FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Einstein" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Einstein
 This page is protected from editing until disputes have been resolved. Please discuss changes on the talk page or request unprotection. (Protection is not an endorsement of the current page version.)
"Einstein" redirects here. For other uses, see Einstein (disambiguation).
Albert Einstein, photographed by Yousuf Karsh in 1948.
Albert Einstein, photographed by Yousuf Karsh in 1948.

Albert Einstein (German pronunciation ) (March 14, 1879April 18, 1955) was a theoretical physicist widely regarded as the most important scientist of the 20th century. He independently developed the special and general theories of relativity and made significant contributions to quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and cosmology. He was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect in 1905 (his "wonderful year") and "for his services to Theoretical Physics". Image File history File links Padlock. ... A number of topics are named Einstein; most are related to the noted physicist Albert Einstein. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x625, 61 KB) Description: Albert Einstein, gelatin silver print Source: Library and Archives Canada Date: 1948-02-11 Author: Karsh, Yousuf Permission: Restrictions on use/reproduction: Nil, Copyright: expired Other versions of this file: File links The following pages link to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x625, 61 KB) Description: Albert Einstein, gelatin silver print Source: Library and Archives Canada Date: 1948-02-11 Author: Karsh, Yousuf Permission: Restrictions on use/reproduction: Nil, Copyright: expired Other versions of this file: File links The following pages link to... Yousuf Karsh - Self portrait Yousuf Karsh, CC (December 23, 1908 – July 13, 2002) a Canadian photographer of ethnic-Armenian birth, and one the world’s best known portraitists of his time. ... Image File history File links Albert_Einstein. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions, as opposed to experimental physics, in an attempt to understand Nature. ... The physicist Albert Einstein is probably historys most widely recognized scientist. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to Special relativity. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to General relativity. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to Quantum mechanics. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of statistics, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Cosmology, as a branch of astrophysics, is the study of the large-scale structure of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from matter upon the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as ultraviolet radiation or x-rays. ... Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Annus mirabilis, Latin for year of wonders) are the papers of Albert Einstein submitted to the Annalen der Physik journal in 1905. ...


After British solar eclipse expeditions in 1919 confirmed that light rays from distant stars were deflected by the gravity of the Sun in the amount he had predicted in his theory of relativity, Einstein became world-famous, an unusual achievement for a scientist. In his later years, his fame perhaps exceeded that of any other scientist in history. In popular culture, his name has become synonymous with great intelligence and genius. Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... The Pleiades star cluster A star is a massive body of plasma in outer space that is currently producing or has produced energy through nuclear fusion. ... In physics, gravitation or gravity is the tendency of objects with mass to accelerate toward each other. ... The Sun is the star at the center of Earths solar system. ... The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanitys understanding of science and technology has changed over the millennia. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in any given society. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... A genius is a person with distinguished mental abilities This can manifest either as a foremost intellect, or as an outstanding creative talent. ...

Contents

Biography

Youth and college

Young Albert before the Einsteins moved from Germany to Italy.
Young Albert before the Einsteins moved from Germany to Italy.

Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in the city of Ulm in Württemberg, Germany, about 100 km east of Stuttgart. His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman who later ran an electrochemical works, and Pauline, née Koch. They were married in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt. The family was Jewish (non-observant); Albert attended a Catholic elementary school and, at the insistence of his mother, was given violin lessons. Though he initially disliked the lessons, and eventually discontinued them, he would later take great solace in Mozart's violin sonatas. Download high resolution version (1542x1364, 353 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Albert Einstein Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (1542x1364, 353 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Albert Einstein Categories: U.S. history images ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ulm is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Danube, about 100 km south-east of Stuttgart and 130 km north-west of Munich. ... Württemberg (often spelled Wurttemberg in English) refers to an area and a former state in Swabia, a region in south-western Germany. ... Stuttgart, a city located in southern Germany, is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of approximately 590,000 as of September 2005 in the city and around 3 million in the metropolitan area. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic education. ... A violin The violin is a bowed stringed musical instrument that has four strings tuned a perfect fifth apart. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant and enduringly popular composers of European classical music. ... A violin sonata is a musical composition for solo violin, often (but not always) accompanied by a piano or other keyboard instrument, or by figured bass in the Baroque. ...


When Einstein was five, his father showed him a pocket compass, and Einstein realized that something in "empty" space acted upon the needle; he would later describe the experience as one of the most revelatory of his life. He built models and mechanical devices for fun and showed great mathematical ability early on. Compass in a wooden box A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the earth. ... A physical model is used in various contexts to mean a physical representation of some thing. ... Wind turbines A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ...


In 1889, a medical student named Max Talmud (later: Talmey) introduced Einstein to key science and philosophy texts, including Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Two of his uncles would further foster his intellectual interests during his late childhood and early adolescence by recommending and providing books on science, mathematics and philosophy. Philosopher in Meditation (detail), by Rembrandt. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... This article or section is incomplete and may require cleanup and/or expansion. ...


Einstein attended the Luitpold Gymnasium, where he received a relatively progressive education. He began to learn mathematics around age twelve; in 1891, he taught himself Euclidean plane geometry from a school booklet and began to study calculus. While at the Gymnasium, he clashed with authority and resented the school regimen, believing that the spirit of learning and creative thought were lost in such endeavors as strict memorization. The Luitpold Gymnasium is a secondary school in Munich, Germany. ... Euclid, a famous Greek mathematician known as the father of geometry, is shown here in detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Euclid Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system due to the Hellenistic mathematician Euclid of Egypt. ... Calculus is a central branch of mathematics, developed from algebra and geometry. ... Rote learning, is a learning technique which avoids grasping the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. ...


In 1894, following the failure of Hermann Einstein's electrochemical business, the Einsteins moved from Munich to Pavia, a city in Italy near Milan. Einstein's first scientific work, called "The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields", was written contemporaneously. Albert remained behind in Munich lodgings to finish school, completing only one term before leaving the gymnasium in the spring of 1895 to rejoin his family in Pavia. He quit a year and a half prior to final examinations without telling his parents, convincing the school to let him go with a medical note from a friendly doctor, but this meant that he had no secondary-school certificate.[1] That year, at the age of 16, he performed the thought experiment known as "Albert Einstein's mirror". After gazing into a mirror, he examined what would happen to his image if he were moving at the speed of light; his conclusion, that the speed of light is independent of the observer, would later become one of the two postulates of special relativity. Munich (German: München, (pronounced listen) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its... Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese: Milán) is the main city of northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed region in Italy. ... Alchemy, natural philosophy, and early modern physics proposed the existance of aether (also spelled ether, from the Latin word aether, meaning upper air [1]), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium. ... Current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field (B, labeled M here) around the wire. ... A gymnasium (pronounced /gim-/ as opposed to /jim-/) is a type of school of secondary education in parts of Europe. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is denoted by the letter c. ... See also: Special relativity Postulates of special relativity 1. ...


Although he was expelled in the mathematics and science portion of the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in Zürich) entrance exam the following year, his failure of the liberal arts portion was a setback; his family sent him to Aarau, Switzerland to finish secondary school, and it became clear that he was not going to be an electrical engineer as his father intended for him. There, he studied the seldom-taught Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and received his diploma in September 1896. During this time, he lodged with Professor Jost Winteler's family and became enamoured with Marie, their daughter and his first sweetheart. Einstein's sister, Maja, who was perhaps his closest confidant, was to later marry their son, Paul, and his friend, Michele Besso, married their other daughter, Anna.[2] Einstein subsequently enrolled at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule in October and moved to Zürich, while Marie moved to Olsberg, Switzerland for a teaching post. The same year, he renounced his Württemberg citizenship and became stateless. The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland (German pronunciation IPA: ; in English often Zurich, without the umlaut) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Aarau Location within Switzerland Aarau is the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau. ... This article treats electronics engineering as a subfield of electrical engineering, though this is not typical use in some areas. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematical physicist, born in Edinburgh. ... Classical electrodynamics (or classical electromagnetism) is a theory of electromagnetism that was developed over the course of the 19th century, most prominently by James Clerk Maxwell. ... Coat of arms of Olsberg Olsberg is a commune in Rheinfelden district in Aargau, Switzerland. ... Württemberg (often spelled Wurttemberg in English) refers to an area and a former state in Swabia, a region in south-western Germany. ... A stateless person is someone with no state or nationality, sometimes because the state that gave their previous nationality has ceased to exist and there is no successor state. ...


