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Encyclopedia > El Escorial
San Lorenzo de El Escorial redirects here. For the municipalities, see San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Madrid and El Escorial, Madrid.
Monastery and Site of the Escorial, Madrid*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

A distant view of El Escorial.
State Party Flag of Spain Spain
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, vi
Reference 318
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1984  (8th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

El Escorial, the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo El Real (also known as the Monasterio de El Escorial or simply El Escorial) is located about 45 km (28 mi) northwest of the Spanish capital, Madrid. El Escorial comprises two architectural complexes of great historical and cultural significance: El Real Monasterio de El Escorial itself and La Granjilla de La Fresneda, a royal hunting lodge and monastic retreat about five km away. These sites have a dual nature; that is to say, during the 16th and 17th centuries, they were places in which the temporal power of the Spanish monarchy and the ecclesiastical predominance of the Roman Catholic religion in Spain found a common architectural manifestation. El Escorial was, at once, a monastery and a Spanish royal palace. Originally a property of the Hieronymite monks, it is now an Augustinian monastery. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2760x1464, 1370 KB) Monastery San Lorenzo de El Escorial in a distant view. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... // La Fresneda (La Granjilla de La Fresenda de El Escorial) was the Cottage of Philip II in the environment of Monastery of El Escorial. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Hieronymites, a common name for three or four congregations of hermits living according to the rule of St Augustine with supplementary regulations taken from St Jeromes writings. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ...


Philip II of Spain, reacting to the Protestant Reformation sweeping through Europe during the sixteenth century, devoted much of his lengthy reign (1556-1598) and much of his seemingly inexhaustible supply of New World gold to stemming the Protestant tide. His protracted efforts were, in the long run, partly successful. However, the same counter-reformational impulse had a much more benign expression, thirty years earlier, in Philip's decision to build the complex at El Escorial. Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Reformation redirects here. ... The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years War, 1648. ...

Façade of the Monastery of El Escorial
Façade of the Monastery of El Escorial

Philip engaged the Spanish architect, Juan Bautista de Toledo, to be his collaborator in the design of El Escorial. Juan Bautista had spent the greater part of his career in Rome, where he had worked on the basilica of St. Peter's, and in Naples, where he had served the king's viceroy, whose recommendation brought him to the king's attention. Philip appointed him architect-royal in 1559, and together they designed El Escorial as a "perpetual home for the Catholic Crown of Spain".[citation needed] It has also been called "an expression in stone of Catholicism in Spain; an answer, solid and unified, to the disintegration of the Christian universe."[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial. ... Juan Bautista de Toledo (d. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


On November 2, 1984, UNESCO declared The Royal Site of San Lorenzo of El Escorial a World Heritage Site. It is an extremely popular tourist attraction, often visited by day-trippers from Madrid. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Design and conception

Contents

El Escorial is situated at the foot of Mt. Abantos in the Sierra de Guadarrama. It is a bleak, semi-forested, wind-swept place that owes its name to nearby piles of slag or tailings, called scoria, the detritus of long-played-out iron mines in the Guadarrama.¹ Satellite Map of the Sierra de Guadarrama. ... Slag is also an early play by David Hare. ... Tailings (also known as slickens[1]) are the waste left over[2] after removing the gangue from ore. ... Scoria Scoria is a textural term for macrovesicular volcanic rock ejecta. ...


This austere location, hardly an obvious choice for the site of a royal palace, was chosen by King Philip II of Spain, and it was he who ordained the building of a grand edifice here to commemorate the 1557 Spanish victory at the Battle of St. Quentin in Picardy against Henry II, king of France. He also intended the complex to serve as a necropolis for the interment of the remains of his parents, Charles I and Isabella of Portugal, himself, and his descendants. In addition, Philip envisioned El Escorial as a center for studies in aid of the Counter-Reformation cause. Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... The Spanish won a significant victory over the French in the Battle of San Quentin (1557) during the Franco-Habsburg War (1551-1559), which Philip II of Spain resumed having gained English support with Queen Mary as an ally. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... Image:Isabel of Portugal (Karl V.).jpg Isabel of Portugal, Queen of Spain and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, by Titian. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ...


