Greco, 80
  43. ^ a b A. E. Landon, Reincarnation Magazine 1925, 330
  44. ^ J.A. Lopera, El Greco: From Crete to Toledo, 20–21
  45. ^ J. Brown, El Greco and Toledo, 110
    * F. Marias, El Greco's Artistic Thought, 183–184
  46. ^ J. Brown, El Greco and Toledo, 110
  47. ^ N. Penny, At the National Gallery
  48. ^ a b M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco, 57–59
  49. ^ J. Brown, El Greco and Toledo, 136
  50. ^ Marias-Bustamante, Las Ideas Artísticas de El Greco, 52
  51. ^ N. Hadjinikolaou, Inequalities in the work of Theotocópoulos, 89–133
  52. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, El Greco
  53. ^ R. Byron, Greco: The Epilogue to Byzantine Culture, 160–174
    * A. Procopiou, El Greco and Cretan Painting, 74
  54. ^ M.B Cossío, El Greco, 501–512
  55. ^ Robin Cormack (1997),199
  56. ^ a b c d e Cormack-Vassilaki, The Baptism of Christ
  57. ^ R.M. Helm, The Neoplatonic Tradition in the Art of El Greco, 93–94
    * A.L. Mayer, El Greco—An Oriental Artist, 146
  58. ^ M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco, the Puzzle, 19
  59. ^ Mango-Jeffreys, Towards a Franco—Greek Culture, 305
  60. ^ N. Hadjinikolaou, El Greco, 450 Years from his Birth, 92
  61. ^ D. Davies, "The Influence of Neo-Platonism on El Greco", 20 etc.
    * D. Davies, the Byzantine Legacy in the Art of El Greco, 425–445
  62. ^ J.A. Lopera, El Greco: From Crete to Toledo, 18–19
  63. ^ W. Griffith, Historic Shrines of Spain, 184
  64. ^ E. Harris, A Decorative Scheme by El Greco, 154
  65. ^ Lefaivre-Tzonis, The Emergence of Modern Architecture, 165
  66. ^ I. Allardyce, Historic Shrines of Spain, 174
  67. ^ a b Lefaivre-Tzonis, The Emergence of Modern Architecture, 164
  68. ^ a b c M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 49
  69. ^ Brown-Mann, Spanish Paintings, 43
    * E. Foundoulaki, From El Greco to Cézanne, 100–101
  70. ^ a b c E. Foundoulaki, From El Greco to Cézanne, 100–101
  71. ^ a b c J. Russel, Seeing The Art Of El Greco As Never Before
  72. ^ Brown-Mann, Spanish Paintings, 43
    * E. Foundoulaki, From El Greco to Cézanne, 103
  73. ^ J.J. Sheehan, Museums in the German Art World, 150
  74. ^ J. Meier-Graefe, The Spanish Journey, 458
  75. ^ M. Tazartes, El Greco, 68–69
  76. ^ M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 59
    * Athens News Agency, Greece buys unique El Greco for 1.2 million dollars
  77. ^ E. Foundoulaki, From El Greco to Cézanne, 113
  78. ^ H.E. Wethey, El Greco and his School, II, 55
  79. ^ E. Foundoulaki, From El Greco to Cézanne, 103
  80. ^ E. Foundoulaki, From El Greco to Cézanne, 105–106
  81. ^ J. Brown, El Greco of Toledo, 28
  82. ^ M. Lambraki-Plaka, From El Greco to Cézanne, 15
  83. ^ C.B. Horsley, The Shock of the Old
  84. ^ R. Johnson, Picasso's Demoiselles d'Avignon, 102–113
    * J. Richardson, Picasso's Apocalyptic Whorehouse, 40–47
  85. ^ D. de la Souchère, Picasso à Antibes, 15
  86. ^ E. Foundoulaki, From El Greco to Cézanne, 111
    * D. de la Souchère, Picasso à Antibes, 15
  87. ^ E. Foundoulaki, From El Greco to Cézanne, 111
  88. ^ E. Foundoulaki, Reading El Greco through Manet, 40–47
  89. ^ Kandinsky-Marc, Blaue Reiter, 75–76
  90. ^ J.T. Valliere, The El Greco Influence on Jackson Pollock, 6–9
  91. ^ H.A. Harrison, Getting in Touch With That Inner El Greco
  92. ^ F. Naqvi-Peters, The Experience of El Greco, 345
  93. ^ Rassias-Alaxiou-Bien, Demotic Greek II, 200
    * Sanders-Kearney, The Wake of Imagination, 10
  94. ^ El Greco, 2007, The Internet Movie Database
  95. ^ Film on Life of Painter El Greco Planned. Athens News Agency.