In the spring of 1896, the Serbian Mileva Marić started initially as a medical student at the University of Zurich, but after a term switched to the same section as Einstein as the only woman that year to study for the same diploma. Einstein's relationship with Marić developed into romance over the next few years, which Einstein's family opposed based on the fact that she was not Jewish, older, and physically "defective."[3] Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia      â€“ Vojvodina      â€“ Kosovo (UN admin. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The University of Zurich (in German: Universität Zürich) is the largest university of Switzerland, in the city of Zurich. ...


In 1900, Einstein was granted a teaching diploma by the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH Zurich). Einstein then wrote his first published paper, on the capillary forces of a drinking straw, titled "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen", which translated is "Consequences of the observations of capillarity phenomena" (found in "Annalen der Physik" volume 4, page 513). In it, he tried to unify the laws of physics, an attempt he would continually make throughout his life. Through his friend Michelle Besso, an engineer, Einstein was presented with the works of Ernst Mach, and would later consider him "the best sounding board in Europe" for physical ideas. During this time, Einstein discussed his scientific interests with a group of close friends, including Besso and Marić. The men referred to themselves as the "Olympia Academy". Einstein and Marić had a daughter out of wedlock, Lieserl Einstein, born in January 1902. Her fate is unknown; some believe she died in infancy, while others believe she was given out for adoption. The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. ... Capillary action or capillarity (also known as capillary motion) is the ability of a narrow tube to draw a liquid upwards against the force of gravity. ... A physical law, scientific law, or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations of physical behavior. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... Lieserl Einstein (late January, 1902 - September, 1903) was the first child of physicist Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić and, according to some sources, died in infancy. ...


Work and doctorate

Einstein in 1905, when he wrote the "Annus Mirabilis Papers"
Einstein in 1905, when he wrote the "Annus Mirabilis Papers"

Upon graduation, Einstein could not find a teaching post, mostly because his brashness as a young man had apparently irritated most of his professors. The father of a classmate helped him obtain employment as a technical assistant examiner at the Swiss Patent Office[4] in 1902. There, Einstein judged the worth of inventors' patent applications for devices that required a knowledge of physics to understand — in particular he was chiefly charged to evaluate patents relating to electromagnetic devices.[5] He also learned how to discern the essence of applications despite sometimes poor descriptions, and was taught by the director how "to express [him]self correctly". He occasionally rectified their design errors while evaluating the practicality of their work. Albert Einstein, ca. ... Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Annus mirabilis, Latin for year of wonders) are the papers of Albert Einstein submitted to the Annalen der Physik journal in 1905. ... A patent clerk or patent examiner is an employee, usually a civil servant, working within a patent office. ... An inventor is a person who creates new inventions, typically technical devices such as mechanical, electrical or software devices or methods. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a government to an inventor or applicant for a limited amount of time (normally maximum 20 years from the filing date, depending on extension). ...


Einstein married Mileva Marić on January 6, 1903. Einstein's marriage to Marić, who was a mathematician, was both a personal and intellectual partnership: Einstein referred to Mileva as "a creature who is my equal and who is as strong and independent as I am". Ronald W. Clark, a biographer of Einstein, claimed that Einstein depended on the distance that existed in his and Mileva's marriage in order to have the solitude necessary to accomplish his work; he required intellectual isolation. Abram Joffe, a Soviet physicist who knew Einstein, in an obituary of Einstein, wrote, "The author of [the papers of 1905] was ... a bureaucrat at the Patent Office in Bern, Einstein-Marić" and this has recently been taken as evidence of a collaborative relationship. However, according to Alberto A. Martínez of the Center for Einstein Studies at Boston University, Joffe only ascribed authorship to Einstein, as he believed that it was a Swiss custom at the time to append the spouse's last name to the husband's name.[6] Whatever the truth, the extent of her influence on Einstein's work is a highly controversial and debated question. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Ronald William Clark (1916-1987) was a British author of biography and non-fiction. ... Joffe, Abram , 1880–1960, Soviet scientist, b. ... For the unrelated Jesuit university in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ...


In 1903, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office had been made permanent, though he was passed over for promotion until he had "fully mastered machine technology".[7] He obtained his doctorate after submitting his thesis "A new determination of molecular dimensions" ("Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen") in 1905.


That same year, in his spare time, he wrote four articles that participated in the foundation of modern physics, without much scientific literature to which he could refer or many scientific colleagues with whom he could discuss the theories. Most physicists agree that three of those papers (on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect, and special relativity) deserved Nobel Prizes. Only the paper on the photoelectric effect would be mentioned by the Nobel committee in the award. This is ironic, not only because Einstein is far better-known for relativity, but also because the photoelectric effect is a quantum phenomenon, and Einstein became somewhat disenchanted with the path quantum theory would take. Scientific literature is the totality of publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the sciences and social sciences. ... An example of 1000 simulated steps of Brownian motion in two dimensions. ... The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from matter upon the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as ultraviolet radiation or x-rays. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to Special relativity. ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to Quantum mechanics. ...

Max Planck presents Einstein with the Max-Planck medal, Berlin June 28, 1929
Enlarge
Max Planck presents Einstein with the Max-Planck medal, Berlin June 28, 1929

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (792x1184, 134 KB) de: Max Planck und Albert Einstein en: Max Planck and Albert Einstein Source: Ullstein-Verlag [1] says its made 1930, so I have doubt ist PD; No proof that the author is dead for 70 years; BTW... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (792x1184, 134 KB) de: Max Planck und Albert Einstein en: Max Planck and Albert Einstein Source: Ullstein-Verlag [1] says its made 1930, so I have doubt ist PD; No proof that the author is dead for 70 years; BTW... Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was one of the most important German physicists of the late 19th and early 20th century; he is considered to be the founder of quantum theory. ...

Annus Mirabilis Papers

For more details on this topic, see Annus Mirabilis Papers.

Einstein submitted this series of papers to the "Annalen der Physik". They are commonly referred to as the "Annus Mirabilis Papers" (from Annus mirabilis, Latin for 'year of wonders'). The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) commemorated the 100th year of the publication of Einstein's extensive work in 1905 as the 'World Year of Physics 2005'. Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Annus mirabilis, Latin for year of wonders) are the papers of Albert Einstein submitted to the Annalen der Physik journal in 1905. ... Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Annus mirabilis, Latin for year of wonders) are the papers of Albert Einstein submitted to the Annalen der Physik journal in 1905. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of Physics. ... The year 2005 has been named the World Year of Physics in recognition of the 100th anniversary of Albert Einsteins Miracle Year, in which he published three landmark papers, and the subsequent advances in the field of physics. ...


The first paper, named "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light", ("Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt") proposed that "energy quanta" (which are essentially what we now call photons) were real, and showed how they could be used to explain such phenomena as the photoelectric effect. This paper was specifically cited for his Nobel Prize. Max Planck had made the formal assumption that energy was quantized in deriving his black-body radiation law, published in 1901, but had considered this to be no more than a mathematical trick. The photoelectric effect thus provided a simple confirmation of Max Planck's hypothesis of quanta. In physics, the photon (from Greek φως, phōs, meaning light) is the quantum of the electromagnetic field; for instance, light. ... The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from matter upon the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as ultraviolet radiation or x-rays. ... Max Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was one of the most important German physicists of the late 19th and early 20th century; he is considered to be the founder of quantum theory. ...


His second article in 1905, named "On the Motion—Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat—of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", ("Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen") covered his study of Brownian motion, and provided empirical evidence for the existence of atoms. Before this paper, atoms were recognized as a useful concept, but physicists and chemists hotly debated whether atoms were real entities. Einstein's statistical discussion of atomic behavior gave experimentalists a way to count atoms by looking through an ordinary microscope. Wilhelm Ostwald, one of the leaders of the anti-atom school, later told Arnold Sommerfeld that he had been converted to a belief in atoms by Einstein's complete explanation of Brownian motion.[8] Uber die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme gefordete Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen, or On the Motion—Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat—of Small Particles Suspended in Stationary Liquid, was a journal article authored by Albert Einstein and published in Annalen der... An example of 1000 simulated steps of Brownian motion in two dimensions. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek άτομον meaning indivisible) is the smallest possible particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties. ... A physicist is a scientist trained in physics. ... Chemist Julie Perkins of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory pours from a Florence flask. ... A blanket term for all sorts of scientists engaged more in experimental activity than on the theoretical side of the various sciences. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Wilhelm Ostwald Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald) (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a German chemist. ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 – April 26, 1951) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ...