The building's cornerstone was laid on April 23, 1563. The design and construction were overseen by Juan Bautista de Toledo, who did not live to see the completion of the project. With Toledo's death in 1567, direction passed to his apprentice, Juan de Herrera, under whom the building was completed in 1584, in less than 21 years. Juan Bautista de Toledo (d. ... El Escorial Juan de Herrera (b. ...

El Escorial: floor plan
El Escorial: floor plan

Since then, El Escorial has been the burial site for most of the Spanish kings of the last five centuries, Bourbons as well as Habsburgs. The Royal Pantheon contains the tombs of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V (who ruled Spain as King Charles I), Philip II, Philip III, Philip IV, Charles II, Louis I, Charles III, Charles IV, Ferdinand VII, Isabel II, Alfonso XII, and Alfonso XIII. Two Bourbon kings, Philip V (who reigned from 1700 to 1746) and Ferdinand VI (1746-1759), as well as King Amadeo of Savoy (1870-1873), are not buried in the monastery. This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... King Louis of Spain - Luis in Spanish (August 25, 1707 – August 31, 1724) was the eldest son of Philip V of Spain by his first Queen consort Maria Louisa of Savoy. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) // Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830 and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king... Alfonso XII of Spain (November 28, 1857–November 25, 1885), was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Ferdinand VI, (September 23, 1713 – August 10, 1759), King of Spain from 1746 until his death, second son of Philip V, founder of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty (as opposed to the French Bourbons), by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on September 23, 1713. ... Amadeo I (Italian Amedeo, sometimes Latinized as Amadeus) (May 30, 1845 – January 18, 1890) was the 1st Duke of Aosta and King of Spain Biography Amadeo dAosta was born in Turin, Italy. ...


The floor plan of the building is in the form of a gridiron. The traditional belief is that this design was chosen in honor of St. Lawrence, who, in the third century AD, was martyred by being roasted to death on a grill. St. Lawrence’s feast day is August 10, the same date as the 1557 Battle of St. Quentin. Saint Lawrence (225 – 258) (Latin Laurentius, laurelled) was one of the seven deacons of Rome who were martyred under the persecution of Roman Emperor Valerian in 258. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In fact, however, the origin of the building's layout is quite controversial. The grill-like shape, which did not fully emerge until Herrera eliminated from the original conception the six interior towers of the facade, was, by no means, unique to El Escorial. Other buildings had been constructed with interior courtyards fronting on churches or chapels; King's College, Cambridge, dating from 1441, is one such example; the old Ospedale Maggiore, Milan's first hospital, begun in 1456 by Antonio Filarete, is another grid-like building with interior courtyards. In fact, palaces of this approximate design were commonplace in the Byzantine and Arab world. Strikingly similar to El Escorial is the layout of the Alcázar of Seville and the design of the Alhambra at Granada where, as at El Escorial, two courtyards in succession separate the main portal of the complex from a fully-enclosed place of worship. For other uses, see Kings College. ... The Ospedale Maggiore is a building in Milan constructed to house one of the first community hospitals, the largest such undertaking of the fifteenth century. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Antonio di Pietro Averlino (c. ... The Alcázar of Seville (Spanish Alcázares Reales de Sevilla or Royal Alcazars of Seville) is a royal palace in Seville, Spain. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red fortress) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the southeastern border of the city of Granada. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ...


Nonetheless, the most persuasive theory for the origin of the floor plan is that it is based on descriptions of the Temple of Solomon by the Judeo-Roman historian, Flavius Josephus: a portico followed by a courtyard open to the sky, followed by a second portico and a second courtyard, all flanked by arcades and enclosed passageways, leading to the "holy of holies". Statues of David and Solomon on either side of the entrance to the basilica of El Escorial lend further weight to the theory that this is the true origin of the design. A more personal connection can be drawn between the David-warrior figure, representing Charles V, and his son, the stolid and solomonically prudent Philip II. Echoing the same theme, a fresco in the center of El Escorial's library, a reminder of Solomon’s legendary wisdom, affirms Philip's preoccupation with the great Jewish king, his thoughtful and logical character, and his extraordinary monumental temple. Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ...

