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Encyclopedia > El (god)
Myths of the Fertile Crescent
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Mesopotamian mythology
Ancient Arabian mythology
Ancient Levantine mythology
Names of God in the Hebrew Bible
Mesopotamian religion
Pre-Islamic Arabian gods
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Ancient Southwest Asian deities
Levantine deities

Adonis | Anat | Asherah | Ashima | Astarte | Atargatis | Ba'al | Berith | Dagon | Derceto | El | Elyon | Eshmun | Hadad | Kothar | Mot | Qetesh | Resheph | Shalim | Yarikh | Yam The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... Image File history File links Palm_tree_symbol. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ancient Near Eastern religion. ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... Bel, signifying lord or master, is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian relgion. ... Palmyrene deities: from left to right: the lunar god Aglibôl, the supreme god Beelshamên, the sun god Malakbêl, 1st century CE, found near Bir Wereb, Wadi Miyah, Syria, Louvre Museum. ... Al-Lat was a pre-Islamic Arabian fertility goddess. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... The god Bes. ... Anthem: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady Capital (and largest city) Cairo (Al-Qahirah) Arabic, Masri (national) Government Republic  - President Hosni Mubarak  - Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif Establishment    - First Dynasty c. ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), Manāt was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Manaf is one of the pre-Islamic polytheist gods of Mecca [1]. Category: ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... Al-Qaum (القوم), the Nabataean god of war and the night and guardian of caravans. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), al-Ê•uzzā the Mightiest One (derived from the root Ê•zy) was a pre-Islamic Arabian fertility goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Wadd was the Minaean moon god. ... Yaghuth is an idol referred to in the Quran (71:23) as being worshipped in ancient Yemen. ... Palmyrene deities: from left to right: the lunar god Aglibôl, the supreme god Beelshamên, the sun god Malakbêl, 1st century CE, found near Bir Wereb, Wadi Miyah, Syria, Louvre Museum. ... St. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... A 19th-century reproduction of a Greek bronze of Adonis found at Pompeii. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... In the Hebrew Bible, Ashima is one of several deities protecting the individual cities of Samaria who are mentioned specifically by name in 2 Kings 17:30. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... Baal (; Hebrew: בעל) is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning master or lord that is used for various gods, spirits and demons particularly of the Levant, cognate to Assyrian bêlu. ... Other deities worshipped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith. ... // The ancient god Dagon Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, the god of grain and agriculture according to the few sources to speak of the matter, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla, by the people of Ugarit and a chief god (perhaps the chief god... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyôn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Ely... Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun) was a northwestern Semitic god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Kothar-wa-Khasis Kothar-wa-Khasis means Skillful-and-Wise or Adroit-and-Perceptive or Deft-and-Clever. Another of his names means Deft-with-both-hands. Kothar is smith, craftsman, engineer, architect, and inventor. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... In Egyptian mythology, Qetesh (also Qadesh, Kadesh) was a goddess of love and fertility who was perhaps Syrian in origin. ... In Chaldean mythology, Resheph was a god of plague and war. ... Shalim is the god of dusk in the pantheon of Ugarit, the counterpart of Shahar the god of dawn. ... Yarikh, in Canaanite mythology, is a god of the moon whose epithets are Illuminator of the Heavens, Illuminator of the Myriads of Stars, and Lord of the Sickle (the latter may come from the appearance of the crescent moon). ... Yam is the name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El, the name given to the Levantine pantheon. ...

Mesopotamian deities

Adad | Amurru | An/Anu | Anshar | Asshur | Abzu/Apsu | Enki/Ea | Enlil | Ereshkigal | Inanna/Ishtar | Kingu | Kishar | Lahmu & Lahamu | Lilith | Marduk | Mummu | Nabu | Nammu | Nanna/Sin | Nergal | Ninhursag/Damkina | Ninlil | Tiamat | Utu/Shamash Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (see also An) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... In Akkadian mythology and Sumerian mythology, Anshar (also Anshur, Ashur, Asshur) (which means sky pivot or sky axle) is a sky god. ... The word Asshur can mean: Asshur (אַשּׁוּר), son of Shem, the son of Noah. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Enki was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... Introduction In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead. ... Inanna was one of the most revered of goddesses among later Sumerian mythology. ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ... In Akkadian mythology, Kishar is the daughter of Lahmu and Lahamu, two serpent-gods who were in turn the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. ... Lahmu is a deity from Akkadian mythology, first-born son of Apsu and Tiamat. ... Lahamu was the first-born daughter of Tiamat and Apsu in Akkadian mythology. ... Lilith is a female Mesopotamian night demon believed to harm male children. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... For other uses, see Mummu (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... In Sumerian mythology, Nammu is probably the first of the ancient deities of Sumer — at least in the process of creation, if not in actual chronology. ... Nanna is a god in Sumerian mythology, god of the moon, son of Enlil and Ninlil. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... Ninlil, first called Sud, is the daughter of Nammu and An in Sumerian mythology. ... Tiamat is a mother goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ...