Einstein's third paper that year, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" ("Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper"), was published in September 1905. This paper introduced the special theory of relativity, a theory of time, distance, mass and energy which was consistent with electromagnetism, but omitted the force of gravity. While developing this paper, Einstein wrote to Mileva about "our work on relative motion", and this has led some to ask whether Mileva played a part in its development. A few historians of science believe that Einstein and his wife were both aware that the famous Frenchman Henri Poincaré had already published the equations of Relativity, a few weeks before Einstein submitted his paper; most believe their work was independent, especially given Einstein's isolation at this time. Similarly, it's debatable if he knew the 1904 paper of Lorentz which contained most of the theory and to which Poincaré referred. See also relativity priority dispute. For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to Special relativity. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, which exerts a force on those particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of such particles. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Henri Poincaré, photograph from the frontispiece of the 1913 edition of Last Thoughts Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912), generally known as Henri Poincaré, was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Albert Einstein presented the theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity in groundbreaking publications that did not include references to the work of others. ...


In a fourth paper, "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", ("Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?"), published late in 1905, he showed that from relativity's axioms, it is possible to deduce the famous equation which shows the equivalence between matter and energy. The energy equivalence (E) of some amount of mass (m) is that mass times the speed of light (c) squared: E = mc². An axiom is a sentence or proposition that is taken for granted as true, and serves as a starting point for deducing other truths. ... A display of the famous equation on Taipei 101 during the event of the World Year of Physics 2005. ...


Middle years

Einstein at the 1911 Solvay Conference.
Einstein at the 1911 Solvay Conference.

In 1906, Einstein was promoted to technical examiner second class. In 1908, Einstein was licensed in Bern, Switzerland, as a Privatdozent (unsalaried teacher at a university). During this time, Einstein described why the sky is blue in his paper on the phenomenon of critical opalescence, which shows the cumulative effect of scattering of light by individual molecules in the atmosphere.[9] In 1911, Einstein became first associate professor at the University of Zurich, and shortly afterwards full professor at the (German) University of Prague, only to return the following year to Zurich in order to become full professor at the ETH Zurich. At that time, he worked closely with the mathematician Marcel Grossmann. In 1912, Einstein started to refer to time as the fourth dimension (although H.G. Wells had done this earlier, in 1895 in The Time Machine). Image File history File links Crop of Albert Einstein at the first Solvay Conference, 1911. ... The portrait of participants to the first Solvay Conference in 1911. ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... Privatdozent (PD or Priv. ... Critical Opalescence is a phenomenon in liquids close to their critical point, in which a normally transparent liquid appears milky due to density fluctuations at all possible wavelengths. ... In particle physics, scattering is a class of phenomena by which particles are deflected by collisions with other particles. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... The University of Zurich (in German: Universität Zürich) is the largest university of Switzerland, in the city of Zurich. ... The Charles University of Prague (also simply University of Prague; Czech: Univerzita Karlova; Latin: Universitas Carolina) is the oldest and most prestigious Czech university and among the oldest universities in Europe, being founded in 1340s (for the exact year, see below). ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. ... Leonhard Euler is considered by many people to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is mathematics. ... Marcel Grossmann (born in Budapest on April 9th, 1878 - died in Zurich on September 7th, 1936) was a mathematician and a friend and classmate of Albert Einstein. ... A pocket watch. ... The concept of a fourth dimension is one that is often described in considering its physical implications; that is, we know that in three dimensions, we have dimensions of length (or depth), width, and height. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... The Time Machine is a novel by H. G. Wells, first published in 1895, later made into two films of the same title. ...


In 1914, just before the start of World War I, Einstein settled in Berlin as professor at the local university and became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. He took Prussian citizenship. From 1914 to 1933, he served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin. He also held the position of extraordinary professor at the University of Leiden from 1920 until 1946, where he regularly gave guest lectures. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der Künste Berlin) This is... Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1894-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa; Polish: ) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ...


In 1917, Einstein published "On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation" ("Zur Quantenmechanik der Strahlung", Physkalische Zeitschrift 18, 121-128). This article introduced the concept of stimulated emission, the physical principle that allows light amplification in the laser. He also published a paper that year that used the general theory of relativity to model the behavior of the entire universe, setting the stage for modern cosmology. In this work he created his self-described "worst blunder", the cosmological constant. In optics, stimulated emission is the process by which, when perturbed by a photon, matter may lose energy resulting in the creation of another photon. ... Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other high energy density physics experiments. ... Cosmology, as a branch of astrophysics, is the study of the large-scale structure of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. ... The cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) occurs in Einsteins theory of general relativity. ...


On May 14, 1904, Albert and Mileva's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born. Their second son, Eduard Einstein, was born on July 28, 1910. Hans Albert became a professor of hydraulic engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, having little interaction with his father, but sharing his love for sailing and music. Eduard, the younger brother, intended to practice as a Freudian analyst but was institutionalized for schizophrenia and died in an asylum. Einstein divorced Mileva on February 14, 1919, and married his cousin Elsa Löwenthal (born Einstein: Löwenthal was the surname of her first husband, Max) on June 2, 1919. Elsa was Albert's first cousin (maternally) and his second cousin (paternally). She was three years older than Albert, and had nursed him to health after he had suffered a partial nervous breakdown combined with a severe stomach ailment; there were no children from this marriage. May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hans Albert Einstein (May 14, 1904 – July 26, 1973) was a Professor of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, and the first son of renowned physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) and his first wife Mileva Marić (1875-1948). ... Eduard Einstein (July 28, 1910 – October 25, 1965) was the son of physicist Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić. Eduard suffered from schizophrenia and was essentially ignored by his father after being institutionalized. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Hydraulic engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as the University of California at Berkeley, UC Berkeley, Cal, California, or Berkeley) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... Psychoanalysis is the revelation of unconscious relations, in a systematic way through an associative process. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

"Einstein theory triumphs," declared the New York Times on November 10, 1919.
"Einstein theory triumphs," declared the New York Times on November 10, 1919.

Image File history File links Einstein_theory_triumphs. ... Image File history File links Einstein_theory_triumphs. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

General relativity

In November 1915, Einstein presented a series of lectures before the Prussian Academy of Sciences in which he described his theory of gravity, known as general relativity. The final lecture ended with his introduction of an equation that replaced Newton's law of gravity, the Field Equation.[10] This theory considered all observers to be equivalent, not only those moving at a uniform speed. In general relativity, gravity is no longer a force (as it is in Newton's law of gravity) but is a consequence of the curvature of space-time. Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to General relativity. ... Gravitation is the tendency of masses to move toward each other. ... In special relativity and general relativity, time and three-dimensional space are treated together as a single four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold called spacetime. ...


During a solar eclipse in 1919, Arthur Eddington supervised measurements of the bending of star light as it passed close to the Sun. This effect is called gravitational lensing and amounts to twice the Newtonian prediction. The observations were carried out in Sobral, Ceará, Brazil, as well as on the island of Principe, at the west coast of Africa. Eddington announced that the results confirmed Einstein's prediction and The Times reported that confirmation on November 7 of that year, thus cementing Einstein's fame. Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A gravitational lens is formed when the light from a very distant, bright source (such as a quasar) is bent around a massive object (such as a massive galaxy) between the source object and the observer. ... A general view of the citys downtown, as photographed from the seat of the city government A historical building in downtown Sobral Sobral is a city and municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil. ... The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, situated in the equatorial Atlantic about 300 and 250 kilometers (200 and 150 miles), respectively, off the northwestern coast of Gabon, constitute one of Africas smallest countries. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ...


Many scientists, in Germany in particular, were still unconvinced for various reasons ranging from disagreement with Einstein's interpretation of the experiments, to a belief that an absolute frame of reference was necessary. In Einstein's view, most of the objections were from experimentalists with very little understanding of the theory involved.[11] Einstein's public fame which followed the 1919 article created resentment among these scientists some of which lasted well into the 1930s.[12]


On March 30, 1921, Einstein went to New York to give a lecture on his new Theory of Relativity, the same year he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Though he is now most famous for his work on relativity, it was for his earlier work on the photoelectric effect that he was given the Prize, as his work on general relativity was still disputed. The Nobel committee decided that citing his less-contested theory in the Prize would gain more acceptance from the scientific community. March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in leap years). ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Big Apple, The Capital of the World[1], Gotham Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area    - City 1,214. ... The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from matter upon the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as ultraviolet radiation or x-rays. ...


