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Encyclopedia > El Al Flight 1862
El Al Flight 1862

Aftermath of the disaster Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Summary
Date  October 4, 1992
Cause  Metal fatigue in the fuse pin, engine collision
Site  Amsterdam Zuidoost
Fatalities  43 (including 39 on the ground)
Aircraft
 Aircraft type  Boeing 747-258F
Operator  El Al
Tail number  4X-AXG
Passengers  1
Crew  3
Survivors  0

Coordinates: 52°19′8″N, 4°58′30″E is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Amsterdam Zuidoost is one of the 15 boroughs (stadsdelen) of the city of Amsterdam, that consists of four residential areas Bijlmermeer, Venserpolder, Gaasperdam and the village Driemond, as well as a business park Amstel III/Bullewijk which includes the recreational ArenA Boulevard area. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... Categories: Airline stubs | Companies of Israel | Transportation in Israel | Airlines of Israel ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


On October 4, 1992, El Al Flight 1862, a Boeing 747 cargo plane of the Israeli airline El Al, crashed into the Groeneveen and Klein-Kruitberg flats in the Bijlmermeer (colloquially "Bijlmer") neighbourhood (part of Amsterdam Zuidoost) of Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 43 people were killed, including the plane's crew of three and a non-revenue passenger in a jumpseat. Many more were injured. is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... Categories: Airline stubs | Companies of Israel | Transportation in Israel | Airlines of Israel ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Amsterdam Zuidoost. ... Amsterdam Zuidoost is one of the 15 boroughs (stadsdelen) of the city of Amsterdam, that consists of four residential areas Bijlmermeer, Venserpolder, Gaasperdam and the village Driemond, as well as a business park Amstel III/Bullewijk which includes the recreational ArenA Boulevard area. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... A jump seat (or jumpseat), officially known as an auxiliary crew station, is a seat in an aircraft cockpit for individuals not operating the aircraft. ...

Contents

Fatal flight

On October 4, 1992, the plane, a Boeing 747-258F, registration 4X-AXG, was traveling from New York to Tel Aviv and made a stopover at Schiphol. During the flight from New York to Schiphol, three issues were noted: fluctuations in the autopilot speed regulation, problems with the shortwave radio, and fluctuations in the voltage of engine #3. is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Schiphol (IATA: AMS, ICAO: EHAM) (municipality Haarlemmermeer) is the Netherlands main airport. ...


The jet landed at Schiphol at 2:31 pm local time. New cargo was loaded into the plane; the cargo had been approved by customs authorities but, as was realized later, had not been physically inspected. The aircraft was refueled and the observed issues were repaired, at least provisionally. Captain Yitzhak Fuchs, First Officer Arnon Ohad, and Flight Engineer Gedalya Sofer were on board. Anat Solomon, the lone passenger on board, was an El Al employee traveling to Tel Aviv to marry an El Al colleague. Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... In commercial aviation, the first officer is the second pilot of an aircraft. ... In aviation, a flight engineer (also referred to as systems operator ) is a member of the aircrew of an aircraft who is responsible for checking the aircraft before and after each flight, and for monitoring aircraft systems during flight. ...


Departure from Schiphol

Flight 1862 was scheduled to depart at 5:30 PM, but departure was postponed till 6:20 PM. At 6:22 PM, Flight 1862 departed from runway 01L on a northerly heading. Once away from the runway, the plane turned to the right in order to follow the Pampus departure route, aided by the Pampus VOR/DME navigation station. Soon after the turn, at 6:27 pm, above the Gooimeer, a lake near Amsterdam, a sharp bang was heard. Engine #3 separated from the right wing of the aircraft, damaged the wing flaps, and struck engine #4, which then also separated from the wing. The two engines fell away from the plane. They attracted the attention of some pleasure boaters who had been startled by the loud noise. The boaters notified the Netherlands Coast Guard of two objects they had seen falling from the sky. Captain Fuchs made a mayday call to the control tower and indicated that he wanted to return to Schiphol. At 6:28:45 PM, the captain reported: "El Al 1862, lost number 3 and number 4 engine, number 3 and number 4 engine." D-VOR (Doppler VOR) ground station, co-located with DME. VOR, short for VHF Omni-directional Radio Range, is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft. ... D-VOR/DME ground station Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is a transponder-based radio navigation technology that measures distance by timing the propagation delay of VHF or UHF radio signals. ... The Gooimeer is a lake in the Netherlands between the southeastern part of North Holland and Flevoland. ... A coast guard is a national organization responsible for various services at sea. ... Look up mayday in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The control tower at Schiphol airport. ...