  96. ^ M. Tazartes, El Greco, 25
  97. ^ R. Pallucchini, Some Early Works by El Greco, 130–135
  98. ^ Cormack-Vassilaki, The Baptism of Christ
    * M. Tazartes, El Greco, 70
  99. ^ E. Arslan, Cronisteria del Greco Madonnero, 213–231
  100. ^ D. Alberge, Collector Is Vindicated as Icon is Hailed as El Greco
  101. ^ a b H.E. Wethey, El Greco in Rome, 171–178
  102. ^ R.G. Mann, Tradition and Originality in El Greco's Work, 102
  103. ^ El Greco Drawings Could Fetch £400,000, The Guardian
  104. ^ P. Prevelakis, Theotocópoulos—Biography, 47
  105. ^ M. Lambraki-Plaka, El Greco—The Greek, 40–41
    * M. Scholz-Hansel, El Greco, 7
    * M. Tazartes, El Greco, 23
  106. ^ J. Kakissis, A Cretan Village that was the Painter's Birthplace
  107. ^ K.D. Mertzios, Selections, 29
  108. ^ N. Hamerman, El Greco Paintings Lead Toward 'City of God'
  109. ^ S. McGarr, St Francis Receiving The Stigmata,
    * J. Romaine, El Greco's Mystical Vision
    * J. Sethre, The Souls of Venice, 91
  110. ^ a b M. Constantoudaki, Theotocópoulos from Candia to Venice, 71
  111. ^ J. Sethre, The Souls of Venice, 90
  112. ^ M. Scholz-Hänsel, El Greco, 92
  113. ^ Enggass-Brown, Italian and Spanish Art, 1600–1750, 205
  114. ^ F. de S.R. Fernádez, De la Vida del Greco, 172–184
  115. ^ M. Tazartes, El Greco, 56, 61
  116. ^ T. Gautier, Voyage en Espagne, 217
  117. ^ R.M. Helm, The Neoplatonic Tradition in the Art of El Greco, 93–94
    * M. Tazartes, El Greco, 68–69
  118. ^ I. Grierson, The Eye Book, 115
  119. ^ S. Anstis, Was El Greco Astigmatic, 208
  120. ^ J.A. Crow, Spain: The Root and the Flower, 216

Definition A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Printed sources (books and articles)

  • Acton, Mary (1991). Learning to Look at Paintings. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-521-40107-0. 
  • Allardyce, Isabel (2003). "Our Lady of Charity, at Illescas", Historic Shrines of Spain 1912. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-3621-3. 
  • Álvarez Lopera, José (2005). "El Greco: From Crete to Toledo (translated in Greek by Sofia Giannetsou)", in M. Tazartes' "El Greco". Explorer. ISBN 960-7945-83-2. 
  • Anstis, Stuart (2002). "Was El Greco Astigmatic". Leonardo 35 (No.2): 208. 
  • Arslan, Edoardo (1964). "Cronisteria del Greco Madonnero". Commentari xv (No.5): 213–231. 
  • Boubli, Lizzie (2003). "Michelangelo and Spain: on the Dissemination of his Draugthmanship", Reactions to the Master edited by Francis Ames-Lewis and Paul Joannides. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. ISBN 0-7546-0807-7. 
  • Braham, Allan (June 1966). "Two Notes on El Greco and Michelangelo". Burlington Magazine 108 (No.759): 307–310. The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd.. 
  • Bray, Xavier (2004). El Greco. National Gallery Company, London. ISBN 1857093151. 
  • Brown, Jonathan (ed.) (1982). "El Greco and Toledo", El Greco of Toledo (catalogue). Little Brown. ASIN B-000H4-58C-Y. 