The "Copenhagen" interpretation

Einstein and Niels Bohr sparred over quantum theory during the 1920s. Photo taken by Paul Ehrenfest during their visit to Leiden in December 1925
Einstein and Niels Bohr sparred over quantum theory during the 1920s. Photo taken by Paul Ehrenfest during their visit to Leiden in December 1925

Einstein postulated that light can be described not only as a wave with no kinetic energy, but also as massless discrete packets of energy called quanta with measurable kinetic energy (now known as photons). In 1909 Einstein presented his first paper on the quantification of light to a gathering of physicists and told them that they must find some way to understand waves and particles together. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1467x2123, 1676 KB) Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein Foto by Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933) originally uploaded to de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1467x2123, 1676 KB) Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein Foto by Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933) originally uploaded to de. ... Niels Bohr Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made essential contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics // Bohrs contributions to physics Bohrs model The electrons orbital angular momentum is quantized; L=nħ. The theory that electrons travel... Fig. ... Paul Ehrenfest Paul Ehrenfest (Vienna, January 18, 1880 – Amsterdam, September 25, 1933) was an Austrian physicist and mathematician, who obtained Dutch citizenship on March 24, 1922. ...


In the mid-1920s, as the original quantum theory was replaced with a new theory of quantum mechanics, Einstein balked at the Copenhagen interpretation of the new equations either because it settled for a probabilistic, non-visualizable account of physical behaviour, or because it described matter as being in necessarily contradictory states. However, Einstein agreed that the theory was the best available[citation needed], but he looked for a more "complete" explanation, i.e., either more deterministic or one that could more fundamentally explain the reason for probabilities in a logical way. He could not abandon the belief that physics described the laws that govern "real things", nor could he abandon the belief that there are no explanations that contain contradictions, which had driven him to his successes explaining photons, relativity, atoms, and gravity. For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to Quantum mechanics. ... The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg while collaborating in Copenhagen around 1927. ... Physicists have sometimes used the term determinism in a special way that people such as Karl Popper and Stephen Hawking have called scientific determinism. ...


In a 1926 letter to Max Born, Einstein made a remark that is now famous: Max Born Max Born (December 11, 1882 in Breslau - January 5, 1970 in Göttingen) was a mathematician and physicist. ...

Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. But an inner voice tells me it is not yet the real thing. The theory says a lot, but does not really bring us any closer to the secret of the Old One. I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not throw dice.

To this, Bohr, who sparred with Einstein on quantum theory, retorted, "Stop telling God what He must do!" The Bohr-Einstein debates on foundational aspects of quantum mechanics happened during the Solvay Conferences. Niels Bohr Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made essential contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics // Bohrs contributions to physics Bohrs model The electrons orbital angular momentum is quantized; L=nħ. The theory that electrons travel... The Bohr-Einstein debates on foundational aspects on quantum mechanics happened during the Solvay conferences. ... The portrait of participants to the first Solvay Conference in 1911. ...


Einstein was not rejecting probabilistic theories per se. Einstein himself was a great statistician[13], using statistical analysis in his works on Brownian motion and photoelectricity and in papers published before the miraculous year 1905; Einstein had even discovered Gibbs ensembles. He believed, however, that at the core reality behaved deterministically. Many physicists argue that experimental evidence contradicting this belief was found much later with the discovery of Bell's Theorem and Bell's inequality. Physicists have sometimes used the term determinism in a special way that people such as Karl Popper and Stephen Hawking have called scientific determinism. ... Bells theorem is the most famous legacy of the late John Bell. ... Bells theorem is the most famous legacy of the late John Bell. ...


Bose-Einstein statistics

In 1924, Einstein received a short paper from a young Indian physicist named Satyendra Nath Bose describing light as a gas of photons and asking for Einstein's assistance in publication. Einstein realized that the same statistics could be applied to atoms, and published an article in German (then the lingua franca of physics) which described Bose's model and explained its implications. Bose-Einstein statistics now describe any assembly of these indistinguishable particles known as bosons. The Bose-Einstein condensate phenomenon was predicted in the 1920s by Bose and Einstein, based on Bose's work on the statistical mechanics of photons, which was then formalized and generalized by Einstein. The first such condensate was produced by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman in 1995 at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Einstein's original sketches on this theory were recovered in August 2005 in the library of Leiden University.[14] Satyendra Nath Bose on an Indian stamp Satyendra Nath Bose /sɐθ.jin. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... In statistical mechanics, Bose-Einstein statistics determines the statistical distribution of identical indistinguishable bosons over the energy states in thermal equilibrium. ... Identical particles, or indistinguishable particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle. ... In physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles with integer spin. ... A Bose-Einstein condensate is a phase of matter formed by bosons cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero. ... Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is a physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize Bose-Einstein condensate in 1995. ... Carl Wieman (left) and Eric Cornell (right) on the University of Colorado at Boulder campus Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is an American physicist of the University of Colorado at Boulder who (with Eric Allin Cornell), in 1995, produced a Bose-Einstein condensate. ... The CU Boulder campus. ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ...


Einstein also assisted Erwin Schrödinger in the development of the quantum Boltzmann distribution, a mixed classical and quantum mechanical gas model although he realized that this was less significant than the Bose-Einstein model and declined to have his name included on the paper. Erwin Schrödinger, as depicted on the former Austrian 1000 Schilling bank note. ...


The Einstein refrigerator

Einstein and Szilárd's patent diagram for the Einstein Refrigerator.
Einstein and Szilárd's patent diagram for the Einstein Refrigerator.

Einstein and former student Leó Szilárd co-invented a unique type of refrigerator (usually called the Einstein refrigerator) in 1926.[15] On November 11, 1930, U.S. Patent 1,781,541 was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd. The patent covered a thermodynamic refrigeration cycle providing cooling with no moving parts, at a constant pressure, with only heat as an input. The refrigeration cycle used ammonia, butane, and water. Download high resolution version (640x1024, 63 KB)Einstein Refrigerator The text of U.S. patents is in the public domain [1]. Patent illustrations may be copyrighted, but U.S. patent regulations explicitly require applicants to allow the facsimile reproduction by any­one of the patent document or the patent disclosure... Download high resolution version (640x1024, 63 KB)Einstein Refrigerator The text of U.S. patents is in the public domain [1]. Patent illustrations may be copyrighted, but U.S. patent regulations explicitly require applicants to allow the facsimile reproduction by any­one of the patent document or the patent disclosure... Leó Szilárd (right) and Albert Einstein re-enact the signing of the famous letter to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... Einstein and Szilárds patent application. ... Leó Szilárd (right) and Albert Einstein re-enact the signing of the famous letter to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... It has been suggested that Refrigerator be merged into this article or section. ... Einstein and Szilárds patent application. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area acting on a surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface. ... In physics, heat is defined as energy in transit. ... Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Water has the chemical formula H2O, meaning that one molecule of water is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. ...


World War II

When Adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933, Einstein was a guest professor at Princeton University, a position which he took in December 1932, after an invitation from the American educator, Abraham Flexner. In 1933, the Nazis passed "The Law of the Restoration of the Civil Service" which forced all Jewish university professors out of their jobs, and throughout the 1930s a campaign to label Einstein's work as "Jewish physics"—in contrast with "German" or "Aryan physics"—was led by Nobel laureates Philipp Lenard and Johannes Stark. With the assistance of the SS, the Deutsche Physik supporters worked to publish pamphlets and textbooks denigrating Einstein's theories and attempted to politically blacklist German physicists who taught them, notably Werner Heisenberg. Einstein renounced his Prussian citizenship and stayed in the United States, where he was given permanent residency. He accepted a position at the newly founded Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton Township, New Jersey. He became an American citizen in 1940, though he still retained Swiss citizenship. Hitler redirects here. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Princeton University is a coeducational private university located on an extensive campus mostly in the Borough of Princeton and partly in the Princeton Township in New Jersey, United States. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Abraham Flexner (November 13, 1866-September 21, 1959) was an American educator. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (in German: Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums or short: Berufsbeamtengesetz), also known as Civil Service Law, Civil Service Restoration Act, and Law to Re-establish the Civil Service, was a law passed by the National Socialist regime on April 7... Philipp Lenard in 1905. ... Johannes Stark (April 15, 1874 – June 21, 1957) was a prominent 20th century physicist, and a Physics Nobel Prize laureate. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Deutsche Physik (literally: German Physics) or Aryan Physics was the name given to a reactionary movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s against the work of Albert Einstein, labeled Jewish Physics. ... A blacklist is a list or register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, or mobility. ... Werner Heisenberg Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study is a private institution in Princeton Township, New Jersey, U.S.A. (although it is not part of Princeton University), designed to foster pure cutting-edge research by scientists in a variety of fields without the complications of teaching or funding, or the... See also: the Borough of Princeton, New Jersey Princeton Township highlighted in Mercer County. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq. ...