ATC did not yet grasp the enormity of the situation. In aviation, the word "lost" as Captain Fuchs used it generally means a loss of engine capacity. ATC therefore believed that two engines had merely stopped functioning, and did not know that they had actually broken off the wing. It is probable that the crew, too, did not know that the engines had fallen off the aircraft. The outboard engine on the wing of a 747 is visible from the cockpit only with some difficulty, and the inboard engine on the wing is not visible at all. Given the choices that the captain and crew made following the loss of engine power, the Dutch parliamentary inquiry commission that would later study the crash assumed that the crew did not know that both engines had broken away from the right wing.


Emergency landing

On the evening of October 4, 1992, the runway available for traffic at Schiphol was runway 06 (the Kaagbaan). However, Captain Fuchs requested runway 27 (the Buitenveldertbaan) for an emergency landing. Because the wind was from the northeast that evening, the fully loaded plane would have had to land with considerable tailwind. is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


In order to first dump fuel to remove the plane's excess weight, and then to make a careful approach to the runway, the damaged aircraft navigated a circle above Amsterdam. During this circle the captain gave the first officer the order to extend the wing flaps. The flaps extended on the left wing, but because the falling engines had severely damaged the leading edge of the right wing, the right wing flaps could not be extended. As a result, the left wing experienced more lift than the right. Captain Fuchs, who could not see what had happened to the right wing, informed ATC of a problem with the flaps. Schiphol emergency fire services were positioned along runway 27 in order to immediately extinguish any fires upon landing.


Initially, the aircraft remained under control during its descent to the runway, but as it descended below 1500 feet and reduced speed, it banked sharply to the right and became uncontrollable. At 6:35:25 PM, Captain Fuchs radioed to ATC: "Going down, 1862, going down, going down, copied, going down." In the background, the captain was heard instructing the first officer in Hebrew to raise the flaps and lower the landing gear.


Crash

At 6:35 pm local time, the Boeing 747, in nearly a ninety-degree bank with its right wing pointing at the ground, plowed into two high-rise apartment complexes in the Bijlmermeer neighborhood, at the corner of a building where the Groeneveen complex met the Klein-Kruitberg complex. The building exploded into flames and partially collapsed inward, destroying dozens of apartments. The cockpit came to rest east of the flats, between the building and the viaduct of Amsterdam Metro Line 53. A red brick apartment block in central London, England, on the north bank of the Thames An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Amsterdam Zuidoost. ...


During the last moments of the flight, the arrival traffic controllers made several desperate attempts to contact the aircraft. The Schiphol arrival controllers work from a closed building at Schiphol-East, not from the control tower. At 6:35:45 PM, however, the control tower reported to the arrival controllers: "Het is gebeurd" (lit., "It has happened"). At that moment an enormous cloud of smoke was visible above Amsterdam from the control tower. El Al Flight 1862 disappeared from arrival control radar. The arrival controllers reported that the aircraft had last been located 1 mile west of Weesp. Immediately, emergency personnel were sent to Weesp.


