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Encyclopedia > Eisenach, Germany
Coat of Arms Map
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Map of Germany showing Eisenach
Statistics
State: Thuringia
District: Independent city
Area: 103.85 km²
Population: 44,129 (31 December 2002)
Population density: 425/km²
Elevation: 220 m
Postal code: 99801-99817
Area/distance code: 036-91
Municipal code: 16056000
Car designation: EA
Arrangement of the city: 10 districts
Address of the city administration: 2 Markt
Eisenach 99817
Website: www.eisenach.de

Eisenach is a city in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated between the northern foothills of the Thuringian Forest and the Hainich National Park. Population: 44,200 (2001). Image File history File links Eisenach-Coat_of_Arms. ... Image File history File links Eisenach-Coat_of_Arms. ... Credit: Arne Klempert & Thomas Mack License: LGPL Source: http://www. ... Germany is a federal republic made up of 16 states, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... The Free State of Thuringia (German Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 sq. ... There are 439 German districts, administrative units in Germany. ... An independent city is a city that does not form part of another local government entity. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... German Postleitzahl map of the first two digits Postal codes in Germany, known as Postleitzahl (pl. ... Area codes in Germany (German Vorwahl) have from two to five digits, not counting the leading zero. ... License plates in Germany show the place where the car carrying them is registered. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 sq. ... The Thuringian Forest (Thüringer Wald in German language) running northwest to southeast, forms a continuous stretch of rounded hills in the German state of Thuringia. ...

Contents


History

The history of Eisenach is linked with the Wartburg castle, which was built according to legend in 1067. There were at least three settlements below the castle, that merged to a common city in the second half of the 12th century. This town, Eisenach, was first mentioned in 1180. Wartburg in Eisenach Wartburg Castle is situated on a 1230-foot (410 m) precipitous hill to the southwest of and overlooking the town of Eisenach in Thuringia. ... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between...

Wartburg in Eisenach
Wartburg in Eisenach

Several now legendary events took place on the Wartburg in the following decades, best known is the "Singers' Contest on the Wartburg" (Sängerkrieg, which is part of the Tannhäuser legend). Download high resolution version (900x675, 112 KB)Wartburg in Eisenach File links The following pages link to this file: Martin Luther Tannhäuser Wartburg Castle Images of castles Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (900x675, 112 KB)Wartburg in Eisenach File links The following pages link to this file: Martin Luther Tannhäuser Wartburg Castle Images of castles Categories: GFDL images ... In the Venusberg by John Collier, 1901: a gilded setting that is distinctly Italian quattrocento. ...


After the Thuringian War of Succession (1247-1264) Eisenach became subject to the Wettin dynasty of Meissen. Later several mini states were established in what is now Thuringia, and Eisenach became a principality on its own in 1521. In 1751 Eisenach lost its independency and became part of the duchy of Saxony-Weimar. Events Shams ad-Din disappears resulting in Jalal Uddin Rumi writing 30,000 verses of poetry about his disappearance. ... Events May 12 - The Battle of Lewes begins (ends May 14). ... The Wettin dynasty of German counts, dukes, Prince Electors (Kurfürsten) and kings ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding for a time the kingship of Poland. ... Old town of Meißen. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ...


Eisenach was the place where Martin Luther lived as a child, although he was not born there, and later for his receiving protection by Frederick the Wise after having been pursued for his religious views. It was while he was staying at Wartburg Castle that he translated the New Testament into German. Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Friedrich III (January 17, 1463 — May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ...


The town is famous as the birthplace of Johann Sebastian Bach as well. The 1748 Haussmann portrait of the composer. ...


The Social Democratic Party of Germany was founded in 1869 in Eisenach. SPD redirects here. ... 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Economy

Automobile manufacturing is an important part of Eisenach economy: A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ...

  • Opel, as part of the overseas operations of General Motors Corporation built an entirely new plant in the northwest of the town, after the Wartburg cars plant had ceased operations in 1989. The plant opened in 1992 and was toured by President Clinton, accompanied by Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl in May 1998 as a token of American support in the redevelopment of the Eastern part of Germany.
  • BMW manufactures tools and Bosch has even a plant in the town

Opel, originally and more correctly known as Adam Opel AG is an automobile maker in Germany. ... General Motors Corporation NYSE: GM, also known as GM, is a United States-based automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Wartburg 311: in production between 1956 and 1965 Wartburg 312: in production in 1965. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe, III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. ... Dr. Helmut Kohl (full name Helmut Josef Michael Kohl) (born 3 April 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... 1998(MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... BMW AG (an abbreviation for Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, or in English, Bavarian Motor Works), is a German company and manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles. ... Bosch is the colloquial short name for the German company Robert Bosch GmbH, as well as the last name of: Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516) - Dutch painter Robert Bosch (1861-1942) - German industrialist Carl Bosch (1874-1940) - German chemist and engineer Juan Bosch (1909-2001) - Dominican politician and writer Orlando Bosch...