El Escorial
El Escorial

The Temple-of-Solomon design, if indeed it was the basis for El Escorial, was extensively modified to accommodate the additional functions and purposes Philip II intended the building to serve. Beyond being a monastery, El Escorial is also a pantheon, a basilica, a convent, a school, a library, and a royal palace. All these functional demands resulted in a doubling of the building's size from the time of its original conception. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 152 KB)El Escorial. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 152 KB)El Escorial. ...


Built primarily from locally-quarried gray granite, square and sparely-ornamented, El Escorial is austere, even forbidding, in its outward appearance, seemingly more like a fortress than a monastery or palace. It takes the form of a gigantic quadrangle, approximately 224 m by 153 m, which encloses a series of intersecting passageways and courtyards and chambers. At each of the four corners is a square tower surmounted by a spire, and, near the center of the complex (and taller than the rest) rise the pointed befries and round dome of the basilica. Philip's instructions to Toledo were simple and clear: "Above all ... simplicity in the construction, severity in the whole; nobility without arrogance, majesty without ostentation."[citation needed]


Aside from its explicit purposes, the complex is also an enormous storehouse of art. It displays masterworks by Titian, Tintoretto, El Greco, Velázquez, Roger van der Weyden, Paolo Veronese, Alonso Cano, José de Ribera, Claudio Coello and others. The library contains thousands of priceless manuscripts; for example, the collection of the sultan, Zidan Abu Maali, who ruled Morocco from 1603 to 1627, is housed at El Escorial. Giambattista Castello designed the magnificent main staircase. Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... For the Vangelis album, see El Greco (album). ... For others named Velázquez, see Velazquez (disambiguation). ... Deposition by Rogier van der Weyden (c. ... The Feast in the House of Levi (1573), one of the largest canvases of the 16th century. ... Alonzo Cano (1601 - 1667) was a Spanish painter, architect and sculptor born in Granada. ... Giuseppe Ribera (January 12, 1591 - 1652), commonly called Lo Spagnoletto, or the Little Spaniard, a leading painter of the Neapolitan or partly of the Spanish school, was born near Valencia in Spain, at Xátiva, now named San Felipe. ... Claudio Coello (1642—1693) was a Spanish Baroque painter. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Mawlay Zidan Abu Maali, sultan of Morocco of the Saadi Dynasty (r. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Giovanni Battista Castello (born 1500 or 1509 near Bergamo; died 1569 or 1579 in Madrid) was an Italian historical painter. ...


¹ In English, the word "scoria" is now used, almost exclusively, in connection with the ejecta of volcanoes, but, originally, "scoria" was the name for the silicate slag left over from the smelting of metallic ores. The word is derived from the Greek word for "refuse" or "trash".


Sections of the building

In order to describe the parts of the great building in a coherent fashion, it may be useful to undertake an imaginary walking tour, beginning with the main entrance at the center of the western facade:


