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Encyclopedia > El Capitan
El Capitan

Southwest face of El Capitan from Yosemite Valley
Elevation 7,569 feet (2,307 m)
Location California, USA
Range Sierra Nevada
Coordinates 37°44′02.4″N 119°38′13.2″W / 37.734, -119.637Coordinates: 37°44′02.4″N 119°38′13.2″W / 37.734, -119.637
Topo map USGS El Capitan
Type granite rock
Age of rock Cretaceous
Easiest route hike

El Capitan is a 3,000-foot (910 m) vertical rock formation in Yosemite National Park, located on the north side of Yosemite Valley, near its western end. The granite monolith is one of the world's favorite challenges for rock climbers. El Capitan (The Captain, in Spanish) has several meanings: El Capitan is a cliff in Yosemite Valley, California, USA. El Capitan is a mountain in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas, USA. El Capitan is both an operetta and a march by John Philip Sousa. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 2157 KB) El Capitan in Yosemite National Park viewed from the Valley Floor. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... // Topographic maps are a variety of maps characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Diagram of geological time scale. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... Yosemite redirects here. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monolith (disambiguation). ... Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ...


The formation was named "El Capitan" by the Mariposa Battalion when it explored the valley in 1851. El Capitan ("the captain", "the chief") was taken to be a loose Spanish translation of the local Native American name for the cliff, variously transcribed as "To-to-kon oo-lah" or "To-tock-ah-noo-lah". It is unclear if the Native American name referred to a specific Tribal chief, or simply meant "the chief" or "rock chief".[1] In modern times, the formation's name is often contracted to "El Cap", especially among rock climbers. The known history of the Yosemite area started with Ahwahnechee and Paiute peoples who inhabited the central Sierra Nevada region of California that now includes Yosemite National Park. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ...


The top of El Capitan can be reached by hiking out of Yosemite Valley on the trail next to Yosemite Falls, then proceeding west. For climbers, the challenge is to climb up the sheer granite face; there are dozens of named climbing routes, all of them long and difficult. Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... Yosemite Falls is the highest measured waterfall in North America. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ...

Contents

Geology

See also: Geology of the Yosemite area

El Capitan is composed almost entirely of El Capitan Granite, a pale, coarse-grained granite emplaced approximately 100 mya (million years ago). In addition to El Capitan, this granite forms most of the rock features of the western portions of Yosemite Valley. A separate intrusion of igneous rock, the Taft Granite, forms the uppermost portions of the cliff face. A third igneous rock, diorite, is present as dark-veined intrusions through both kinds of granite. The exposed geology of the Yosemite area includes primarily granitic rocks with some older metamorphic rock. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... Devils Tower, an igneous intrusion exposed when the surrounding softer rock eroded away. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Igneous rocks ...


Along with most of the other rock formations of Yosemite Valley, El Capitan was carved by glacial action. Several periods of glaciation have occurred in the Sierra Nevada, but the Sherwin Glaciation, which lasted from approximately 1.3 mya to 1 mya, is considered to be responsible for the majority of the sculpting. The El Capitan Granite is relatively free of joints, and as a result the glacial ice did not erode the rock face as much as other, more jointed, rocks nearby.[2] Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Columnar jointed basalt in Turkey Columnar jointing in the basalt of the Giants Causeway in Ireland A joint is a generally planar fracture formed in a rock as a result of extensional stress. ...


Climbing history

Fall in Yosemite
Fall in Yosemite

Once considered impossible to climb,[3] El Capitan is now the standard for Big-Wall Climbing.[4] "El Cap" has two main faces, the Southwest (on the left when looking directly at the wall) and the Southeast. Between the two faces juts a massive prow. While today there are numerous established routes on both faces, the most popular and historically famous route is The Nose, which follows the massive prow.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1296 × 1944 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1296 × 1944 pixels, file size: 2. ...