In 1939, under the encouragement of Szilárd, Einstein sent a letter to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt urging the study of nuclear fission for military purposes, under fears that the Nazi government would be first to develop atomic weapons. Roosevelt started a small investigation into the matter which eventually became the massive Manhattan Project. Einstein himself did not work on the bomb project, however. Many years later, Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd re-enact the signing of the Einstein-Szilárd letter to Roosevelt. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the development of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation at the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ...


The International Rescue Committee was founded in 1933 at the request of Albert Einstein to assist opponents of Adolf Hitler. The International Rescue Committee was founded at the request of Albert Einstein to assist opponents of Adolf Hitler. ...


For more information, see the section below on Einstein's political views.


Institute for Advanced Study

His work at the Institute for Advanced Study focused on the unification of the laws of physics, which he referred to as the Unified Field Theory. He attempted to construct a model which would describe all of the fundamental forces as different manifestations of a single force. This took the form of an attempt to unify the gravitational and electrodynamic forces, but was hindered because the strong and weak nuclear forces were not understood independently until around 1970, 15 years after Einstein's death. Einstein's goal of unifying the laws of physics under a single model survives in the current drive for unification of the forces. A physical law, scientific law, or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations of physical behavior. ... A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ... The strong interaction or strong force is today understood to represent the interactions between quarks and gluons as detailed by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Generalized theory

Einstein began to form a generalized theory of gravitation with the Universal Law of Gravitation and the electromagnetic force in his first attempt to demonstrate the unification and simplification of the fundamental forces. In 1950 he described his work in a Scientific American article. Einstein was guided by a belief in a single statistical measure of variance for the entire set of physical laws. Einstein's Generalized Theory of Gravitation is a universal mathematical approach to field theory. He investigated reducing the different phenomena by the process of logic to something already known or evident. The generalized theory of gravitation was an attempt to unify gravity and electromagnetism. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published monthly since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ...


Einstein postulated a four-dimensional space-time continuum expressed in axioms represented by five component vectors. Particles appear in his research as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. Einstein treated subatomic particles as objects embedded in the unified field, influencing it and existing as an essential constituent of the unified field but not of it. Einstein also investigated a natural generalization of symmetrical tensor fields, treating the combination of two parts of the field as being a natural procedure of the total field and not the symmetrical and antisymmetrical parts separately. He researched a way to delineate the equations and systems to be derived from a variational principle. A variational principle is a principle in physics which is expressed in terms of the calculus of variations. ...


Einstein became increasingly isolated in his research on a generalized theory of gravitation and was ultimately unsuccessful in his attempts. In particular, his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces ignored work in the physics community at large, most notably the discovery of the strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force. The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ...

Einstein's two-story house, white frame with front porch in Greek revival style, in Princeton (112 Mercer Street).
Einstein's two-story house, white frame with front porch in Greek revival style, in Princeton (112 Mercer Street).

Image File history File links Einstein_house_in_Princeton. ... Image File history File links Einstein_house_in_Princeton. ... Personal residence of Catherine the Great Greek Revival was a style of classical architecture which became fashionable in Europe in the 18th century, and in the United Kingdom and United States in the early 19th century. ... Princeton, New Jersey, is the name of a section of Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. ...

Final years

In 1948, Einstein served on the original committee which resulted in the founding of Brandeis University. A portrait of Einstein was taken by Yousuf Karsh on February 11 of that same year. In 1952, the Israeli government proposed to Einstein that he take the post of second president. He declined the offer, and is believed to be the only United States citizen ever to have been offered a position as a foreign head of state. On March 30, 1953, Einstein released a revised unified field theory. Brandeis University is a private university in Waltham, Massachusetts. ... Yousuf Karsh - Self portrait Yousuf Karsh, CC (December 23, 1908 – July 13, 2002) a Canadian photographer of ethnic-Armenian birth, and one the world’s best known portraitists of his time. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in leap years). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


He died at 1:15 AM[16] in Princeton hospital[17] in Princeton, New Jersey, on April 18, 1955 at the age of 76 from internal bleeding, which was caused by the rupture of an aortic aneurism, leaving the Generalized Theory of Gravitation unsolved. The only person present at his deathbed, a hospital nurse, said that just before his death he mumbled several words in German that she did not understand. He was cremated without ceremony on the same day he died at Trenton, New Jersey, in accordance with his wishes. His ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location. Princeton, New Jersey, is the name of a section of Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location. ... The generalized theory of gravitation was an attempt to unify gravity and electromagnetism. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Flag Seal Location Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates , Government Country State County United States New Jersery Mercer County Founded circa 1719 Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Geographical characteristics Area     City 21. ...


An autopsy was performed on Einstein by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, who removed and preserved his brain. Harvey found nothing unusual with his brain, but in 1999 further analysis by a team at McMaster University revealed that his parietal operculum region was missing and, to compensate, his inferior parietal lobe was 15% wider than normal.[18] The inferior parietal region is responsible for mathematical thought, visuospatial cognition, and imagery of movement. Einstein's brain also contained 73% more glial cells than the average brain. Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey (born October 10, 1912) is a pathologist who conducted the autopsy on Albert Einstein in 1955. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... McMaster University is a medium-sized research-intensive university located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, with an enrollment of 18,238 full-time and 3,836 part-time students (as of 2006). ... The operculum is partly in the most posterior portion of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe in the brain. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ...


Personality

Religious views

Einstein was an Honorary Associate of the Rationalist Press Association beginning in 1934, and was an admirer of Ethical Culture.[19] He served on the advisory board of the First Humanist Society of New York.[20][21] The Rationalist Press Association is an organisation of the United Kingdom, founded on 26 May 1899 to promote freedom of thought and inquiry and the principles of rationalism, defined as the mental attitude which unreservedly accepts the supremacy of reason and aims at establishing a system of philosophy and ethics... The Ethical Culture Movement is a non-sectarian, ethico-religious and educational movement. ... In 1929 Charles Francis Potter founded the First Humanist Society of New York whose advisory board included Julian Huxley, John Dewey, Albert Einstein, and Thomas Mann. ...


To Einstein the word God meant the physical cosmos; therefore being potentially discoverable by science. He felt that society's traditional gods were too primitive for him in light of the standard models of cosmology and particle physics.[22] Cosmology, as a branch of astrophysics, is the study of the large-scale structure of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. ... A pie chart indicating the proportional composition of different energy-density components of the universe. ... The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory which describes the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental forces, as well as the fundamental particles that make up all matter. ...


Einstein once said: "My first religious training of any kind was in the Catholic catechism."[23] Also: "I came - though the child of entirely irreligious (Jewish) parents - to a deep religiousness, which, however, reached an abrupt end at the age of twelve."[24] As an adult, he called his religion a "cosmic religious sense".[25] For example: "What I see in Nature is a magnificent structure that we can comprehend only very imperfectly, and that must fill a thinking person with a feeling of 'humility.' This is a genuinely religious feeling that has nothing to do with mysticism."[26]


Einstein believed true theorists are sober-minded metaphysicists, saying: "I believe that every true theorist is a kind of tamed metaphysicist, no matter how pure a 'positivist' he may fancy himself. The metaphysicist believes that the logically simple is also the real. The tamed metaphysicist believes that not all that is logically simple is embodied in experienced reality, but that the totality of all sensory experience can be 'comprehended' on the basis of a conceptual system built on premises of great simplicity."[27] Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, rational empiricism, or neo-positivism) is a philosophy that combines positivism—which states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge—with a version of apriorism—the notion that some propositional knowledge can be had without, or “prior to”, experience. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Einstein postulated that time is pseudo-directional because randomness is always pseudorandom, i.e. the future is just as immutable as the past, saying: "The scientist is possessed by the sense of universal causation.The future, to him, is every whit as necessary and determined as the past."[28] A pseudo-random number is a number belonging to a sequence which appears to be random, but can in fact be generated by a finite computation. ... Block time is one way of approaching the problem of the nature of time. ...


He also once wrote: "People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion."[29] Consequently, he felt physical processes determined absolutely everything, including man's desires, see Physicalism. For example, he said: "I do not believe in freedom of the will. Schopenhauer's words: “ Man can do what he wants, but he cannot will what he wills ” accompany me in all situations throughout my life and reconcile me with the actions of others even if they are rather painful to me. This awareness of the lack of freedom of will preserves me from taking too seriously myself and my fellow men as acting and deciding individuals and from losing my temper."[30] Physicalism is the metaphysical position (associated particularly with Quine) that everything is physical; that is, that there are no kinds of things other than physical things. ...