At the time of the crash, two police officers were in the Bijlmermeer checking on a burglary report. They saw the aircraft plummet and immediately sounded an alarm. The first fire trucks and rescue services arrived within a few minutes of the crash. Nearby hospitals were advised to prepare for hundreds of casualties. Hundreds were feared dead. The flats were partly inhabited by undocumented illegal immigrants, and the death toll was difficult to estimate in the hours after the crash. For the record label, see Hospital Records. ... Illegal immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently, in violation of the law or without documents permitting an immigrant to settle in that country. ... A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ...


In the days immediately following the disaster, the bodies of the victims and the remains of the plane were recovered from the crash site. The remains of the plane were transported to Schiphol for analysis. The parts were not used to reconstruct the aircraft. During the investigation, significant portions of the debris from the plane and the flats were sold as scrap.


Causes

In the event of excessive loads on the Boeing 747 engines or engine pylons, the fuse pins holding the engine nacelle to the wing are designed to fracture cleanly, allowing the engine to fall away from the aircraft without damaging the wing or wing fuel tank. Airliners are generally designed to remain airworthy in the event of an engine failure, so that the plane can be landed safely. Damage to a wing or wing fuel tank can have disastrous consequences. The Netherlands Aviation Safety Board found, however, that the fuse pins had not failed properly, but instead had suffered metal fatigue prior to overload failure. The Safety Board pieced together a probable sequence of events for the loss of engine 3: For pylons of overhead lines, see Electricity pylon Pylon Noun from Greek πυλώνας gateway tower like structure, usually one of a series, used to support high voltage electricity cables. ... This article is about a computer game. ...

1. Gradual failure by fatigue and then overload failure of the inboard mid-spar fuse pin at the inboard thin-walled location.
2. Overload failure of the outer lug of the inboard mid-spar pylon fitting.
3. Overload failure of the outboard mid-spar fuse pin at the outboard thin-walled and fatigue-cracked location.
4. Overload failure of the outboard mid-spar fuse pin at the inboard thin-walled location.[1] This article is about a computer game. ...

This sequence of step-by-step failures caused the engine and nacelle to tilt up and right due to gyroscopic forces and then finally to break free, knocking outboard engine 4 off the wing as well and inflicting serious damage on the leading edge of the right wing, including the control surfaces (flaps) that Captain Fuchs had tried to extend in flight. Look up nacelle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Research indicated that the plane had only managed to maintain level flight at first due to its high air speed (280 knots). The damage to the right wing, resulting in reduced lift, had made it much more difficult to keep the plane level. At 280 knots, there was nevertheless sufficient lift on the right wing to keep the plane aloft. Once the plane had to reduce speed for landing, however, it was doomed; there was too little lift on the right wing to enable stable flight, and the plane banked sharply to the right without any chance of recovery. There are multiple definitions of lift: Lift, an aerodynamic force. ...


Official victim count

Fifteen hundred persons were considered missing immediately after the crash. The Dutch government originally estimated a death toll of over 200. In the end, the official death toll stood at 43, considerably lower than expected. The plane carried only the flight crew and one passenger, and at the time of the crash many potential victims were not at home, possibly due to the pleasant weather on the evening of the crash. Twenty-six victims were located. Eleven of these had been taken to the hospital.


Rumors have persisted that the actual victim count must have been higher than 43. At very high temperatures such as those encountered after the crash of a jet loaded with fuel, about 1100 degrees Celsius, bodies can be completely incinerated. Nearly a third of the bodies, of the 11 victims on the ground, in the 1988 Lockerbie disaster were never recovered.[citation needed] Additionally, the apartment complexes where the El Al flight crashed contained many undocumented residents, illegal immigrants to the Netherlands. The Dutch parliamentary inquiry commission concluded during the investigation that the number of located bodies was more or less commensurate with the final number of missing persons, and that therefore there were no reasons to suspect that the actual death toll was higher than 43. The nose, containing the flight crew and first-class section, landed in a farmers field near a tiny church in Tundergarth, Scotland Pan Am Flight 103, registered N739PA and named Clipper Maid of the Seas, was blown up as it flew over Lockerbie, Scotland, on December 21, 1988, when...