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Ēl (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either 'god' or 'God' or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. The Northwest Semitic languages form a medium-level division of the Semitic language family. ...


In the Levant as a whole, El or Il was the supreme god, the father of mankind and all creatures and the husband of the Goddess Asherah as attested in the tablets of Ugarit. The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ...


The word El was found at the top of a list of gods as the Ancient of Gods or the Father of all Gods, in the ruins of the Royal Library of the Ebla civilization, in the archaeological site of Tell Mardikh in Syria dated to 2300 BC. He may have been a desert god at some point, as the myths say that he had two wives and built a sanctuary with them and his new children in the desert. El had fathered many gods, but most important were Hadad, Yam and Mot, each of whom has similar attributes to the Greco-Roman gods Zeus, Poseidon or Ophion and Hades or Thanatos respectively. Ancient Greek mythographers identified El with Cronus (not Chronos). Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Ebla was an ancient city located in northern Syria, about 55 km southwest of Aleppo. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Yam is the name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El, the name given to the Levantine pantheon. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Ζεύς Zeús, genitive: Διός Díos), is... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... In Greek mythology, Ophion (serpent), also called Ophioneus ruled the world with Eurynome before the two of them were cast down by Cronus and Rhea, according to some sources. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. Hades (from Greek , Haidēs, originally , Haidēs or , Aïdēs; of uncertain origin[1], although it has been ascribed to Greek unseen[2]) refers... Look up Thanatos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cronus (Ancient Greek Κρόνος, Krónos —of obscure etymology, perhaps related to horned, suggesting a possible connection with the ancient Indian demon Kroni or the Levantine deity El; or to the word χρόνος, Chronos, meaning time), also called Cronos or Kronos, was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of... In Greek mythology, Chronos (Χρονος in Greek) in pre-Socratic philosophical works is said to be the personification of time. ...

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Linguistic forms and meanings

Cognate forms are found throughout the Semitic languages with the exception of the ancient Ge'ez language of Ethiopia. Forms include Ugaritic ’il, pl. ’lm; Phoenician ’l pl. ’lm, Hebrew’ēl, pl. ’⁏lîm; Aramaic ’l, Arabic ʾilāh; Akkadian ilu, pl. ilāti. The original meaning may have been 'strength, power'. In northwest Semitic usage ’l was both a generic word of any 'god' and the special name or title of a particular god who was distinguished from other gods as being the god, or even in our modern sense God. Ēl is listed at the head of many pantheons. El was the father god among the Canaanites. But because the word sometimes refers to a god other than the great god Ēl it is often difficult to be certain whether Ēl followed by another name means the great god Ēl with a particular epithet applied or refers to another god entirely. For example, in the Ugaritic texts ’il mlk is understood to mean 'Ēl the King' but ’il hd as 'the god Hadad'. Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... The Ugaritic language is known to us only in the form of writings found in the lost city of Ugarit since its discovery by French archaeologists in 1928. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... is the Arabic for deity. It is cognate to Northwest Semitic ’ēl and Akkadian ilu. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ...


In Ugaritic an alternate plural form meaning 'gods' is ’ilhm, equivalent to Hebrew elōhîm 'gods'. But in Hebrew this word is also used for singular 'God' or 'god', is indeed by the most normal word for 'god' or 'God' in the singular (as well as for 'gods'). Elohim (אֱלוֹהִים , אלהים) is a Hebrew word which expresses concepts of divinity. ...


The stem ’l is found prominently in the earliest strata of east Semitic, northwest Semitic and south Semitic groups. Personal names including the stem ’l are found with similar patterns both in Amorite and South Arabic which indicates that probably already in Proto-Semitic ’l was both a generic term for 'god' and the common name or title of a single particular 'god' or 'God'. Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or AmurrÅ«m (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ...


Ēl in Proto-Sinaitic, Phoenician, Aramaic, and Hittite texts

A proto-Sinaitic mine inscription from Mount Sinai reads ’ld‘lm understood to be vocalized as ’il dū ‘ôlmi, 'Ēl Eternal' or 'God Eternal'.


The Egyptian god Ptah is given the title dū gitti 'Lord of Gath' in a prism from Lachish which has on its opposite face the name of Amenhotep II (c. 14351420 BCE) The title dū gitti is also found in http://en.wikipedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/button_bold.png Bold textSerābitṭ text 353. Cross (1973, p. 19) points out that Ptah is often called the lord (or one) of eternity and thinks it may be this identification of Ēl with Ptah that lead to the epithet ’olam 'eternal' being applied to Ēl so early and so consistently. (However in the Ugaritic texts Ptah is seemingly identified instead with the craftsman god Kothar-wa-Khasis.) Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... nomen or birth name Aakheperure Amenhotep II (d. ... (Redirected from 1430s BCE) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC - 1430s BC - 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC Events and Trends 1437 BC - Legendary King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after... (Redirected from 1420s BCE) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC - 1420s BC - 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC Events and Trends Crete conquered by Mycenae (approximately 1420 BC) - start of the...