The patio of the kings

The basilica

Dome of the Basilica of El Escorial
Dome of the Basilica of El Escorial

The basilica of San Lorenzo el Real, the central building in the El Escorial complex, was originally designed, like most of the late Gothic cathedrals of western Europe, to take the form of a Latin cross.¹ As such, it has a long nave on the west-east axis intersected by a pair of shorter transepts, one to the north and one directly opposite, to the south, about three-quarters of the way between the west entrance and the high altar. This plan was modified by Juan de Herrera to that of a Greek cross, a form with all four arms of equal length. Coincident with this shift in approach, the bell towers at the western end of the church were somewhat reduced in size and the small half-dome intended to stand over the altar was replaced with a full circular dome over the center of the church, where the four arms of the Greek cross meet. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 704 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) El Escorial, church, cupola. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 704 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) El Escorial, church, cupola. ... The traditional form of the Christian cross, known as the Latin cross The Christian cross is a familiar religious symbol of most Christianity. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Clearly Juan Bautista de Toledo's experience with the dome of St. Peter's basilica in Rome influenced the design of the dome of San Lorenzo el Real at El Escorial. However, the Roman dome is supported by ranks of tapered Corinthian columns, with their extravagant capitals of acanthus leaves and their elaborately fluted shafts, while the dome at El Escorial, soaring nearly one hundred metres into the air, is supported by four heavy granite piers connected by simple Romanesque arches and decorated by simple Doric pilasters, plain, solid, and largely unprepossessing. It would not be a flight of fancy to interpret St. Peter's as the quintessential expression of the High Renaissance and the basilica at El Escorial as a statement of the stark rigidity and grim purposefulness of the Inquisition and the Counter-Reformation. The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... The Creation of Adam, Michelangelos work in the Sistine Chapel. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ...


The most highly-decorated part of the church is the area surrounding the high altar. Behind the altar is a three-tiered reredos, made of red granite and jasper, nearly twenty-eight metres tall, adorned with gilded bronze statuary by Leone Leoni, and three sets of religious paintings commissioned by Philip II. To either side are gilded life-size bronzes of the kneeling family groups of Charles and Philip, also by Leoni with help from his son Pompeo. In a shallow niche at the center of the lowest level is a repository for the physical elements of the communion ceremony, a so-called "House of the Sacrament", designed by Juan de Herrera in jasper and bronze. An altar and reredos from St. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... Leone Leoni (1509 — 22 July 1590) was an Italian sculptor of international outlook who travelled in Italy, Germany, Austria, France, the Spanish Netherlands and Spain. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ...


To decorate the reredos, or altar screens, the king's preferences were Michelangelo or Titian, but both of these giants were already more than eighty years old and in frail health.² Consequently, Philip consulted his foreign ambassadors for recommendations, and the result was a lengthy parade of the lesser European artists of that time, all swanning through the construction site at El Escorial seeking the king's favor. For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ...


¹ The Latin cross, with its long descending arm, is the form most familiar to western Christians as the cross on which Christ was supposed to have been crucified.


² Michelangelo died in 1564, scarcely a year after the first stones at El Escorial were laid, and Titian, when asked to come to Spain, respectfully refused on the basis of his advanced age.


Palace of Philip II

Situated next to the main altar of the Basilica, the residence of King Philip II is made up of a series of austerely decorated rooms. It features a window from which the king could observe Mass from his bed when incapacitated by the gout that afflicted him. For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ...


Hall of Battles

Fresco paintings here depict the most important Spanish military victories.


Pantheon of the Kings

This consists of twenty-six marble sepulchers containing the remains of the kings and ruling queens (the only Queen-Regnant since Philip II was Isabella II), of the Habsburg and Bourbon dynasties from Charles I (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) to the present, except for Philip V and Ferdinand VI. Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) // Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830 and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Ferdinand VI, (September 23, 1713 – August 10, 1759), King of Spain from 1746 until his death, second son of Philip V, founder of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty (as opposed to the French Bourbons), by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on September 23, 1713. ...