Health issues

Mental health care was available after the crash to all affected residents and service personnel. After about a year, however, numbers of residents and service personnel began approaching doctors with physical health complaints, which the affected patients blamed on the El Al crash. Insomnia, chronic respiratory infections, general pain and discomfort, impotence, flatulence, and bowel complaints were all reported.


Dutch officials from government departments of transport and of public health asserted that at the time of the crash it was understood that there were no health risks from any cargo on the plane; Els Borst, minister of public health, stated that "geen extreem giftige, zeer gevaarlijke of radioactieve stoffen" ("no very toxic, very dangerous or radioactive materials") were on board the plane. However, in October 1993, the nuclear energy research foundation Laka reported that the tail of the plane contained 400 kg of depleted uranium as trim weight, as did all Boeing 747s at the time; however, this was not known during the rescue and recovery process.[1][2] Depleted uranium storage yard. ...


It was suggested that studies be undertaken on the symptoms of the affected survivors and service personnel, but for several years these suggestions were ignored on the basis that there was no practical reason to believe in any link between the health complaints of the survivors and the Bijlmer crash site.


In 1997, however, an expert testified in the Israeli Knesset that dangerous products would have been released during combustion of the depleted uranium in the tail of the Boeing 747. A Swedish study[citation needed] done on survivors' feces showed elevated quantities of uranium; although the validity of this study was questioned, the result nevertheless caused political upheaval. Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...


The first studies on the symptoms reported by survivors, performed by the Academisch Medisch Centrum, began in May 1998. The AMC eventually concluded that up to a dozen cases of auto-immune disorders among the survivors could be directly attributed to the crash, and health notices were distributed to doctors throughout the Netherlands requesting that extra attention be paid to symptoms of auto-immune disorder, particularly if the patient had a link with the Bijlmer crash site. Another study, performed by the Rijks Instituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, concluded that although toxic products had been released at the time of the crash, the added risks of cancer were small, approximately one or two additional cases per ten thousand exposed persons. The RIVM also concluded that the chances of uranium poisoning were minimal. The Academisch Medisch Centrum (English: Academic Medical Center), or AMC, is the academic hospital affiliated with the Universiteit van Amsterdam (University of Amsterdam). ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... The Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (Dutch: Rijks Instituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene or simply RIVM), is a Dutch research institute that is an independent agency of the Netherlands Ministry of Public Health, Wellbeing and Sports. ...


Cargo concerns

Soon after the disaster it was announced that the El Al Boeing 747 had contained fruit, perfumes, and computer components. Dutch Minister Hanja Maij-Weggen asserted that she was certain that the plane contained no military cargo.


In September 1993, the media reported that the El Al Boeing had indeed contained dangerous cargo. Some portion of the cargo proved to be Israeli national defense materials. It was also reported that a third of the cargo had not been physically inspected and that the cargo listings had not been checked.


The survivors' health complaints following the crash only served to increase the number of questions about the cargo.


It was reported that the plane's cargo included: bullets, spare parts for AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles, spare parts for Patriot missiles and 190 litres of dimethyl methylphosphonate.[citation needed] The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Dimethyl methylphosphonate Dimethyl methylphosphonate, or methylphosphonic acid dimethyl ester (DMMP), is a colorless liquid with chemical formula C3H9O3P or CH3PO(OCH3)2. ...