A Phoenician inscribed amulet of the 7th century BCE from Arslan Tash may refer to Ēl. Rosenthal (1969, p. 658) translated the text: Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse...

An eternal bond has been established for us. Ashshur has established (it) for us, and all the divine beings and the majority of the group of all the holy ones, through the bond of heaven and earth for ever, ...

However the text is translated by Cross (1973, p. 17):

The Eternal One (‘Olam) has made a covenant oath with us,
Asherah has made (a pact) with us.
And all the sons of El,
And the great council of all the Holy Ones.
With oaths of Heaven and Ancient Earth.

In some inscriptions the name ’Ēl qōne ’arṣ 'Ēl creator of Earth' appears, even including a late inscription at Leptis Magna in Tripolitania dating to 2nd century (KAI. 129). In Hittite texts the expression becomes the single name Ilkunirsa, this Ilkunirsa appearing as the husband of Asherdu (Asherah) and father of 77 or 88 sons. Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


In an Hurrian hymn to Ēl (published in Ugaritica V, text RS 24.278) he is called ’il brt and ’il dn which Cross (p. 39) takes as 'Ēl of the covenant' and 'Ēl the judge' respectively.


See Ba‘al Hammon for the possibility that Ēl was identical with Ba‘al Hammon who was worshipped as the supreme god in Carthage. Ba‘al Hammon (more properly Ba‘al Ḥammon or possibly Ba‘al Ḥamon) was the chief god of Carthage, generally identified by the Greeks with Cronus and by the Romans with Saturn. ... Ruins of Roman-era Carthage The term Carthage (Greek: , Arabic: قرطاج also قرطاجة, Latin: Carthago) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ...


Ēl among the Amorites

Amorite inscriptions from Zinčirli refer to numerous gods, sometimes by name, sometimes by title, especially by such titles as ilabrat 'god of the people'(?), il abīka 'god of your father', il abīni 'god of our father' and so forth. Various family gods are recorded, divine names listed as belong to a particular family or clan, sometimes by title and sometimes by name, including the name Il 'god'. In Amorite personal names the most common divine elements are Il ('God'), Hadad/Adad, and Dagan. It is likely that Il is also very often the god called in Akkadian texts Amurru or Il Amurru. Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or AmurrÅ«m (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. ... // The ancient god Dagon Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, the god of grain and agriculture according to the few sources to speak of the matter, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla, by the people of Ugarit and a chief god (perhaps the chief god...


Ēl in Ugarit

For the Canaanites, El or Il was the supreme god, the father of mankind and all creatures. He may have been a desert god at some point as the myths say that he had two wives and built a sanctuary with them and his new children in the desert. El had fathered many gods, but most important were Hadad, Yam and Mot, each share similar attributes to the Roman-Greco gods: Zeus, Poseidon and Hades respectively. This article is about the land called Canaan. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Yam is the name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El, the name given to the Levantine pantheon. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Ζεύς Zeús, genitive: Διός Díos), is... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. Hades (from Greek , Haidēs, originally , Haidēs or , Aïdēs; of uncertain origin[1], although it has been ascribed to Greek unseen[2]) refers...


Three pantheon lists found at Ugarit begin with the four gods ’il-’ib (which according to Cross [1973; p. 14] is the name of a generic kind of deity, perhaps the divine ancestor of the people), Ēl, Dagnu (that is Dagon), and Ba’l Ṣapān (that is the god Haddu or Hadad). Though Ugarit had a large temple dedicated to Dagon and another to Hadad, there was no temple dedicated to Ēl. Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... // The ancient god Dagon Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, the god of grain and agriculture according to the few sources to speak of the matter, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla, by the people of Ugarit and a chief god (perhaps the chief god... Baal (; Hebrew: בעל) is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning master or lord that is used for various gods, spirits and demons particularly of the Levant, cognate to Assyrian bêlu. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ...


Ēl is called again and again Tôru ‘Ēl 'Bull Ēl' or 'the bull god'. He is bātnyu binwāti 'Creator of creatures', ’abū banī ’ili 'father of the gods', and ‘abū ‘adami 'father of man'. He is qāniyunu ‘ôlam creator eternal (the epithet ‘ôlam appearing in Hebrew form in the Hebrew name of God ’ēl ‘ôlam 'God Eternal' in Genesis 21.23). He is ḥātikuka your patriarch. Ēl is the grey-bearded ancient one, full of wisdom, malku 'king', ’abū šamīma 'father of years', ’ēl gibbōr 'Ēl the warrior'. He is also named lṭpn of unknown meaning, variously rendered as Latpan, Latipan, or Lutpani. Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ...