  • Brown Jonathan, Kagan Richard L. (1982). "View of Toledo". Studies in the History of Art 11: 19–30. 
  • Brown Jonathan, Mann Richard G. (1997). "Tone", Spanish Paintings of the Fifteenth Through Nineteenth Centuries. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-14889-8. 
  • Byron, Robert (October 1929). "Greco: The Epilogue to Byzantine Culture". Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 55 (No.319): 160–174. The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd.. 
  • Constantoudaki, Maria (1975–1976). "D. Theotocópoulos, from Candia to Venice (in Greek)". Bulletin of the Christian Archeological Society 8 (period IV): 55–71. 
  • Cormack, Robin (1997). Painting the Soul, Icons, Death Masks and Shrouds. Reaktion Books, London. 
  • Cossío, Manuel Bartolomé (1908). El Greco (in Spanish). Victoriano Suárez, Madrid. 
  • Crow, John Armstrong (1985). "The Fine Arts — End of the Golden Age", Spain: The Root and the Flower. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05133-5. 
  • Davies, David (1990). "The Byzantine Legacy in the Art of El Greco", El Greco of Crete (proceedings) edited by Nicos Hadjinicolaou. Herakleion. 
  • Davies, David (1990). "The Influence of Christian Neo-Platonism on the Art of El Greco", El Greco of Crete (proceedings) edited by Nicos Hadjinicolaou. Herakleion. 
  • Engass Robert, Brown Jonathan (1992). "Artistic Practice — El Greco versus the Hospital of Charity, Illescas", Italian and Spanish Art, 1600–1750. Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-8101-1065-2. 
  • Fernádez, Francisco de San Román (1927). "De la Vida del Greco — Nueva Serie de Documentos Inéditos". Archivo Español del Arte y Arqueologia 8: 172–184. 
  • Foundoulaki, Efi (1992). "From El Greco to Cézanne", From El Greco to Cézanne (catalogue). National Gallery-Alexandros Soutsos Museum. 
  • Foundoulaki, Efi (24 August 1990). "Reading El Greco through Manet (in Greek)". Anti (No.445): 40–47. 
  • Gautier, Théophile (1981). "Chapitre X", Voyage en Espagne (in French). Gallimard-Jeunesse. ISBN 2-07-037295-2. 
  • "Greco, El". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
  • Grierson, Ian (2000). "Who am Eye", The Eye Book. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-85323-755-7. 
  • Griffith, William (2005). "El Greco", Great Painters and Their Famous Bible Pictures. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-0608-1. 
  • Gudiol, José (1973). Doménicos Theotocópoulos, El Greco, 1541–1614. Viking Press. ASIN B-0006C-8T6-E. 
  • Gudiol, José (September 1962). "Iconography and Chronology in El Greco's Paintings of St. Francis". Art Bulletin 44 (No.3): 195–203. College Art Association. 
  • Hadjinicolaou, Nicos (1990). "Doménicos Theotocópoulos, 450 Years from his Birth", El Greco of Crete (proceedings) edited by Nicos Hadjinicolaou. Herakleion. 
  • Hadjinicolaou, Nicos (1994). "Inequalities in the work of Theotocópoulos and the Problems of their Interpretation", Meanings of the Image edited by Nicos Hadjinicolaou (in Greek). University of Crete. ISBN 960-7309-65-0. 
  • Harris, Enriquetta (April 1938). "A Decorative Scheme by El Greco". Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 72 (No.421): 154–155+157–159+162–164. The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd.. 
  • Helm, Robert Meredith (2001). "The Neoplatonic Tradition in the Art of El Greco", Neoplatonism and Western Aesthetics edited by Aphrodite Alexandrakis and Nicholas J. Moutafakis. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-5279-4. 
  • Hispanic Society of America (1927). El Greco in the Collection of the Hispanic Society of America. Printed by order of the trustees. 
  • Johnson, Ron (October 1980). "Picasso's "Demoiselles d'Avignon" and the Theatre of the Absurd". Arts Magazine V (No.2): 102–113. 
  • Kandinsky Wassily, Marc Franz (1987). L'Almanach du "Blaue Reiter". Klincksieck. ISBN 2-252-02567-0. 
  • Lambraki-Plaka, Marina (1999). El Greco-The Greek. Kastaniotis. ISBN 960-03-2544-8. 
