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Encyclopedia > Ejective consonant
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Manners of articulation
Obstruent
Click
Plosive
Ejective
Implosive
Affricate
Fricative
Sibilant
Sonorant
Nasal
Flap/Tap
Trill
Approximant
Semivowel
Liquid
Vowel
Lateral
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Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. In speech there are different ways of producing a consonant. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Affricate consonants begin like stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ), but release as a fricative such as or (or, a couple languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Jump to: navigation, search Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... A sibilant, or a strident fricative, is a type of fricative, made by speeding up air through a narrow channel and directing it over the sharp edge of the teeth. ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a member of a class of speech sounds that are continuants produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator is thrown against another. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-18, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... A tenuis consonant is one which is unvoiced and unaspirated. ...


In the International Phonetic Alphabet, ejectives are indicated by writing a plosive consonant with an apostrophe. The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ...


(Note that a reversed apostrophe represents aspiration, as in Armenian [p‘ t‘ k‘]; this usage is obsolete in the IPA.)


Ejectives are voiceless consonants that are pronounced with simultaneous closure of the glottis. The glottis is raised while the forward articulation (a [k] in the case of [k’]) is held, raising air pressure in the mouth, so that when the [k] is released, there is a noticeable burst of air. The Adam's apple may be seen moving when the sound is pronounced. In the languages where they are more obvious, ejectives are often described as sounding like "spat" consonants; but ejectives are often quite weak and, in some contexts, and in some languages, are easy to mistake for unaspirated plosives. The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thyroid cartilage. ...


In strict, technical terms, ejectives are glottalic egressive consonants. The most common ejective is [k’], as it is easy to raise the necessary pressure within the small oral cavity used to pronounce a [k]. [p’], on the other hand, is quite rare. (This is the opposite pattern to what is found in the implosive consonants, in which the bilabial is common and the velar is rare.) Ejective fricatives are rare for presumably the same reason: with the air escaping from the mouth while the pressure is being raised, like inflating a leaky bicycle tire, it's harder to make the resulting sound as salient as a [k’]. Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ...


Ejectives that contrast with pulmonic consonants occur in about 15% of languages around the world. They are extremely common in northwest North America, and frequently occur throughout the western parts of both North and South America. They are also common in eastern and southern Africa. In Eurasia, the Caucasus form an island of ejective languages. Elsewhere they are rare. Jump to: navigation, search The Caucasus , a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


Language families which distinguish ejective consonants include all three Caucasian families (Circassian, Dagestanian and Kartvelian (Georgian)); the Athabaskan and Salishan families of North America, along with the many diverse families of the Pacific Northwest from central California to British Columbia; the Mayan family and Aymara; the Afro-Asiatic family (notably Amharic and Hausa) and Nilo-Saharan languages; and the Khoisan family of southern Africa. Among the scattered languages with ejectives elsewhere are Itelmen of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages and Yapese of the Austronesian family. The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic or Abkhaz-Adyg/Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in Caucasian Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Kabardino-Balkaria (an autonomous republic in Russia) and Abkhazia ( de facto independent formally an autonomous republic in Georgia). ... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, or Dagestan, are a family of languages spoken mostly in Dagestan, Northern Azerbaijan and Georgia. ... The South Caucasian languages, also called the Kartvelian languages, are spoken primarily in Georgia, with smaller groups of speakers in Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia, Ukraine and other countries. ... Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, and of their language family. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... Jump to: navigation, search State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Splendour without diminishment) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Area 944,735 km² (5th) • Land 925,186 km² • Water 19,549 km² (2. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Mayan languages are a family of related languages spoken from southeastern Mexico through northern Central America as far south as Honduras. ... Help wikipedia by translating [Spanish article] into this article. ... Jump to: navigation, search Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... Amharic (አማርኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... Map showing the distribution of the Nilo-Saharan languages. ... Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ... Jump to: navigation, search Itelmen, also sometimes known as Kamchadal, is a language belonging to the Chukotko-Kamchatkan family traditionally spoken in the Kamchatka Peninsula. ... The Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages are a language family of Siberia. ... Yapese is a language spoken by 6,600 people on the island of Yap (Federated States of Micronesia). ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ...


The vast majority of ejective consonants noted in the world's languages consists of plosives or affricates, and all ejective consonants are obstruents. Among affricates, [ts’, tʃ’, tɬ’] are all quite common, and [kx’] is not unusual (at least among the Khoisan languages). A few languages utilise ejective fricatives: in some dialects of Hausa, the standard affricate [ts’] is a fricative [s’]; Ubykh (Northwest Caucasian) has an ejective lateral fricative; the Upper Necaxa dialect of the Totonac language has an ejective labiodental fricative; and Kabardian uses both of these in addition to ejective alveolopalatal and postalveolar fricatives. Tlingit is another extreme case, with ejective alveolar, lateral, velar, and uvular fricatives; it may be the only language with the latter. A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Totonac are a Native American people in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. ... The Kabardian language is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ... The Tlingit (Lingít) language is the language of the Tlingit people of Southeast Alaska and Western Canada. ...


Strangely, although an ejective retroflex stop is easy to make and quite distinctive in its sound, it is quite rare. Retroflex ejective plosives and affricates, [ʈ’, ʈʂ’], are reported from Yawelmani and other Yokuts languages, however. Jump to: navigation, search Yawelmani (also Yowlumni) is an endangered Yokutsan language spoken in California by the Yawelmani people. ... Yokutsan (also Yokuts) is a family of languages spoken in the interior of southern California in and around the San Joaquin valley. ...


Ejective sonorants do not occur. When sonorants are written as if they were ejective, they actually involve a different airstream mechanism: they are glottalized consonants and vowels, where glottalization interrupts an otherwise normal pulmonic airstream, somewhat like English uh-uh (either vocalic or nasal) pronounced as a single sound. In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a member of a class of speech sounds that are continuants produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... A glottalic consonant is a consonant produced with some important contribution (a movement, a closure) of the glottis (the opening that leads from the nose and mouth cavities into the larynx and the lungs). ...


Sample list of ejective consonants:

  • [p’] listen (?)
  • [t’] listen (?)
  • [k’] listen (?)
  • [q’] listen (?)
  • [s’] listen (?)

Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Bilabial_ejective_plosive. ... Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Alveolar_ejective_plosive. ... Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Velar_ejective_plosive. ... Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Uvular_ejective_plosive. ... Image File history File links Alveolar ejective fricative. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ejective consonant - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (596 words)
Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language.
Ejectives are voiceless consonants that are pronounced with simultaneous closure of the glottis.
Among the scattered languages with ejectives elsewhere are Itelmen of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages and Yapese of the Austronesian family.
Lateral consonant - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (614 words)
Laterals are "L"-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue.
The other variant, so-called dark l found before consonants or word-finally, as in bold or tell, is pronounced as the velarized alveolar lateral approximant [ɫ] with the tongue assuming a spoon-like shape with its back part raised, which gives the sound a [w]- or [ʟ]-like resonance.
Rarer lateral consonants include the retroflex laterals that can be found in most Indic languages; and the sound of Welsh ll, the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ] that is also found in Zulu and many Native American languages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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