The mysterious Ugaritic text "Shachar and Shalim" tells how (perhaps near the beginning of all things) Ēl came to shores of the sea and saw two woman who bobbed up and down. Ēl was sexually aroused and took the two with him, killed a bird by throwing a staff at it and roasted it over a fire. He asked the women to tell him when the bird is fully cooked, and to then address him either as husband or as father, for he would thenceforward behave to them as they call him. They salute him as husband. He lies with them and they gave birth to Shachar 'Dawn' and Shalim 'Dusk'. Again Ēl lies with his wives and the wives give birth to the gracious gods, cleavers of the sea, children of the sea. The names of these wives are not explicitly provided, but some confusing rubrics at the beginning of the account mention the goddess Athirat who is otherwise Ēl's chief wife and the goddess Rahmay 'Merciful', otherwise unknown. For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ...


In the Ugaritic Ba‘al cycle Ēl is introduced dwelling on (or in) Mount Lel (Lel possibly meaning 'Night') at the fountains of the two rivers at the spring of the two deeps. He dwells in a tent according to some interpretations of the text which may explain why he had no temple in Ugarit. As to the rivers and the spring of the two deeps, these might refer real streams, or to the mythological sources of the salt water ocean and the fresh water souces under the earth, or to the waters above the heavens and the waters beneath the earth.


In the episode of the "Palace of Ba‘al", the god Ba‘al/Hadad invites the "70 sons of Athirat" to a feast in his new palace. Presumably these sons have been fathered on Athirat by Ēl in following passages they seem be the gods (’ilm) in general or at least a large portion of them. The only sons of Ēl named individually in the Ugaritic texts are Yamm 'Sea', Mot 'Death', and ‘Ashtar, who may be the chief and leader of most of the sons of Ēl. Ba‘al/Hadad is a few times called Ēl's son rather than the son of Dagan as he is normally called, probably because Ēl is in the position of a clan-father to all the gods. In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ...


The fragmentary text RS 24.258 describes a banquet to which Ēl invites the other gods and then disgraces himself by becoming outrageously drunk and passing out after confronting an otherwise unknown Hubbay, "he with the horns and tail". The text ends with an incanation for the cure of some disease, possibly hangover.


Ēl in the greater Levant

A proto-Sinaitic mine inscription from Mount Sinai reads ’ld‘lm understood to be vocalized as ’il dū ‘ôlmi, 'Ēl Eternal' or 'God Eternal'. The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


The Egyptian god Ptah is given the title dū gitti 'Lord of Gath' in a prism from Lachish which has on its opposite face the name of Amenhotep II (c. 14351420 BCE) The title dū gitti is also found in Serābitṭ text 353. Cross (1973, p. 19) points out that Ptah is often called the lord (or one) of eternity and thinks it may be this identification of Ēl with Ptah that lead to the epithet ’olam 'eternal' being applied to Ēl so early and so consistently. (However in the Ugaritic texts Ptah is seemingly identified instead with the craftsman god Kothar-wa-Khasis.) Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... nomen or birth name Aakheperure Amenhotep II (d. ... (Redirected from 1430s BCE) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC - 1430s BC - 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC Events and Trends 1437 BC - Legendary King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after... (Redirected from 1420s BCE) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC - 1420s BC - 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC Events and Trends Crete conquered by Mycenae (approximately 1420 BC) - start of the...


A Phoenician inscribed amulet of the 7th century BCE from Arslan Tash may refer to Ēl. Rosenthal (1969, p. 658) translated the text: Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse...

An eternal bond has been established for us. Ashshur has established (it) for us, and all the divine beings and the majority of the group of all the holy ones, through the bond of heaven and earth for ever, ...

However the text is translated by Cross (1973, p. 17):

The Eternal One (‘Olam) has made a covenant oath with us,
Asherah has made (a pact) with us.
And all the sons of El,
And the great council of all the Holy Ones.
With oaths of Heaven and Ancient Earth.

In some inscriptions the name ’Ēl qōne ’arṣ 'Ēl creator of Earth' appears, even including a late inscription at Leptis Magna in Tripolitania dating to 100s (KAI. 129). In Hittite texts the expression becomes the single name Ilkunirsa, this Ilkunirsa appearing as the husband of Asherdu (Asherah) and father of 77 or 88 sons. Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s - 100s - 110s 120s 130s 140s 150s 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 Events and trends donknjiwegtuiewgtuiweorhwefioyr weiouygweuigry u9weuiwegweuieui wetui weuiweguiwe uiwe w eui gweui weuiwer uiwe uiwe guiwe weui weui wefg weuiwe Significant...


In an Hurrian hymn to Ēl (published in Ugaritica V, text RS 24.278) he is called ’il brt and ’il dn which Cross (p. 39) takes as 'Ēl of the covenant' and 'Ēl the judge' respectively.


See Ba‘al Hammon for the possibility that Ēl was identical with Ba‘al Hammon who was worshipped as the supreme god in Carthage. Ba‘al Hammon (more properly Ba‘al Ḥammon or possibly Ba‘al Ḥamon) was the chief god of Carthage, generally identified by the Greeks with Cronus and by the Romans with Saturn. ... Ruins of Roman-era Carthage The term Carthage (Greek: , Arabic: قرطاج also قرطاجة, Latin: Carthago) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ...