Dimethyl methylphosphonate is not classified as toxic, but is harmful if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin. Dimethyl methylphosphonate is primarily used as a flame retardant. It is also used as a pre-ignition additive for gasoline, anti-foaming agent, plasticizer, stabilizer, textile conditioner, antistatic agent, and as an additive for solvents and low-temperature hydraulic fluids. It is also a Chemical Weapons Convention schedule 2 chemical used in the synthesis of sarin nerve gas. The dimethyl methylphosphonate on board the plane was from an American chemical plant and was being sent to the Israel Institute for Biological Research under a United States Department of Commerce license.[citation needed] Flame retardants are materials that inhibit or resist the spread of fire. ... “Petrol” redirects here. ... An antifoaming agent is a food ingredient intended to curb effusion or effervescence in preparation or serving. ... Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Antistatic agents are compounds used for treatment of materials or their surfaces in order to reduce or eliminate buildup of static electricity. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Hydraulic fluids are a large group of mineral oils, water-based or water used as the medium in hydraulic systems. ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ... Schedule 2 substances, in the sense of the Chemical Weapons Convention, are either toxic enough to be used as chemical weapons, or precursors of other listed substances. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) is a government defense research institute specializing in biology, medicinal chemistry and environmental science. ... The United States Department of Commerce is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. ...


"Men in white suits"

In June 1993, the Dutch newspaper Trouw reported that on the morning of Monday, October 5, some twenty persons in white suits were seen at the site of the crash. These persons quickly became the subject of speculation. Witnesses claimed that the white-suited persons did not speak in Dutch and removed evidence from the crash site under white sheets. is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The claims of "men in white suits" subsided into obscurity for some years, until 1997, when they became the subject of political attention. In October 1997, Theo Meijer, a Christen Democratisch Appèl member of the Eerste Kamer, launched an inquiry. Minister Els Borst reported half a year later that there appeared to be no relation between the mysterious persons in white suits and the health complaints of residents at the crash site. Meanwhile, the Rijksrecherche (Netherlands National Police Internal Investigations Department) had begun an investigation into the incident. The Christen-Democratisch Appèl (CDA, Christian Democratic Appeal) is a political party of the Netherlands that was established in 1980. ... The Eerste Kamer (literally First Chamber in Dutch) is the Upper House or Senate of the Netherlands parliament, the States-General. ...


In the media emerged further speculations; the Algemeen Dagblad claimed that the white-suited persons had flown in and out of the site in a helicopter. The Trouw reported that they had been seen emerging from vehicles with French license plates. Reports also asserted that there had been extra, secret flights to Israel in the days after the crash. Speculations grew that the El Al Boeing had contained secret military cargo that Israeli Mossad agents were ordered to strip from the crash site. For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ...


The Rijksrecherche concluded that the people in white suits were health workers from GGD Amsterdam. However, Israelis had also been seen at the crash site. As a result of these findings and of a parliamentary debate held following the Rijksrecherche's conclusion, the Rijksrecherche received instructions to continue investigations. Several follow-up studies took place, but no clear conclusion was reached. The commission concluded eventually that many of the witness statements simply pertained to rescue workers dressed in light-colored clothing, but it could not explain all of the witness statements. The commission also concluded that evidence had indeed in all probability been removed from the crash site.[citation needed]


Alterations to Boeing aircraft

After the crash investigation, Boeing issued a service directive regarding the faulty fuse pins on Boeing 747 aircraft. The 747s had their engines taken off and examined for cracks in the fuse pins. If cracks were present, the fuse pins were replaced. This crash also led to stricter and more frequent examinations of the fuse pins.[citation needed]


Memorial

A memorial was constructed near the crash site by architect Herman Hertzberger. The memorial at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii commemorates American dead from wars in the Pacific. ... Herman Hertzberger is a Dutch architect, born in Amsterdam in 1932. ...