The sepulchers also contain the remains of Royal Consorts who were mothers or fathers of Kings. The only King-Consort is Francis of Asis de Bourbon, husband of queen Isabella II. The most recent remains in the sepulcher are those of King Alfonso XIII. Those of his wife, as well as his son Juan de Borbón and daughter-in-law Maria de las Mercedes (the parents of the current king, Juan Carlos I), lie at a prepared place called a pudridero, or decaying chamber. Francis of Asis de Bourbon (Francis I) Francis of Asis de Bourbon (Spanish: Francisco de Asís de Borbón; born Aranjuez, 13 May 1822; died Épinay-sur-Seine, 17 April 1902) was king-consort of Spain, styled Francis I of Spain, from 1846 to 1868. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... HRH Infante Don Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona, Juan Carlos Teresa Silvestre Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg (June 20, 1913 – April 1, 1993), was the fourth son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, the monarch replaced by the Second Spanish Republic, and father of King... Donna María de las Mercedes of Bourbon, Princess of the Two Sicilies, Infanta of Spain, Countess of Barcelona (María de las Mercedes Cristina Genara Isabel Luísa Carolina Victoria) (Madrid, December 23, 1910- Lanzarote, January 2, 2000) was the mother of current King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... Juan Carlos I redirects here. ...


There are two pudrideros at El Escorial, one for the Pantheon of the Kings and the other for that of the Princes, which can only be visited by monks from the Monastery. In these rooms, the remains of the deceased are placed in a small leaden urn, which in turn will be placed in the marble sepulchers of the pantheon after the passage of fifty years, the estimated time necessary for the complete decomposition of the bodies.

Detail of the Court of the Kings, in El Escorial
Detail of the Court of the Kings, in El Escorial

When the remains of Juan de Borbón and Maria Mercedes are deposited in the Royal Pantheon, they will, in a sense, constitute exceptions to tradition. First, the Counts of Barcelona, Don Juan y Doña María de las Mercedes, were never able to reign, due to the institution of the Second Republic and the exile of Alfonso XIII and his entire family, though they are the parents of a King, and their remains are in the Pantheon. Second, the Pantheon also contains the remains of Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, who, although the wife of a King, was never the mother of a King in the strict sense. Some, however, do consider Don Juan to have been de jure King of Spain, which in turn would make Queen Victoria Eugenia the mother of a King. With the interment of Don Juan and Maria's remains, all the sepulchers in the Royal Pantheon will be filled; no decision has yet been announced as to the final resting place of the currently-living members of the Royal Family. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 700 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (709 × 607 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) J. B. Monegro: Reyes de Judá (El Escorial) I took this picture myself File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 700 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (709 × 607 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) J. B. Monegro: Reyes de Judá (El Escorial) I took this picture myself File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... A portrait of Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena), (24 October 1887-15 April 1969), later Queen Victoria Eugenia was the Queen consort of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. ...


There has already been one exception to this old tradition: Queen Elisabeth of Bourbon is for the moment the only Queen in the pantheon who has not been mother to a King. That is because her only son, the presumed Heir to the Throne, died after her. Philip IV of Spain Elisabeth of France, portrait by Diego Velázquez Élisabeth de Bourbon (November 22, 1602 - October 6, 1644), was the eldest daughter of King Henry IV of France and his second Queen Marie de Medici. ...


The walls of polished Toledo marble are ornamented in gold-plated bronze. For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ...


All of the wood used in El Escorial comes from the ancient forests of Sagua La Grande, on the so-called Golden Coast of Cuba. Sagua La Grande, also known as La Villa del Undoso, is a municipality and city located on the north coast of the province of Villa Clara in central Cuba. ...


Pantheon of the Princes

Completed in 1888, this is the final resting place of princes, princesses and queens who were not mothers of kings. With floors and ceiling of white marble, the tomb of Prince John of Austria is especially notable. Currently, thirty-six of the sixty available niches are filled. Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan De Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was the illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and a military leader whose most famous victory was at the Battle of Lepanto. ...


Art Gallery

Consists of works of the German, Flemish, Venetian, Lombard, Ligurian and more Italian and Spanish schools from the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck, National Gallery, London. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Architectural Museum

Its eleven rooms showcase the tools, cranes and other materials used in the construction of the edifice, as well as reproductions of blueprints and documents related to the project, containing some very interesting facts.

The Casita del Principe, was built in 1771-75 to designs of Juan de Villanueva, for the Prince of the Asturias, the future Carlos IV
The Casita del Principe, was built in 1771-75 to designs of Juan de Villanueva, for the Prince of the Asturias, the future Carlos IV

Prado Museum. ... The title Prince of Asturias is given to the heir apparent to the Spanish throne. ...