Ēl in the Tanakh

The Hebrew form (אל) appears in Latin letters in Standard Hebrew transcription as El and in Tiberian Hebrew transcription as ʾĒl. Hebrew redirects here. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ...


In the Tanakh elōhîm is the normal word for a god or the great god (or gods). But the form ’ēl also appears, mostly in poetic passages and in the patriarchal narratives attributed to the P source according the documentary hypothesis. It occurs 217 times in the Masoretic text: 73 times in the Psalms and 55 times in the Book of Job, and otherwise mostly in poetic passages or passages written in elevated prose. It occasionally appears with the definite article as hā’Ēl 'the God' (for example in 2 Samuel 22.31,33–48). Tanakh ‎ (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Elohim (אֱלוֹהִים , אלהים) is a Hebrew word which expresses concepts of divinity. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ...


There are also places where ’ēl specifically refers to a foreign god as in Psalms 44.20;81.9 (Hebrew 44.21;81.10), in Deuteronomy 32.12 and in Malachi 2.11. Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Malachi (or Malachias, מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Málakhî) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh, written by the prophet Malachi. ...


The theological position of the Tanakh is that the names Ēl, ’Ĕlōhîm when used in the singular to mean the supreme and active 'God' refers to the same being as does Yahweh. All three refer to the one supreme god who is also the god of Israel, beside whom other supposed gods are either non-existent or insignificant. Whether this was a longstanding belief or a relatively new one has long been the subject of inconclusive scholarly debate about the prehistory of the sources of the Tanakh and about the prehistory of Israelite religion. In the P strand Yahweh claims in Exodus 6.2–3: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tetragrammaton. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ...

I revealed myself to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as Ēl Shaddāi, but was not known to them by my name Yahweh.

This affirms the identity of Yahweh with either Ēl in his aspect Shaddāi or with a god called Shaddāi. Also affirmed is that the name Yahweh is a more recent revelation. One scholarly position is that the identification of Yahweh with Ēl is late, that Yahweh was earlier thought of as only one of many gods and not normally identified with Ēl. In some places, especially in Psalm 29, Yahweh is clearly envisioned as a storm god, something not true of Ēl so far as we know. (Noted Parallel: El is derived from Sumerian Enlil, God of Wind) It is Yahweh who fights Leviathan in Isaiah 27.1; Psalm 74.14; Job 3.8 & 40.25/41.1, a deed attributed both to Ba’al/Hadad and ‘Anat in the Ugaritic texts, but not to Ēl. Such mythological motifs are variously seen as late survivals from a period when Yahweh held a place in theology comparable to that of Hadad at Ugarit; or as late henotheistic/monotheistic applications to Yahweh of deeds more commonly attributed to Hadad; or simply as examples of eclectic application of the same motifs and imagery to various different gods. Similarly it is argued inconclusively whether Ēl Shaddāi, Ēl ‘Ôlām, Ēl ‘Elyôn and so forth were originally understood as separate divinities. Albrecht Alt presented his theories on the original differences of such gods in Der Gott der Väter in 1929. But others have argued that from patriarchal times these different names were indeed generally understood to refer to the same single great god Ēl. This is the position of Frank Moore Cross (1973). What is certain is that the form ’ēl does appear in Israelite names from every period including the name Yiśrā’ēl 'Israel', meaning 'ēl strives' or 'God strives'. Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... Destruction of Leviathan. 1865 engraving by Gustave Doré. Leviathan ( Twisted; coiled, Standard Hebrew Livyatan, Tiberian Hebrew ) was a Biblical sea monster referred to in the Old Testament (Psalms 74:13-14; Job 41; Isaiah 27:1). ... The Book of Isaiah (Hebrew: Sefer Yshayah ספר ישעיה) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, believed to be written by Isaiah[1]. // The 66 chapters of Isaiah consist primarily of prophecies of the judgments awaiting nations that are persecuting Judah. ... In religion and philosophy, henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, meaning belief in, and possible worship of, multiple gods, one of which is supreme. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The apparent plural form ’Ēlîm or ’Ēlim 'gods' occurs only four times in the Tanakh. Psalm 29, understood as an enthronement psalm, begins:

A Psalm of David.
Ascribe to Yahweh, sons of gods (bənê ’Ēlîm),
Ascribe to Yahweh, glory and strength

Psalm 89:6 (verse 7 in Hebrew) has:

For who in the skies compares to Yahweh,
who can be likened to Yahweh among the sons of gods (bənê ’Ēlîm).

Traditionally bənê ’ēlîm has been interpreted as 'sons of the mighty', 'mighty ones', for, indeed ’ēl can mean 'mighty', though such use may be metaphorical (compare the English expression God-awful). It is possible also that the expression ’ēlîm in both places descends from an archaic stock phrase in which ’lm was a singular form with the m-enclitic and therefore to be translated as 'sons of Ēl'. The m-enclitic appears elsewhere in the Tanakh and in other Semitic languages. Its meaning is unknown, possibly simply emphasis. It appears in similar contexts in Ugaritic texts where the expression bn ’il alternates with bn ’ilm, but both must mean 'sons of Ēl'. That phrase with m-enclictic also appears in Phoenician inscriptions as late as the 5th century BCE. (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War...