Districts

  • Berteroda
  • Hötzelsroda
  • Madelungen
  • Neuenhof-Hörschel
  • Neukirchen
  • Stockhausen
  • Stedtfeld
  • Stregda
  • Wartha-Göringen

Twinnings

Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Ford Taurus, one of the most recognizable sedans built to date. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Waverly is a city located in Bremer County, Iowa. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Skanderborg is a municipality in central Denmark, in the county of Aarhus, on the peninsula of Jutland. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Mahilyow, or Mahiloŭ (Belarusian: Магілёў; | Mahiloŭ Russian: Могилёв (Mogilyov), Polish Mohylew or Mogilew) is a city in the eastern Belarus, close to the border to Russia with about 300,000 inhabitants. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...

Sights

Dwelling house of Martin Luther
Dwelling house of Martin Luther

The Wartburg castle is by far the most popular tourist attraction. Following is a selection of other sights in Eisenach: Dwelling house of Martin Luther File links The following pages link to this file: Martin Luther Eisenach, Germany Timber framing Categories: GFDL images ... Dwelling house of Martin Luther File links The following pages link to this file: Martin Luther Eisenach, Germany Timber framing Categories: GFDL images ... Wartburg in Eisenach Wartburg Castle is situated on a 1230-foot (410 m) precipitous hill to the southwest of and overlooking the town of Eisenach in Thuringia. ...


Open spaces in the city centre

Karlsplatz: adjoins the Nikolaikirche (Church of St. Nicholas) and the Nikolaitor ( St. Nicholas Gate), the only surviving city gate in the town.


Marktplatz: the market square with the Georgenkirche (the Church of St. George), the town hall, the Baroque city castle, as well as a number of highly decorative administration buildings and merchants’ houses. It also features the gilded market fountain designed by Hans Leonardt in 1549, of St George, the patron saint of Eisenach.


Jakobsplan: named after a chapel destroyed by fire in the Middle Ages. Jakobsplan comprises a monument to St George in the centre of the square, part of the old town walls (including one of the look-out towers, and the Goethe Garden


Frauenplan: a small courtyard-type square that takes its name from the “Church of Our Lady”. The church was demolished for local defence strategies in 1306. Today Frauenplan is the location of the Bachhaus and the Bach Monument in front of it.


Stadtschloss

The Stadtschloss (town palace) is situated at the north end of the Market place and was built between 1742 and 1745. This palace was constructed to the plans of Gottfried Heinrich Krohne, architect of Duke Ernest-August Saxe-Weimar. Later J.W. von Goethe frequently stayed here in his capacity as a Weimar minister from 1777 . Today the Stadtschloss acts as a venue for special exhibitions and as a museum for artistic and historical artifacts from Thuringia.


Rathaus or town hall

This former wine cellar on the market square became the townhall of Eisenach in 1596. The building, having been destroyed by fire in 1636, was rebuilt in 1641. The southern part of the complex suffered considerable damage in a bombing raid in 1945 during WW2. It was renovated in 1996 and it now houses the city administration offices and is connected to a savings bank.


Kreuznacher House and dukal residence

Remnants of an early Renaissance building, originally built by the merchant Kreuznacher in 1539, featuring a tower with spiral stairs, and later owned by Duke Ernst August, who between 1741 and 1743 had the building dismantled and taken stone by stone to construct the Stadtschloss from it . After reconstruction, today the house holds the tourist office of Eisenach.


Luther House

The Lutherhaus is one of the oldest and most picturesque half-timbered buildings remaining in Eisenach. Martin Luther is said to have lived here as a pupil during his school days in Eisenach from 1498-1501. Currently, this house is a museum featuring multimedia exhibits relating to the period. The museum is split into five parts where one can see an illustration of Luther’s life and times as well as his teachings. Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ...


Bach Monument

Financed by other well-known musicians, the more-than-life-size figure portrays Johann Sebastian Bach in his St Thomas’s choir-master’s clothes and wig. The monument was constructed in 1884 by Adolf von Donndorf and is situated on the Frauenplan next to the Bachhaus.