  • Lambraki-Plaka, Marina (19 April 1987). "El Greco, the Puzzle. Doménicos Theotocópoulos today". To Vima. 
  • Lambraki-Plaka, Marina (1992). "From El Greco to Cézanne (An "Imaginary Museum" with Masterpieces of Three Centuries)", From El Greco to Cézanne (catalogue). National Gallery-Alexandros Soutsos Museum. 
  • Landon, A.E. (2003). Reincarnation Magazine 1925. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-3775-9. 
  • Lefaivre Liane, Tzonis Alexander (2003). "El Greco (Domenico Theotocopoulos)", El Greco—The Greek. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-26025-6. 
  • Mango Cyril, Jeffreys Elizabeth (2002). "Towards a Franco-Greek Culture", The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814098-3. 
  • Mann, Richard G. (2002). "Tradition and Originality in El Greco's Work". Journal of the Rocky Mountain 23: 83–110. The Medieval and Renaissance Association. 
  • Marias, Fernando (1999). "El Greco's Artistic Thought", El Greco, Identity and Transformation edited by Alvarez Lopera. Skira. ISBN 88-8118-474-5. 
  • Marias Fernando, Bustamante García Agustín (1981). Las Ideas Artísticas de El Greco (in Spanish). Cátedra. ISBN 84-376-0263-7. 
  • Mayer, Aygust L. (June 1929). "El Greco — An Oriental Artist". Art Bulletin 11 (No.2): 146–152. College Art Association. 
  • Mayer, Aygust L. (January 1939). "Notes on the Early El Greco". Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 74 (No.430): 28–29+32–33. The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd.. 
  • Meier-Graefe, Julius (1926). The Spanish Journey (translated form German by J. Holroyd-Reece). Jonathan Cape, London. 
  • Mertzios, K.D. (1961–1962). "Selections of the Registers of the Cretan Notary Michael Maras (1538–1578) (in Greek)". Cretan Chronicles 2 (No.15–16): 55–71. 
  • Nagvi-Peters, Fatima (22 September 1997). "A Turning Point in Rilke's Evolution: The Experience of El Greco". Germanic Review 72. 
  • Pallucchini, Rodolfo (May 1948). "Some Early Works by El Greco". Burlington Magazine 90 (No.542): 130–135, 137. The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd.. 
  • Panayotakis, Nikolaos M. (1986). ""The Cretan Period of the Life of Doménicos Theotocópoulos", Festschrift In Honor Of Nikos Svoronos, Volume B. Crete University Press. 
  • Pijoan, Joseph (March 1930). "El Greco — A Spaniard". Art Bulletin 12 (No.1): 12–19. College Art Association. 
  • Procopiou, Angelo (March 1952). "El Greco and Cretan Painting". Burlington Magazine 94 (No.588): 74+76–80. The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd.. 
  • Rassias John, Alexiou Christos, Bien Peter (1982). "Greco", Demotic Greek II: The Flying Telephone Booth. UPNE. ISBN 0-87451-208-5. 
  • Richardson, John (23 April 1987). "Picasso's Apocalyptic Whorehouse". The New York Review of Books 34 (No.7): 40–47. The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd.. 
  • Salas, X. de (February 1961). "The Velazquez Exhibition in Madrid". Burlington Magazine 103 (No.695): 54–57. 
  • Sanders Alan, Kearney Richard (1998). "Changing Faces", The Wake of Imagination: Toward a Postmodern Culture. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-11950-2. 
  • Scholz-Hansel, Michael (1986). El Greco. Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-3171-9. 
  • Sethre, Janet (2003). "El Greco", The Souls of Venice. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-1573-8. 
  • Sheehanl, J.J. (2000). "Critiques of a Museum Culture", Museums in the German Art World. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-513572-5. 
  • Souchère de la, Dor (1960). Picasso à Antibes (in French). Fernan Hazan (Paris). 
  • Tazartes, Mauricia (2005). El Greco (translated in Greek by Sofia Giannetsou). Explorer. ISBN 960-7945-83-2. 
  • "Theotocópoulos, Doménicos". Encyclopaedia The Helios. (1952). 