One of the other two occurrences in the Tanakh is in the "Song of Moses", Exodus 15.11a: It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ...

Who is like you among the gods (’ēlim), Yahweh?

The final occurrence is in Daniel 11.35: The Book of Daniel, written in Hebrew and Aramaic, is a book in both the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament. ...

And the king will do according to his pleasure; and he will exalt himself and magnify himself over every god (’ēl), and against the God of gods (’ēl ’ēlîm) he will speak outrageous things, and will prosper until the indignation is accomplished: for that which is decided will be done.

There are a few cases in the Tanakh where some think ’ēl referring to the great god Ēl is not equated with Yahweh. One is in Ezekiel 28.2 in the oracle against Tyre: Ezekiel redirects here. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ...

Son of man, say to the prince of Tyre: "Thus says the Lord Yahweh: 'Because your heart is proud and you have said: "I am ’ēl, in the seat of elōhîm (God or gods), I am enthroned in the middle of the seas." Yet you are man and not ’ēl even though you have made your heart like the heart of elōhîm ('God' or 'gods').'"

Here ’ēl might refer to a generic god, not necessarily the high god Ēl and if it does so refer, the King of Tyre is certainly not thinking specifically of Yahweh.


In Judges 9.46 we find ’Ēl Bərît 'God of the Covenant', seemingly the same as the Ba‘al Bərît 'Lord of the Covenant' whose worship has been condemned a few verses earlier. See Baal for a discussion of this passage. Judges may refer to the Book of Judges in the Bible more than one judge. ... Baal (; Hebrew: בעל) is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning master or lord that is used for various gods, spirits and demons particularly of the Levant, cognate to Assyrian bêlu. ...


Psalm 82.1 says:

elōhîm ('God') stands in the council of ’ēl
he judges among the gods (elohim).

This could mean that God, that is Yahweh, judges along with many other gods as one of the council of the high god Ēl. However it can also mean that God, that is Yahweh, stands in the divine council (generally known as the Council of Ēl), as Ēl judging among the other members of the Council. The following verses in which God condemns those to whom he say were he had previousl named gods (elohim) and sons of the Most High suggest God is here indeed Ēl judging the lesser gods.


An archaic phrase appears in Isaiah 14.13, kôkkəbê ’ēl 'stars of God', referring to the circumpolar stars that never set, possibly especially to the seven stars of Ursa Major. The phrase also occurs in the Pyrgi Inscription as hkkbm ’l (preceded by the definite article h and followed by the m-enclitic). Two other apparent fossilized expressions are arzê-’ēl 'cedars of God' (generally translated something like 'mighty cedars', 'goodly cedars') in Psalm 80.10 (in Hebrew verse 11) and kəharrê-’ēl 'mountains of God' (generally translated something like 'great mountains', 'mighty mountains') in Psalm 36.7 (in Hebrew verse 6). This article is about the Great Bear constellation. ...


For the reference in some texts of Deuteronomy 32.8 to 70 sons of God corresponding to the 70 sons of Ēl in the Ugaritic texts see ’Elyôn. Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyôn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Elyôn when is means God or is applied to...


Ēl in Christian theology

According to patristic tradition, El was the first Hebrew name of God. Dante Alighieri in his De vulgari eloquentia suggests that the name was the first sound emitted by Adam: While the first utterance of humans after birth is a cry of pain, Dante assumed that Adam could only have made an exclamation of joy, which at the same time was addressing his creator. In the Divina commedia, however, Dante contradicts this by saying that God was called I in the language of Adam, and only named El in later Hebrew, but before the confusion of tongues (Paradiso, 24.134). The (Early) Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... De vulgari eloquentia (On the Eloquence of Vernacular) is the title of an important essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist in four books, but aborted after the second. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... ... The confusion of tongues (confusio linguarum) is the fragmentation of human languages after the collapse of the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11:1-9). ...