See also

This list of notable accidents and incidents on commercial aircraft is grouped by the years in which the incidents or accidents occurred. ... China Airlines Flight 358 was a Boeing 747-2R7F that crashed on December 29, 1991 shortly after takeoff from Chiang Kai-shek International Airport in Taipei, Taiwan. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Leading Edge is a Speculative fiction magazine founded in 1981, located in Provo, Utah, and which has published stories by Dave Wolverton and Orson Scott Card, among others. ... Slats are small aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of an airplane wing which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. ... China Airlines Flight 611 Callsign: Dynasty 611 (CAL611, CI611) was a regularly scheduled flight from Chiang Kai Shek International Airport in Taoyuan to Hong Kong International Airport in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Japan Airlines flight 123 (JAL123, JL123), a Boeing 747-100SR-46, JA8119, crashed into Mount Osutaka in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, on August 12, 1985. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... American Airlines Flight 191, a McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-10 aircraft, crashed on May 25, 1979, at around 15:04 CDT, after taking off from OHare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Leading Edge is a Speculative fiction magazine founded in 1981, located in Provo, Utah, and which has published stories by Dave Wolverton and Orson Scott Card, among others. ... Slats are small aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of an airplane wing which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. ... Air safety is a broad term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through appropriate regulation, as well as through education and training. ...

References

  • Theo Bean, Een gat in mijn hart: een boek gebaseerd op tekeningen en teksten van kinderen na de vliegramp in de Bijlmermeer van 4 oktober 1992. Zwolle: Waanders, 1993.
  • Vincent Dekker, Going down, going down: De ware toedracht van de Bijlmerramp. Amsterdam: Pandora, 1999.
  • Een beladen vlucht: eindrapport Bijlmer enquête. Sdu Uitgevers, 1999.
  • Pierre Heijboer, Doemvlucht: de verzwegen geheimen van de Bijlmerramp. Utrecht: Het Spectrum, 2002.
  • R. J. H. Wanhill and A. Oldersma, Fatigue and Fracture in an Aircraft Engine Pylon, Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium (NLR TP 96719).
  • This event is featured on the National Geographic Channel show Seconds From Disaster.
  1. ^ Uijt de Haag P.A. and Smetsers R.C. and Witlox H.W. and Krus H.W. and Eisenga A.H. (28 August 2000). "Evaluating the risk from depleted uranium after the Boeing 747-258F crash in Amsterdam, 1992". Journal of Hazardous Materials 76 (1): 39-58. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. 
  2. ^ Henk van der Keur (May 1999). Uranium Pollution from the Amsterdam 1992 Plane Crash. Laka Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.

The National Geographic Channel is a subscription television network that features documentaries produced by the National Geographic Society. ... Logo of the documentary series Seconds from Disaster Seconds From Disaster is a documentary television series that investigates the worst man-made disasters and several natural disasters in modern history, and analyses the causes and events that led up to each disaster. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Corrosion Doctors' entry on El Al Flight 1862
  • Aviation Safety Network summary for El Al Flight 1862
  • Photographs of the disaster on AirDisaster.com
  • Google Maps view of site


  Results from FactBites:
 
Green Left - Flight 1862 and Israel's chemical secrets (1752 words)
El Al spokesperson Nachman Kleiman, who since 1992 had remained steadfast in his tongue-tied account that El Al was unaware of the specific items transported on LY1862 but had fully disclosed these specifics to the Dutch authorities after the accident, was forced to concede that the flight was indeed transporting three of Sarin's four precursors.
Had El Al transported its morbid cargo through rather than to Dutch territory (as may well have been the case with the second DMMP consignment), it would scarcely have raised an eyebrow.
For the same reason, the functional extraterritoriality enjoyed by El Al and Mossad at Schiphol, where the Dutch authorities as a rule ask no questions and monitor nothing concerning the activities of their Israeli guests, exempting them from national and international laws and regulations, is likely to be studiously ignored.
El Al Flight 1862 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (508 words)
On October 4, 1992, El Al Flight 1862, a Boeing 747 cargo plane of the Israeli El Al airline crashed into the Groeneveen and Klein-Kruitberg flats in the Bijlmermeer (colloquially "Bijlmer") neighbourhood (part of 'Amsterdam Zuidoost') of Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands.
The plane, a cargo jet belonging to the Israeli carrier El Al, departed at 1810hrs from Schiphol airport, flying to Tel Aviv.
The shipment was from a U.S. chemical plant to the Israel Institute for Biological Research under a U.S. Department of Commerce licence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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