Bach House

The Bachhaus was the first museum world-wide to be dedicated to the life and work of Johann Sebastian Bach in 1907. The house is over 600 years old and is said to be the house where Bach was born on March 21, 1685. Today, the museum holds several artifacts and a variety of 18th and 19th century music instruments.


“Goldener Löwe” memorial site

On August 7, 1869 the Social Democratic Worker’s Party (later to become the Social-Democratic Party of Germany) was founded at this site. There are three permanent exhibitions as well as an archival library that may bevisited by visitors. The August Bebel Society offers lectures and seminars on topics of historical and current political interest.


Reuter-Wagner-Museum

Built by Ludwig Bohnstedt between 1866 and 1868, this neo-classical house was the home of Fritz Reuter, a famous poet of the Low German dialect. After his death his home was acquired by the town and now the building also contains the second-largest Richard Wagner exhibition in the world.


Kartaus Garden and Wandelhalle

The attractive garden is all that remains of the original Carthusian monastery, that was consecrated to St.Elisabeth in 1380. In 1700 it became a royal kitchen garden and during the time of Goethe was changed into a park of natural beauty. Today visitors are attracted by its variety of trees, manicured paths and flower beds. The “Wandelhalle” (covered walk and foyer) was originally intended as a pump room to a spa planned for Eisenach that never materialised.


The Narrow House

This house is believed to be the narrowest half-timbered house in Germany. It was built before 1750 and is only 2.05 meters wide. Inside visitors can view a small variety of pictures, sculptures and historical furniture.


Luther Monument

Located on Karlsplatz, the monument to Martin Luther was designed by Adolf von Donndorf and was dedicated on May 4, 1895 on the 374th anniversary of Luther’s arrival at Wartburg Castle. The more-than-life-size statue of Martin Luther on a pedestal also has reliefs depicting several events in his life leading up to and including his stay in Eisenach as well as the title of one of his most famous hymns, “A Mighty Fortress is Our God.”


Nikolaikirche (Nikolai Church)

The Nikolai church, located on the Karlsplatz, is dedicated to St Nicholas and adjoins the former city gate , the Nikolaitor, which is the only one remaining of the original five gates. The church served as the parish for the Benedictine convent located in the area. This triple-naved basilica was built in 1180 and is considered the last example of the Romanesque architecture in Thuringia.


Georgenkirche (Church of St George)

The church at the market square, was first built in the 12th century and later reconstructed in Baroque style (the tower was added even later in 1902). Historically, St Elisabeth was married there to Landgrave Ludwig IV in 1221, and Johann Sebastian Bach was baptized in the church in the 17th century.


Eisenach Theatre

The state theatre was established by Julius von Eichel-Streiber in 1879 and constructed to the design of the Leipzig architect Karl Weichardt. It was later renovated in 1993. This theatre holds an audience of 600 and has two balconies. The theatre has a full schedule of plays, concerts, operas, and ballets.


Monument to the Student Fraternities (Burschenschaftsdenkmal)

Built in 1902, the monument stands on a hill opposite the Wartburg Castle in memory of the members of the student movement and others who were killed in the struggle for a united Germany between 1864 to 1871. The monument, that reaches a height of 33 meters and proclaims “Honour, Freedom, and Fatherland,” was dedicated on May 22, 1902 and was extended to honour those who fell in World War I in 1933. Since unification, fraternities continue to meet in Eisenach in memory of the demonstrations held at the Wartburg Castle.


Hauptbahnof (Main Station)

Reconstructed in 1904 in a massive Wilhelminian Gründerzeit style, it has remarkable stained glass windows. At the street side the window depicts the history of the watch-making industries in the vicinity of Eisenach and on the rail side the automobile manufacturing traditions of Eisenach. The Gründerzeit (German, literally: the Founding Epoch) denotes the first decades after the foundation in 1871 of the Prussia-led German Empire. ...


External link

  • Official website (German, English)
  • Info-Portal EisenachOnline (in German)
  • Burschenschaftsdenkmal (in German)
  • Lokalradio Wartburg-Radio 96,5 (in German)
  • Landestheater Eisenach (in German)

References

Eisenach; Sachbuchverlag Karin Mader; Text: Martina Wengierek; ISBN 3-921957-37-0


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eisenach, Germany (286 words)
The history of Eisenach is linked with the Wartburg castle, which was according to legend built in 1067.
In 1751 Eisenach lost its independency and became part of the duchy of Saxony-Weimar[?].
Eisenach was the place where Martin Luther lived as a child, although he was not born there, and later for his receiving protection after having been pursued for his religious views.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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