Ēl according to Sanchuniathon

In the euhemeristic account of Sanchuniathon Ēl (rendered Elus or called by his standard Greek counterpart Cronus) is not the creator god or first god. Ēl is rather the son of Sky and Earth. Sky and Earth are themselves children of ‘Elyôn 'Most High'. Ēl is brother to the god Bethel, to Dagon, and to an unknown god equated with the Greek Atlas, and to the goddesses Aphrodite/’Ashtart, Rhea (presumably Asherah, and Dione (equated with Ba’alat Gebal. Ēl is father of Persephone who dies (presumably an otherwise unknown Semitic goddess of the dead) and of Athene (presumably the goddess ‘Anat). Sky and Earth have separated from one another in hostility, but Sky insists on continuing to force himself on Earth and attempts to destroy the children born of such unions until at last Ēl, son of Sky and Earth, with the advice of the god Thoth and Ēl's daughter Athene attacks his father Sky with a sickle and spear of iron and drives him off for ever. So he and his allies the Eloim gain Sky's kingdom. In a later passage it is explained that Ēl castrated Sky. But one of Sky's concubines who was given to Ēl's brother Dagon was already pregnant by Sky and the son who is born of this union, called by Sanchuniathon Demarûs or Zeus, but once called by him Adodus, is obviously Hadad, the Ba‘al of the Ugaritic texts who now becomes an ally of his grandfather Sky and begins to make war on Ēl. Euhemerus (Ευημερος) (flourished around 316 BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. ... Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ... Cronus (Ancient Greek Κρόνος, Krónos —of obscure etymology, perhaps related to horned, suggesting a possible connection with the ancient Indian demon Kroni or the Levantine deity El; or to the word χρόνος, Chronos, meaning time), also called Cronos or Kronos, was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyôn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Elyôn when is means God or is applied to... Bethel meaning in Hebrew and Phoenician and Aramaic House of El or House of God is seemingly the name of a god or an aspect of a god in some ancient middle-eastern texts dating to the Assyrian, Persian and Hellenistic periods. ... // The ancient god Dagon Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, the god of grain and agriculture according to the few sources to speak of the matter, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla, by the people of Ugarit and a chief god (perhaps the chief god... In Greek mythology, Atlas was one of the primordial Titans. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 Aphrodite (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη, pronounced in English as and in Ancient Greek as ) was the Greek goddess of love, lust, beauty, and sexuality. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... Dione in Greek mythology is a vague goddess presence who has her most concrete form in Book V of Homers Iliad as the mother of Aphrodite: Aphrodite journeys to Diones side after she has been wounded in battle while protecting her favorite son Aeneas. ... {{Fertile Crescent myt==External links== [http://depts. ... Persephone and Hades In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, PersephónÄ“) was the queen of the Underworld, the Kore or young maiden, and the daughter of Demeter— and Zeus, in the Olympian version. ... This article is about the goddess Athena. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (Englished as Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... , or , or [1] Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth, a Greek name derived from the Egyptian * (djih-how-tee) (written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon. ... This article is about the goddess Athena. ...


Ēl has three wives, his sisters or half-sisters Aphrodite/Astarte (‘Ashtart), Rhea (presumably Asherah, and Dione (identified by Sanchuniathon with Ba‘alat Gebal the tutelary goddess of Byblos, a city which Sanchuniathon says that Ēl founded. The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ...


Unfortunately Eusebius of Caesarea, through whom Sanchuniathon is preserved, is not interested in setting the work forth completely or in order. But we are told that Ēl slew his own son Sadidus (a name that some commentators think might be a corrupton of Shaddai, one of the epithets of the Biblical Ēl) and that Ēl also beheaded one of his daughters. Later, perhaps referring to this same death of Sadidus we are told: Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ...

But on the occurrence of a pestilence and mortality Cronus offers his only begotten son as a whole burnt-offering to his father Sky and circumcises himself, compelling his allies also to do the same.

A fuller account of the sacrifice appears later:

It was a custom of the ancients in great crises of danger for the rulers of a city or nation, in order to avert the common ruin, to give up the most beloved of their children for sacrifice as a ransom to the avenging daemons; and those who were thus given up were sacrificed with mystic rites. Cronus then, whom the Phoenicians call Elus, who was king of the country and subsequently, after his decease, was deified as the star Saturn, had by a nymph of the country named Anobret an only begotten son, whom they on this account called Iedud, the only begotten being still so called among the Phoenicians; and when very great dangers from war had beset the country, he arrayed his son in royal apparel, and prepared an altar, and sacrificed him. Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ...

The account also relates that Thoth: , or , or [1] Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth, a Greek name derived from the Egyptian * (djih-how-tee) (written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon. ...

... also devised for Cronus as insignia of royalty four eyes in front and behind ... but two of them quietly closed, and upon his shoulders four wings, two as spread for flying, and two as folded. And the symbol meant that Cronus could see when asleep, and sleep while waking: and similarly in the case of the wings, that he flew while at rest, and was at rest when flying. But to each of the other gods he gave two wings upon the shoulders, as meaning that they accompanied Cronus in his flight. And to Cronus himself again he gave two wings upon his head, one representing the all-ruling mind, and one sensation.

This is the form under which Ēl/Cronus appears on coins from Byblos from the reign of Antiochus IV (175164 BCE) four spread wings and two folded wings, leaning on a staff. Such images continued to appear on coins until after the time of Augustus. There are several monarchs known by the title of Antiochus IV: Antiochus IV of Syria, who ruled during the time of Caligula; Antiochus Epiphanes, the Seleucid oppressor of the Jews who provoked the revolt of the Maccabees. ... (Redirected from 175 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC 176 BC - 175 BC - 174... (Redirected from 164 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ...