While Bohr's Copenhagen Interpretation was intentionally mute on metaphysical issues, Einstein thought today's theories and technologies are not the last word, i.e. if the past is any indicator, theories and technologies will improve. Einstein's ability to find once hidden causalities decades before they were empirically proven exemplified his faith in sober-minded metaphysics. For example, decades before it could be empirically verified his General Relativity explained exactly how a clock with 1x10 − 16 second accuracy ticks faster with a minute increase in altitude.[31] The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg while collaborating in Copenhagen around 1927. ...


Political views

Einstein and Solomon Mikhoels, the chairman of the Soviet Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, in 1943.
Einstein and Solomon Mikhoels, the chairman of the Soviet Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, in 1943.

Einstein considered himself a pacifist[32] and humanitarian,[33] and in later years, a committed democratic socialist. He once said, "I believe Gandhi's views were the most enlightened of all the political men of our time. We should strive to do things in his spirit: not to use violence for fighting for our cause, but by non-participation of anything you believe is evil." Einstein's views on other issues, including socialism, McCarthyism and racism, were controversial. In a 1949 article entitled "Why Socialism?",[34] Albert Einstein described the "predatory phase of human development", exemplified by a chaotic capitalist society, as a source of evil to be overcome. He disapproved of the totalitarian regimes in the Soviet Union and elsewhere, and argued in favor of a democratic socialist system which would combine a planned economy with a deep respect for human rights. Einstein was a co-founder of the liberal German Democratic Party and a member of the AFL-CIO-affiliated union the American Federation of Teachers. Image File history File links copyright expired [[Category:U.S. history images] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links copyright expired [[Category:U.S. history images] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Young Mikhoels Solomon Mikhoels (real surname - Vovsi), Yiddish: ; Russian: (16 March [O.S. 4 March] 1890 - January 12/13, 1948) was a Soviet Jewish actor and director in Yiddish theater and the chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC, Russian language: Еврейский антифашистский комитет, ЕАК) was formed in Kuibyshev in April 1942 with the official support of the Soviet authorities. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... Humanitarianism is an informal ideology of practice, whereby people practice humane treatment and provide assistance to others. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... // Early life Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902) Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born into a Hindu Modh family in Porbandar, Gujarat, India in 1869. ... Sen. ... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water cooler at a racially segregated street car terminal in the United States in 1939. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Democratic socialism is a broad political movement propagating the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ... American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is Americas largest federation of unions, made up of 53 national and international (including Canadian) unions, together representing over 9 million workers. ... The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) is the smaller of the two education labor unions in the United States, representing 1. ...


Einstein was very much involved in the Civil Rights movement. He was a close friend of Paul Robeson for over 20 years. Einstein was a member of several civil rights groups (including the Princeton chapter of the NAACP) many of which were headed by Paul Robeson. He served as co-chair with Paul Robeson of the American Crusade to End Lynching. When W.E.B. DuBois was frivolously charged with being a communist spy during the McCarthy era while he was in his 80s, Einstein volunteered as a character witness in the case. The case was dismissed shortly after it was announced that he was to appear in that capacity. Einstein was quoted as saying that "racism is America's greatest disease". The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... USPS Black Heritage stamp Paul Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, and radical civil rights activist. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... USPS Black Heritage stamp Paul Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, and radical civil rights activist. ... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. ...


The U.S. FBI kept a 1,427 page file on his activities and recommended that he be barred from immigrating to the United States under the Alien Exclusion Act, alleging that Einstein "believes in, advises, advocates, or teaches a doctrine which, in a legal sense, as held by the courts in other cases, 'would allow anarchy to stalk in unmolested' and result in 'government in name only'", among other charges. They also alleged that Einstein "was a member, sponsor, or affiliated with thirty-four communist fronts between 1937-1954" and "also served as honorary chairman for three communist organizations".[35] It should be noted that many of the documents in the file were submitted to the FBI, mainly by civilian political groups, and not actually written by FBI officials. Official FBI Seal The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the federal criminal investigative and intelligence agency, which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... In the realist theory of International Relations, the anarchical system that all states find themselves in is the lack of clear organisation of states into a hieracical order that is found within states. ... communist party article. ...

In 1939, Einstein signed a letter, written by Leó Szilárd, to President Roosevelt arguing that the United States should start funding research into the development of nuclear weapons.
In 1939, Einstein signed a letter, written by Leó Szilárd, to President Roosevelt arguing that the United States should start funding research into the development of nuclear weapons.

Einstein opposed tyrannical forms of government, and for this reason (and his Jewish background), opposed the Nazi regime and fled Germany shortly after it came to power. At the same time, Einstein's anarchist nephew Carl Einstein, who shared many of his views, was fighting the fascists in the Spanish Civil War. Einstein initially favored construction of the atomic bomb, in order to ensure that Hitler did not do so first, and even sent a letter[36] to President Roosevelt (dated August 2, 1939, before World War II broke out, and probably written by Leó Szilárd) encouraging him to initiate a program to create a nuclear weapon. Roosevelt responded to this by setting up a committee for the investigation of using uranium as a weapon, which in a few years was superseded by the Manhattan Project. source: http://ma. ... source: http://ma. ... Leó Szilárd (right) and Albert Einstein re-enact the signing of the famous letter to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... FDR redirects here. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to opposing any form of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the State. ... Carl Einstein (aka Karl Einstein) was born on April 26, 1885, in Neuwied/Rhein, Germany and died July 3 or July 5, 1940. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Foreign volunteers Nationalist Spain Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 18, 1936 to April 1, 1939, was a conflict in which the incumbent Second Spanish Republic and political... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Hitler redirects here. ... FDR redirects here. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Leó Szilárd (right) and Albert Einstein re-enact the signing of the famous letter to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the development of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation at the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ...


After the war, though, Einstein lobbied for nuclear disarmament and a world government: "I do not know how the Third World War will be fought, but I can tell you what they will use in the Fourth—rocks!"[37] Nuclear disarmament is the proposed undeployment and dismantling of nuclear weapons particularly those the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ... World government is the concept of a political body that would make, interpret and enforce international law. ...

A 5 Israeli pound note from 1968 with the portrait of Einstein.
A 5 Israeli pound note from 1968 with the portrait of Einstein.

While Einstein was a supporter of Zionism in the cultural sense, he often expressed reservations regarding its application in terms of nationalism. During a speech at the Commodore Hotel in New York, he told the crowd "My awareness of the essential nature of Judaism resists the idea of a Jewish state with borders, an army, and a measure of temporal power, no matter how modest. I am afraid of the inner damage Judaism will sustain."[38] He also purchased a full-page ad in the New York Times condeming early Zionists for their treatment of the indigenous Arabs, not notable at Deir Yassin New York Times ad. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1146x562, 490 KB) Summary 5 Israeli pounds banknote with the portrait of Albert Einstein - 1968. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1146x562, 490 KB) Summary 5 Israeli pounds banknote with the portrait of Albert Einstein - 1968. ... 1 lira coin (1971–9) from World Coin Gallery. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), in small (down) text is written First Palestinian sound movie 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ...


Despite these reservations, he was active in the establishment of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, which published (1930) a volume titled About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein, and to which Einstein bequeathed his papers. In later life, in 1952, he was offered the post of second president of the newly created state of Israel, but declined the offer, saying that he lacked the necessary people skills. However, Einstein was deeply committed to the welfare of Israel and the Jewish people for the rest of his life. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds; Greek Ιεροσόλυμα; Latin Aelia Capitolina) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ...


Albert Einstein was closely associated with plans for what the press called "a Jewish-sponsored non-quota university," from August 19, 1946, with the announcement of the formation of the Albert Einstein Foundation for Higher Learning, Inc. until June 22, 1947, when he withdrew support and barred the use of his name by the foundation. The university opened in 1948 as Brandeis University. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Brandeis University is a private university in Waltham, Massachusetts. ...


Einstein, along with Albert Schweitzer and Bertrand Russell, fought against nuclear tests and bombs. As his last public act, and just days before his death, he signed the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, which led to the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. His letter to Russell read: Albert Schweitzer, Etching by Arthur William Heintzelman Dr. Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965) was a German theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on July 9, 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War. ... The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs is a scientifically-oriented peace group. ...