Pioneering "The Nose"

The Nose was first climbed in 1958 by Warren J Harding,[5] Wayne Merry and George Whitmore in 47 days using "siege" tactics: climbing in an expedition style using fixed ropes along the length of the route, linking established camps along the way. The fixed manila ropes allowed the climbers to ascend and descend from the ground up throughout the 18 month project, although they presented unique levels of danger as well, sometimes breaking due to the long exposure to cold temperatures.[6] The climbing team relied heavily on aid climbing, using rope, pitons and expansion bolts to make it to the summit. The second ascent of The Nose was in 1960 by Royal Robbins, Joe Fitschen, Chuck Pratt and Tom Frost, who took seven days in the first continuous climb of the route without siege tactics.[5] The first solo climb of "The Nose" was done by Tom Bauman in 1969.[7] The first ascent of The Nose in one day was accomplished in 1975 by John Long, Jim Bridwell and Billy Westbay. Today The Nose attracts climbers of various experience and ability levels, and with a success rate of around 60%, typically takes fit climbers 2-3 days of full climbing. Warren Harding (1925-2002) was one of most accomplished and influential American rock climbers of the 1950s to 1970s. ... Aid climbing is a style of climbing in which fixed or placed protection is used to make upward progress. ... In climbing, a piton (also called a pin or peg) is a steel spike that is driven into a crack or seam in the rock with a hammer, and which acts as an anchor to protect the climber against the consequences of a fall, or to assist progress in aid... Royal Robbins (born 1935) was one of the early pioneers of American climbing. ... John Long (born 1953) is an American rock climber and author. ... In addition to the first one day assent of El Capitan, The Nose in 1975 Yosemite, Jim Bridwell is credited with over 100 First Ascents in Yosemite Valley. ...


Expansion of Routes

Efforts during the 1960s and 1970s explored the other faces of "El Cap", and many of the early routes are still popular today. Among the early classics are Salathe Wall (1961, Royal Robbins, Chuck Pratt and Tom Frost) on the southwest face, and the North America Wall (1964, Royal Robbins, Yvon Chouinard, Chuck Pratt and Tom Frost) on the southeast face. Also climbed in the 1960s are routes such as: Dihedral Wall (1962, Ed Cooper, Jim Baldwin and Glen Denny); West Buttress (1963, Layton Kor and Steve Roper); and Muir Wall (1965, Chouinard and TM Herbert). Later ascents include: Wall of the Early Morning Light (1970, Warren Harding and Dean Caldwell);[8] Zodiac (1972, Charlie Porter (solo)); The Shield (1972, Porter and Gary Bocarde); Mescalito (1973, Porter, Steve Sutton, Hugh Burton and C. Nelson); Pacific Ocean Wall (1975, Jim Bridwell, Billy Westbay, Jay Fiske and Fred East); Sea of Dreams (1978, Bridwell, Dale Bard and Dave Diegelman); and Jolly Roger (1979, Charles Cole and Steve Grossman). Today there are over 70 routes on "El Cap" of various difficulties and danger levels.[9] Indeed new routes continue to go up, usually consisting of additions to, or links between, pre-existing routes. Royal Robbins (born 1935) was one of the early pioneers of American climbing. ... Yvon Chouinard (born 1938) (in Maine) is a visionary rock climber, environmentalist and outdoor industry businessman, noted for his contributions to climbing, climbing equipment and the outdoor gear business. ... Nomad (left) and Roper from the December 10, 2004 strip Steve Roper and Mike Nomad was an American adventure comic strip which ran under various titles from November 1936 to December 26, 2004. ... In addition to the first one day assent of El Capitan, The Nose in 1975 Yosemite, Jim Bridwell is credited with over 100 First Ascents in Yosemite Valley. ...


Free climbing "El Cap"

As it became clear that any face could be conquered with sufficient perseverance and bolt-hole drilling, some climbers began searching for El Cap routes that could be climbed either free or with minimal aid. The "West Face" route was free climbed in 1979 by Ray Jardine and Bill Price; but despite numerous efforts by Jardine and others, the Nose resisted free attempts for another 14 years. In free soloing and bouldering, the climber carries nothing but a chalk bag. ... In free soloing and bouldering, the climber carries nothing but a chalk bag. ... Ray Jardine (b. ... Bill Price can refer to: Bill Price (record producer) Bill Price (footballer) [[Bill Price (businessman}]] [[Bill Price (formerly of BC lower mainland & central interior}]] AKA Skip Price Category: ...