  • Valliere, James T. (Autumn 1964). "The El Greco Influence on Jackson Pollock's Early Works". Art Journal 24 (No.1): 6–9. College Art Association.. 
  • Wethey, Harold E. (1962). El Greco and his School (Volume II). Princeton University Press. ASIN B-0007D-NZV-6. 
  • Wethey, Harold E. (1984). "El Greco in Rome and the Portrait of Vincenzo Anastagi". Studies in the History of Art 13: 171–178. 
  • Wethey, Harold E. (March 1966). "Letter to the Editor". Art Bulletin 48 (No.1): 125–127. College Art Association.. 

On-line sources

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Independents old (pre-compact) masthead. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Aznar, José Camón (1950). Dominico Greco. Madrid. 
  • Davies, David (Editor), Elliott, John H. (Editor), Bray, Xavier (Contributor), Christiansen, Keith (Contributor), Finaldi, Gabriele (Contributor) (2006). El Greco (catalogue). National Gallery London. ISBN 1-85709-938-9. 
  • Marias, Fernando (2005). El Greco in Toledo. Scala Publishers. ISBN 1-85759-210-7. 
  • Pallucchini, Rodolfo (March 7, 1937). "II Polittico del Greco della R. Gallena Estense e la Formazione dell'Artista (in Italian)". Gazzetta dell' Emilia 13: 171–178. 
  • Prevelakis, Pandelis (1942). Theotocópoulos—Biography (in Greek). Aetos. 
  • Rice, Talbot (January 1937). "El Greco and Byzantium". The New York Review of Books 70 (No.406): 34+38–39. The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd.. 

External links

El Greco
General: The Artist | Chronology | Technique and style | Posthumous fame | Cretan School | Spanish Renaissance | Mannerism

Paintings: List of notable works | The Dormition of the Virgin | The Disrobing of Christ (El Espolio) | The Burial of the Count of Orgaz | View of Toledo | Opening of the Fifth Seal | The Adoration of the Shepherds
Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x1164, 213 KB) El Greco - The Burial of the Count of Orgaz (1586-88, Oil on canvas, 480 x 360 cm) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... El Greco was a prominent painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Portrait of An Old Man (so called self-portrait of El Greco, circa 1595-1600, oil on canvas, 52. ... The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the fifteenth, sixteenth and... The Spanish Renaissance was a movement in Spain, originating from the Italian Renaissance in Italy, that spread during the 15th and 16th centuries. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... El Greco was a Cretan-born painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... The Dormition of the Virgin by El Greco was probably created near the end of the artists Cretan period (before 1567). ... The Disrobing of Christ (or El Espolio), a painting begun in the summer of 1577 and completed in the spring of 1579 for the High Altar of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Toledo, where it still hangs, is one of El Grecos most renowned works. ... The Burial of the Count of Orgaz is widely considered to be El Grecos best-known work. ... View of Toledo, sometimes called Toledo in a Storm, is one of the two surviving landscapes painted by El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos). ... The Opening of the Fifth Seal (or The Fifth Seal of the Apocalypse or The Vision of Saint John) was painted in the last years of El Grecos life for a side-altar of the church of Saint John the Baptist outside the walls of Toledo. ... The Adoration of the Shepherds was painted during the last year of El Grecos life. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biography (920 words)
El Greco was a "Spanish" Mannerist painter, whose work, with that of Francisco de Goya and Diego Velázquez, represents the acme of Spanish art.
El Greco was anxious to be given the commission to fresco the walls of the newly built royal monastery-palace of El Escorial near Madrid, completed in 1582.
El Greco also painted views of the city of Toledo itself, such as View of Toledo (1600?–1610?, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), even though landscape was a genre traditionally neglected by Spanish artists.
El Greco (1503 words)
El Greco was a "Spanish" Mannerist painter, whose work, together with that of Francisco de Goya and Diego Velázquez, represents the acme of Spanish art.
El Greco also painted views of the city of Toledo itself, such as View of Toledo, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, even though landscape was a genre traditionally neglected by Spanish artists.
El Greco died in Toledo on April 7, 1614, and he was buried there in Santo Domingo el Antiguo, for which church he executed his first Spanish commission "The Assumption of the Virgin" (1577).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m