Dear Bertrand Russell,
Thank you for your letter of April 5. I am gladly willing to sign your excellent statement. I also agree with your choice of the prospective signers.
With kind regards, A. Einstein

Citizenship

Einstein was born a German citizen. At the age of 17, on January 28, 1896, he was released from his German citizenship by his own request and with the approval of his father. He remained stateless for five years. On February 21, 1901 he gained Swiss citizenship, which he never revoked. Einstein obtained Prussian citizenship in April 1914 when he entered the Prussian civil service, but due to the political situation and the persecution of Jewish people in Nazi Germany, he left civil service in March 1933 and thus also lost the Prussian citizenship. On October 1, 1940, Einstein became an American citizen. He remained both an American and a Swiss citizen until his death on April 18, 1955. January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A stateless person is someone with no state or nationality, sometimes because the state that gave their previous nationality has ceased to exist and there is no successor state. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... // Possession of Citizenship U.S. citizens have the right to participate in the political system of the United States (with reservations for prisoners, ex-prisoners, and naturalized persons), are represented and protected abroad by the United States (through U.S. embassies and consulates), and are allowed to reside in the... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Popularity and cultural impact

Einstein's popularity has led to widespread use of Einstein in advertising and merchandising, including the registration of "Albert Einstein" as a trademark. Advertising, generally speaking, is the promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas, usually performed by an identified sponsor. ... Merchandising is a marketing practice in which the brand or image from one product or service is used to sell another. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ...


Entertainment

Albert Einstein has become the subject of a number of novels, films and plays, including Jean-Claude Carrier's 2005 French novel, Einstein S'il Vous Plait (Please Mr Einstein), Nicolas Roeg's film Insignificance, Fred Schepisi's film I.Q., Alan Lightman's novel Einstein's Dreams, and Steve Martin's comedic play "Picasso at the Lapin Agile". He was the subject of Philip Glass's groundbreaking 1976 opera Einstein on the Beach. His humorous side is also the subject of Ed Metzger's one-man play Albert Einstein: The Practical Bohemian. He also appears in Command and Conquer strategy game series where he is still alive even in 1972. Film refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed. ... Nicolas Jack Roeg, born on August 15, 1928 in London, is an internationally-known cinematographer and film director. ... Insignificance is a 1985 motion picture drama/comedy directed by Nicolas Roeg and adapted by Terry Johnson from his play. ... Frederick Alan Schepisi (born 1939-12-26) is a film director and scriptwriter from Richmond, Victoria, Australia. ... I.Q. is a 1994 romantic comedy film directed by Fred Schepisi, starring Tim Robbins, Meg Ryan and Walter Matthau. ... Alan Lightman (born 1948) is a physicist, novelist, and essayist from Memphis, Tennessee. ... Steve Martin (right) with Scooter, on The Muppet Show Stephen Glenn Martin (born August 14, 1945) is an American comedian, writer, producer, actor, musician, and composer. ... Picasso at the Lapin Agile is a play written by Steve Martin in 1994. ... Philip Glass looks upon sheet music in a portrait taken by Annie Leibovitz. ... Sydney Opera House: one of the worlds most recognizable opera houses and landmarks Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Europe, in which the emotional content or primary entertainment is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the... Einstein on the Beach is an opera scored and written by the minimalist composer Philip Glass, and designed and directed by Robert Wilson. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Command & Conquer is a real-time strategy series of computer games released by the game developer Westwood Studios, now a part of Electronic Arts. ...


He is often used as a model for depictions of mad scientists and absent-minded professors in works of fiction; his own character and distinctive hairstyle suggest eccentricity, or even lunacy and are widely copied or exaggerated. TIME magazine writer Frederic Golden referred to Einstein as "a cartoonist's dream come true."[39] Caucasian, male, aging, bad teeth, worse hair, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing — A very stereotypical mad scientist. ... The absent-minded professor is a stock character of popular fiction usually portrayed as an academic with important information, but whose focus on their learning leads them to ignore their surroundings. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Notable Time magazine covers from the dates May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...


On Einstein's 72nd birthday in 1951, the UPI photographer Arthur Sasse was trying to coax him into smiling for the camera. Having done this for the photographer many times that day, Einstein stuck out his tongue instead.[40] The image has become an icon in pop culture for its contrast of the genius scientist displaying a moment of levity. Yahoo Serious, an Australian film maker, used the photo as an inspiration for the intentionally anachronistic movie Young Einstein. Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. United Press International (UPI) is a global news agency headquartered in the United States filing news in English, Spanish and Arabic. ... For other uses, see Yahoo. ... Young Einstein is a comedy movie starring Yahoo Serious, released in 1988. ...


He's also mentioned in Billy Joel's history themed song "We Didn't Start the Fire" as the first figure in the 7th stanza. Billy Joel was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1992 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1999. ... We Didnt Start the Fire is a song by Billy Joel which chronicles 120 well-known events, people, things, and places widely noted during his lifetime, from 1949 to 1989, when the song was released on his album Storm Front. ...


Mythology

There are innumerable legends suggesting that Einstein was a poor student, was a slow learner, or suffered from autism, dyslexia, and/or attention deficit disorder. According to the authoritative biography by Pais (page 36, among others), such legends are unfounded. An article in The Washington Post on April 24, 2001 further debunked these legends. Abraham Pais (May 19, 1918 - August 4, 2000) was a Dutch-born physicist. ... The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


There is a recurring rumor that Einstein failed mathematics later in his education, but this is untrue; a change in the numbering-system used to record grades may have confused some persons who looked at the records years later.


Licensing

Einstein bequeathed his estate, as well as the use of his image (see personality rights), to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.[41] Einstein actively supported the university during his life and this support continues with the royalties received from licensing activities. The Roger Richman Agency licences the commercial use of the name "Albert Einstein" and associated imagery and likenesses of Einstein, as agent for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. As head licensee the agency can control commercial usage of Einstein's name which does not comply with certain standards (e.g., when Einstein's name is used as a trademark, the ™ symbol must be used).[42] As of May, 2005, the Roger Richman Agency was acquired by Corbis. Personality rights are generally considered to consist of two types of rights: the right to privacy, or to keep ones image and likeness from being exploited without permission or contractual compensation, and the right to publicity use of ones identity, which is similar to the use of a... האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... A royalty is a sum paid to the creator of performance art for the use of that art. ... The Roger Richman Agency, Inc. ... A license or licence is a document or agreement giving permission to do something. ... Agency is an area of law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between at least two parties in which one, the principal, authorizes the other, the agent, to represent her or his legal interests and to perform legal acts that bind the principal. ... האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ... Corbis is a digital imaging/stock photography company founded by Bill Gates in 1989. ...


Honors

Einstein on the cover of TIME as Person of the Century.
Einstein on the cover of TIME as Person of the Century.

Einstein has received a number of posthumous honors. For example: Albert Einstein as Person of the Century on the cover of TIME Magazine (December 31, 1999 Vol. ... Albert Einstein as Person of the Century on the cover of TIME Magazine (December 31, 1999 Vol. ...

Among Einstein's many namesakes are: Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist and author. ... In 1978, Michael H. Hart published a book called The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Notable Time magazine covers from the dates May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... See: Gallup poll (opinion poll) Gallup, New Mexico ... The Gallup polling organization has annually asked U.S. citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals who they most admire. ... Physics has been the basis for understanding the physical world and nature as a whole. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Annus mirabilis, Latin for year of wonders) are the papers of Albert Einstein submitted to the Annalen der Physik journal in 1905. ... In the centennial of Annus Mirabilis of 1905 – the miracle year during which Einstein published his five major papers on the special theory of relativity, Brownian motion and the quantum theory; which earned him the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics – the UNESCO designated year 2005 to be the World Year...

Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... An einstein is a unit used in irradiance and in photochemistry. ... A chemical element, often called simply element, is a chemical substance that cannot be decomposed or transformed into other chemical substances by ordinary chemical methods. ... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (252) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... An asteroid is a small, solid object in our Solar System, orbiting the Sun. ... 2001 Einstein is an asteroid discovered on March 5, 1973. ... NB: See discussion page about the accuracy of the information on this page. ... The Albert Einstein Peace Prize is given yearly by the Chicago-based Albert Einstein Peace Prize Foundation. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ...