The first free ascent of a main El Cap route, though, was not The Nose, but The Salathe Wall. Todd Skinner and Paul Piana made the first free ascent over 9 days in 1988, after 30 days of working the route (graded 5.13b by the Yosemite Decimal System).[10] Todd Skinner (October 28, 1958 – October 23, 2006) was an American free climber who died in a fall at Yosemite National Park on October 23, 2006. ... In mountaineering and related climbing sports, climbers give a climbing grade to a route that attempts to assess the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. ... The Yosemite Decimal System is a numerical system for rating the difficulty of walks, hikes, and climbs, primarily used for mountaineering in the United States. ...


The Nose was the second major route to be freeclimbed. Two pitches on The Nose blocked efforts to free the route: the "Great Roof" graded 5.13c and "Changing Corners" graded 5.14a/b. In 1993, Lynn Hill came close to freeing The Nose, making it past the Great Roof and up to Camp VI without falling, stopped only on Changing Corners by a piton jammed in a critical finger hold.[6] After removing the piton she re-climbed the route from the ground. After 4 days of climbing, Hill reached the summit, making her the first person to free climb the Nose. A year later, Hill returned to free climb The Nose in a day, this time reaching the summit in just 23 hours and setting a new standard for free climbing on "El Cap."[6] Lynn Hill (born 1961) is a United States climber, known as a top sport climber of the 1980s and famous for making the first free ascent of the Nose Route on Yosemites El Capitan. ...


The Nose saw a second free ascent in 1998, when Scott Burke summitted after 261 days of effort.[11][12] On October 14, 2005, Tommy Caldwell and Beth Rodden became the 3rd and 4th people (and the 1st couple) to free climb the Nose. The husband-wife team took 4 days on the ascent, swapping leads with each climber free climbing each pitch, either leading or following.[13] Two days later, Caldwell returned to free climb the Nose in less than 12 hours.[14] Caldwell returned two weeks later to free climb El Cap twice in a day, completing The Nose with Rodden, then descending and leading Freerider in a combined time of 23 hours 23 minutes.[15] Tommy Caldwell (born August 11, 1978 in Estes Park, Colorado) is an American rock climber. ... Beth Rodden (born May 5, 1980 in San Francisco, California) is an American rock climber. ...


Aiding and the Future

Speed climbing "El Cap" using aid techniques is also popular.[6] On July 2nd, 2008, Hans Florine and Yuji Hirayama set a record for aid climbing The Nose, climbing the 31-pitch route in 2 hours, 43 minutes and 33 seconds.[16] Hans Florine (born June 18, 1964) is an American rock climber, who together with Yuji Hirayama holds the current Speed Climb World Record for Yosemite’s El Capitan / Nose Climb: 2 hours, 48 minutes and 55 seconds. ... Yuji Hirayama (平山ユージ) is a Japanese rock climber, with a possible 5. ...

El Capitan and the Merced River
South-East face of El Capitan viewed from Yosemite Valley

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1186x790, 567 KB)El Capitan, Yosemite National Park. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1186x790, 567 KB)El Capitan, Yosemite National Park. ... The Merced River is in California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 1628 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: El Capitan User:Mikemurphy User:Dwxyzq Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x3072, 1628 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: El Capitan User:Mikemurphy User:Dwxyzq Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ...

BASE jumping

El Capitan has a controversial history regarding BASE jumping, and the National Park Service has effectively banned the practice. Michael Pelkey and Brian Schubert made the first BASE jump from El Capitan on July 24, 1966. Both men sustained broken bones from the jump. During the 1970s and with better equipment and training, many BASE jumpers made successful and safe jumps from El Capitan. In 1980 the National Park Service experimented with issuing BASE-jumping permits. These legal jumps resulted in no major injuries or fatalities. However, some jumpers exhibited significant disregard for the park's rules and the environment. After a trial lasting only a few months, the National Park Service ceased issuing permits and effectively shut down all BASE jumping on El Capitan.[17] On October 23, 1999, BASE jumper and stuntwoman Jan Davis died while making an illegal protest jump in support of lifting the park's ban.[18] BASE jumpers continue to fight the National Park Service in court for access to El Capitan.[19] BASE jumping is the sport of using a parachute to jump from fixed objects. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


See also

Half Dome is a granite dome in Yosemite National Park, located at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley — possibly Yosemites most familiar sight. ... Sentinel Dome is a granite dome in Yosemite National Park, United States. ...