Ēl and Poseidon

A bilingual inscription from Palmyra (KAI. 11, p. 43) dated to the 1st century equates Ēl-Creator-of-the-Earth with the Greek god Poseidon. Going back to the 9th century BCE the bilingual inscription at Karatepe in the Taurus Mountains equates Ēl-Creator-of-the-Earth to Luwian hieroglyphs read as da-a-ś, this being the Luwian form of the name of the Babylonian water god Ea, lord of the abyss of water under the earth. (This inscription lists Ēl in second place in the local pantheon, following Ba‘al Shamim and preceding the Eternal Sun. The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... The Taurus Mountains (Taurus=bull in greek) (Turkish Toros, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in Eastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish Fırat) River descends into Syria. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... EA, Ea, or ea can signify several things. ... Ba‘al Sham m Lord of Heaven is a northwest Semitic god or a title applied to different gods at different places or times found in various ancient Middle-eastern inscriptions. ...


Poseidon is known to have been worshipped in Beirut, his image appearing on coins from that city. Poseidon of Beirut was also worshipped at Delos where there was an association of merchants, shipmasters and warehousmen called the Poseidoniastae of Berytus founded in 110 or 109 BCE. Three of the four chapels at its headquarters on the hill northwest of the Sacred Lake were dedicated to Poseidon, the Tyche of the city equated with Astarte (that is ‘Ashtart), and to Eshmun. Beirut ( translit: ) is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... (Redirected from 110 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 115 BC 114 BC 113 BC 112 BC 111 BC - 110 BC... (Redirected from 109 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 114 BC 113 BC 112 BC 111 BC 110 BC - 109 BC... Tyche on the reverse of this coin by Gordian III. In Greek mythology, Tyche (Roman equivalent: Fortuna) was the presiding tutelary deity that governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny. ... Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun) was a northwestern Semitic god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon. ...


Also at Delos that association of Tyrians, though mostly devoted to Heracles-Melqart, elected a member to bear a crown every year when sacrifices to Poseidon took place. A banker named Philostratus donated two altars, one to Palaistine Aphrodite Urania (‘Ashtart) and one to Poseidon "of Ascalon". Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (Greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa), replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ... The name Ascalon can refer to a number of possible topics: a middle-eastern city, more usually called Ashkelon the lance (or in some versions of the story, sword) that St George used to slay the dragon, named after the city Ashkelon the British WW2 aeroplane used by Winston Churchill...


Though Sanchuniathon distinguises Poseidon from his Elus/Cronus, this might be a splitting off of a particular aspect of Ēl in an euhemeristic account. Identification of an aspect of Ēl with Poseidon rather than with Cronus might have been felt to better fit with Hellenistic religious practice, if indeed this Phoenician Poseidon really is Ēl who dwells at the source of the two deeps in Ugaritic texts. More information is needed to be certain.


Identification of El with Allah

Some Muslim scholars contend that El should be pronounced 'AL' since the first letter of El is 'alef, which is pronounced A always. Unless there is a hidden vowel after it is E, like in when Hebrew Elohim means Gods or a God. Some Muslim scholars assert that the second letter could be pronounced double L, and that all semitic civilizations never wrote vowels and then the A after L is also not pronounced. Also the H in Allah is not written at the end of words in Arabic and Hebrew. They contend thus that the word EL found in Antiquity as far as Ebla civilization (destroyed in 2300 BC) is actually none other than Allah when pronounced according to the tradition of Semitic languages as explained. They bring a proof that the mail sent by Muhammad to the rulers of that period had the word Allah written as AL only. Such letters are available to view on the internet.[citation needed] EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ...


See also

At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... Many given names in the English language refer to El, a Hebrew word meaning God, and have their origin in the Bible. ... In Islamic context, an Ilah is the concept of a deity, lord or god and does not necessarily refer to Allah. ... Look up Michael in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References and external links

  • Bruneau, P. (1970). Recherches sur les cultes de Délos à l'époque hellénistique et à l'époque imperiale. Paris: E. de Broccard.
  • Cross, Frank Moore (1973). Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-09176-0.
  • Rosenthal, Franz (1969). "The Amulet from Arslan Tash". Trans. in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, 3rd ed. with Supplement, p. 658. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03503-2.
  • Teixidor, James (1977). The Pagan God Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07220-5
  • Bartleby: American Heritage Dictionary: Semitic Roots: ʾl
  • The Divine Council: "Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God", by Michael S. Heiser (PDF.)
  • The tablets of Pyrgi
  • The Rise of God
  • Biblaridion magazine: Bene-ha-elohim: Deuteronomistic theology as an interpretive model for the ‘Sons of God’ in Genesis 6:1-4

  Results from FactBites:
 
El (god) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4023 words)
In the Levant as a whole, El or Il was the supreme god, the father of mankind and all creatures and the husband of the Goddess Asherah as attested in the tablets of Ugarit.
For the Canaanites, El or Il was the supreme god, the father of mankind and all creatures.
Ēl is brother to the god Bethel, to Dagon, and to an unknown god equated with the Greek Atlas, and to the goddesses Aphrodite/’Ashtart, Rhea (presumably Asherah, and Dione (equated with Ba’alat Gebal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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