Gardens of the Friars

Constructed at the order of Philip II, a great lover of nature, these constitute an ideal place for repose and meditation. Manuel Azaña, who studied in the monastery's Augustinian-run school, mentions them in his Memorias (Memoirs) and his play El jardín de los frailes (The Garden of the Friars). Students at the school still use it today to study and pass the time. Image:F manuel azana. ... Detail of St. ...


Library

The library
The library

Philip II donated his personal collection of documents to the building, and also undertook the acquisition of the finest libraries and works of Spain and foreign countries. It was planned by Juan de Herrera, who also designed the library’s shelves; the frescoes on the vaulted ceilings were painted by Pellegrino Tibaldi. The library’s collection consists of more than 40,000 volumes, located in a great hall fifty-four meters in length, nine meters wide and ten meters tall with marble floors and beautifully carved wood shelves. Benito Arias Montano produced the initial catalog for the library, selecting many of the most important volumes. In 1616 he was granted the privilege of receiving a copy of every published work, though there is no evidence that he ever took advantage of this right. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... El Escorial Juan de Herrera (b. ... Pellegrino Tibaldi (1527—1596) was an Italian mannerist architect, sculptor, and mural painter. ... Benito Arias Montano or Benedictus Arias Montanus (1527-1598), Spanish orientalist and editor of the Antwerp Polyglot, was born at Fregenal de la Sierra, in Estremadura, in 1527. ...


The vault of the library's ceiling is decorated with frescoes depicting the seven liberal arts: Rhetoric, Dialectic, Music, Grammar, Arithmetic, Geometry and Astronomy. In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...


The reliquaries

Following a rule approved by the Council of Trent dealing with the veneration of saints, Philip II donated to the monastery one of the largest reliquaries in all of Catholicism. The collection consists of some 7500 relics, which are stored in 570 sculpted reliquaries designed by Juan de Herrera. Most of them were constructed by the artisan, Juan de Arfe Villafañe. These reliquaries are found in highly varied forms (heads, arms, pyramidal cases, coffers, etc.) and are distributed throughout the monastery, with the most important being concentrated in the basilica. The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For the band Reliquary, click here. ... El Escorial Juan de Herrera (b. ... Coffering on the ceiling of the Pantheon, Rome In architecture, a coffer is (plural: coffering) is a sunken panel in the shape of a square or octagon that serves as a decorative device, usually in a ceiling. ...


References

See also

San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Panoramic view)
San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Panoramic view)
San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Entrance)
San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Entrance)

// La Fresneda (La Granjilla de La Fresenda de El Escorial) was the Cottage of Philip II in the environment of Monastery of El Escorial. ... Juan Bautista de Toledo (d. ... El Escorial Juan de Herrera (b. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
San Lorenzo de El Escorial


Spanish royal sites Coat of Arms of Spain
Palaces:
Palacio Real de Madrid | Zarzuela | El Escorial | El Pardo | Aranjuez | La Granja | Riofrío | Alcázares de Sevilla | La Almudena
Royal monasteries:
Descalzas Reales | La Encarnación | Sta. Clara de Tordesillas | Las Huelgas | Valle de los Caídos
Sanctuaries under royal patronage:
Panteón de Hombres Ilustres | San Pascual | Sta. Isabel | Colegio de Doncellas Nobles

Coordinates: 40.589° N 4.148° W Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
MPGroup: El Escorial - 800-684-9100 (1278 words)
El Escorial, the plaintiff, paid to have all of the cast iron waste pipes replaced from the slab to the roof and to have the mold removed.
While remediating the mold in the wall cavities, El Escorial discovered that exterior facades were leaking, the wood members were rotting and mold was growing in those cavities as well.
El Escorial asserted construction defect claims against the 6 subcontractors and asserted express indemnity claims which had, been assigned by the settling general contractor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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