References

  1. ^ Summitpost: El Capitan. Retrieved on January 13, 2007.
  2. ^ Huber, N. (1987). The Geologic Story of Yosemite Valley. Retrieved on January 14, 2007.
  3. ^ Roper, Steve (2000). Revealing Routes on El Cap: First Ascents. Retrieved on December 30, 2006.
  4. ^ a b Kallen, Christian (1996). El Capitan: First Ascent. Retrieved on January 1, 2007.
  5. ^ a b Frost, Tom (2001). Yosemite Guide (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved on July 11, 2006.
  6. ^ a b c d McNamara, Chris: "Yosemite Big Walls.", page 76-77. SuperTopo, 2005
  7. ^ thenose
  8. ^ Jones, Chris (1976). Climbing in North America. Berkeley, California, USA: American Alpine Club / University of California Press, 347-369. ISBN 0520029763. 
  9. ^ McNamara, Chris (May 2005). Yosemite Big Walls - 2nd Edition. Retrieved on December 30, 2006.
  10. ^ Samet, Matt; Steve Bechtel (November 2006). Loss of a Legend. Climbing Magazine. Primedia. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  11. ^ Crag, Climbing and Greater Range News. Mountaineering Council of Ireland (1999). Retrieved on July 11, 2006.
  12. ^ Fallesen, Gary (2007). Lynn Hill - balancing Life By Climbing Fee. Climbing for Christ. Retrieved on October 10, 2007.
  13. ^ MacDonald, Dougald (2005). Caldwell-Rodden Free the Nose. Climbing Magazine. Retrieved on January 1, 2007.
  14. ^ Schmidt, David (2005). The Nose – Free in a Day. Climbing Magazine. Retrieved on January 1, 2007.
  15. ^ MacDonald, Dougald (2005). Caldwell Frees Nose and Freerider in a Day. Climbing Magazine. Retrieved on January 1, 2007.
  16. ^ Helft, Miguel (2008). Pair Regain Speed Mark in Ascent of El Capitan. Retrieved on July 3, 2008.
  17. ^ The BASE Jumping Story So Far.... BASE Climb (September 5, 2005). Retrieved on July 11, 2006.
  18. ^ Costantinou, Marianne; Lewis, Gregory (October 23, 1999). Death Fall from El Capitan. Yosemite Association Newsroom. San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved on July 11, 2006.
  19. ^ BASE Jumpers vs. NPS. Vertical Visions (2006). Retrieved on July 11, 2006.
  • George Meyers and Don Reid, Yosemite Climbs (Chockstone Press, 1987)

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Don Reid (born December 30, 1973, in Washington, D.C.) is an American former professional basketball player who was selected by the Detroit Pistons in the 2nd round (58th overall) of the 1995 NBA Draft. ...

External links

  • El Capitan Speed Records
  • Yosemite - Long Hard Free Climbs, a list of long free climbs in Yosemite, including on El Capitan.
  • Dean Potter solo The Nose of El Capitan (video).
  • xRez Yosemite Gallery, a gigapixel image of the face of El Capitan.

  Results from FactBites:
 
El Capitan (849 words)
El Capitan in the Yosemite National Park is a massive vertical rock formation on the north side of the Yosemite Valley.
El Capitan was named by the Mariposa Battalion in 1851 upon its exploration of the valley.
El Capitan is a beautiful natural monument to visit, in the midst of a stunning landscape.
El Capitan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (526 words)
The name "El Capitan" was a translation from the Native American name "To-to-kon oo-lah", which was named after "To-to-kon", a chief of the natives of the area [1].
The most prominent part of El Capitan, the "Nose", was first climbed in 1958 by Warren J Harding, Wayne Merry and George Whitmore after 47 days of actual climbing spread over seventeen months.
El Capitan has had a controversial history regarding BASE jumping, and the park service has effectively banned the practice.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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