Works by Albert Einstein

Clay portrait of Einstein by the sculptor Moshe Ziffer.
Clay portrait of Einstein by the sculptor Moshe Ziffer.
  • "Ueber die thermodynamische Theorie der Potentialdifferenz zwischen Metallen und vollständig dissociirten Lösungen ihrer Salze und über eine electrische Methode zur Erforschung der Molecularkräfte" Annalen der Physik. 1902. (PDF image)
  • "Kinetische Theorie des Wärmegleichgewichtes und des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Thermodynamik" Annalen der Physik. 1902. (PDF image)
  • "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" Annalen der Physik. 1905. (PDF image)
  • "Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen" Annalen der Physik. 1905. (PDF image)
  • "Das Prinzip von der Erhaltung der Schwerpunktsbewegung und die Trägheit der Energie" Annalen der Physik. 1906. (PDF image)
  • "Über eine Methode zur Bestimmung des Verhältnisses der transversalen und longitudinalen Masse des Elektrons" Annalen der Physik. 1906. (PDF image)
  • "Über die Gültigkeitsgrenze des Satzes vom thermodynamischen Gleichgewicht und über die Möglichkeit einer neuen Bestimmung der Elementarquanta" Annalen der Physik. 1907. (PDF image)
  • "Bemerkungen zu der Notiz von Hrn. Paul Ehrenfest: Die Translation deformierbarer Elektronen und der Flächensatz" Annalen der Physik. 1907. (PDF image)
  • "Über die im elektromagnetischen Felde auf ruhende Körper ausgeübten ponderomotorischen Kräfte" Annalen der Physik. 1908 (with J. Laub). (PDF image)
  • "Berichtigung zur Abhandlung: Über die elektromagnetischen Grundgleichungen für bewegte Körper" Annalen der Physik. 1908 (with J. Laub). (PDF image)
  • "Bemerkungen zu unserer Arbeit: Über die elektromagnetischen Grundgleichungen für bewegte Körper" Annalen der Physik. 1909 (with J. Laub). (PDF image)
  • "Über einen Satz der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und seine Anwendung in der Strahlungstheorie" Annalen der Physik. 1910 (with L. Hopf). (PDF image)
  • "Statistische Untersuchung der Bewegung eines Resonators in einem Strahlungsfeld" Annalen der Physik. 1910 (with L. Hopf). (PDF image)
  • "Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Flüssigkeiten und Flüssigkeitsgemischen in der Nähe des kritischen Zustandes" Annalen der Physik. 1910. (PDF image)
  • "Eine Beziehung zwischen dem elastischen Verhalten und der spezifischen Wärme bei festen Körpern mit einatomigem Molekül" Annalen der Physik. 1911. (PDF image)
  • "Bemerkungen zu den P. Hertzschen Arbeiten: 'Über die mechanischen Grundlagen der Thermodynamik'" Annalen der Physik. 1911. (PDF image)
  • "Bemerkung zu meiner Arbeit: 'Eine Beziehung zwischen dem elastischen Verhalten ...'" Annalen der Physik. 1911. (PDF image)
  • "Nachtrag zu meiner Arbeit: 'Thermodynamische Begründung des photochemischen Äquivalentgesetzes'" Annalen der Physik. 1912. (PDF image)
  • "Antwort auf eine Bemerkung von J. Stark: 'Über eine Anwendung des Planckschen Elementargesetzes ...'" Annalen der Physik. 1912. (PDF image)
  • "Bemerkung zu Abrahams vorangehender Auseinandersetzung 'Nochmals Relativität und Gravitation'" Annalen der Physik. 1912. (PDF image)
  • "Einige Argumente für die Annahme einer molekularen Agitation beim absoluten Nullpunkt" Annalen der Physik. 1913 (with O. Stern). (PDF image)
  • "Die Nordströmsche Gravitationstheorie vom Standpunkt des absoluten Differentialkalküls" Annalen der Physik. 1914 (with A. D. Fokker). (PDF image)
  • "Antwort auf eine Abhandlung M. v. Laues 'Ein Satz der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und seine Anwendung auf die Strahlungstheorie'" Annalen der Physik. 1915. (PDF image)
  • "Über Friedrich Kottlers Abhandlung 'Über Einsteins Äquivalenzhypothese und die Gravitation'" Annalen der Physik. 1916. (PDF image)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (379x651, 31 KB)A clay portrait of Einstein by the sculptor Moshe Ziffer. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (379x651, 31 KB)A clay portrait of Einstein by the sculptor Moshe Ziffer. ... Moshe Ziffer, Sculptor, b. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... George Barker Jeffery (1891-1956) was a leading mathematical physicist in the early twentieth century. ... Leopold Infeld (1898 - 1968) was a Polish physicist; Rockefeller fellow at the Cambridge University. ... Monthly Review is a socialist magazine published in New York City. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Highfield.
  2. ^ Ibid.
  3. ^ PBS - Einstein's Wife - Families & Allies
  4. ^ The institute / IPI / Federal Institute of Intellectual Property. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  5. ^ Galison p. 368.
  6. ^ Arguing about Einstein's wife (April 2004) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb (See above). Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  7. ^ Galison p. 370.
  8. ^ Smoluchowski worked on Brownian motion at the same time as Einstein. He published in 1906 the same formula as Einstein (arrived at by a different method), except for a mistaken factor. See Paul Langevin’s 1908 paper ‘‘On the Theory of Brownian Motion’’. Retrieved on March 17, 2006. for details.
  9. ^ PBS - NOVA - Einstein's Big Idea - "Genius Among Geniuses", by Thomas Levenson
  10. ^ David Hilbert actually published the field equation in an article that was dated five days before Einstein's lecture. But according to Thorne (pp. 117–118), Hilbert had discovered the correct derivation after "mulling over things he had learned" on a recent visit by Einstein to Gottingen. Thorne goes on to say "Quite naturally, and in accord with Hilbert's view of things, the resulting law of warpage was quickly given the name the Einstein field equation rather than being named after Hilbert. .... In fact without Einstein the general relativistic laws of gravity might not have been discovered until several decades later." See Relativity priority disputes for more details.
  11. ^ See esp. Albert Einstein, "My Reply. On the Anti-Relativity Theoretical Co., Ltd. [August 27, 1920," in Klaus Hentschel, ed. Physics and National Socialism: An anthology of primary sources (Basel: Birkhaeuser, 1996), pp.1-5.
  12. ^ There is a good discussion of resentment towards Einstein's fame, especially among those German physicists who would later start the Deutsche Physik anti-Einsteinian movement, in the Introduction to Klaus Hentschel, ed. Physics and National Socialism: An anthology of primary sources (Basel: Birkhaeuser, 1996), on p.lxxi.
  13. ^ The Economist - Miraculous visions - 100 years of Einstein
  14. ^ Einstein archive at the Instituut-Lorentz. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  15. ^ Einstein's Refrigerator. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  16. ^ Neuroscience for Kids - "What Became of Albert Einstein's Brain?"
  17. ^ Historical Society of Princeton - "Einstein in Princeton"
  18. ^ BBC News : Sci/Tech : Why size mattered for Einstein. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  19. ^ The Humanist Way: An Introduction to Ethical Humanist Religion. Retrieved on February 25, 2006.
  20. ^ Charles Francis Potter. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  21. ^ Genesis of a Humanist Manifesto. Retrieved on May 14, 2006.
  22. ^ EndlessSearch.CO.UK/science_cosmicreligion.htm.
  23. ^ EinsteinAndReligion.COM/bucky.html.
  24. ^ EinsteinAndReligion.COM/freethink.html.
  25. ^ EndlessSearch.CO.UK/science_cosmicreligion.htm.
  26. ^ EinsteinAndReligion.COM/purpose.html.
  27. ^ leiwen.tripod.com/eingra.htm.
  28. ^ EinsteinAndReligion.COM/sciencereligious.html.
  29. ^ SpeakingOfFaith.PublicRadio.ORG/programs/einsteinsgod/unheardcuts.shtml.
  30. ^ EinsteinAndReligion.COM/credo.html.
  31. ^ PhysicsToday.ORG/vol-59/iss-3/p10.html.
  32. ^ Einstein : American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  33. ^ Ibid.
  34. ^ Einstein, Albert, "Why Socialism?", Monthly Review, May 1949. Retrieved on 2006-01-16.
  35. ^ Federal Bureau of Investigation - Freedom of Information Privacy Act. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  36. ^ Einstein's Letters to Roosevelt. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  37. ^ Calaprice p. 173. Other versions of the quote exist.
  38. ^ Algemeiner.com - "The Death of Modern Zionism?", by Simon Jacobson
  39. ^ TIME 100: Person of the Century - Albert Einstein
  40. ^ mental_floss library. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  41. ^ http://aip.org/history/esva/einuse.htm. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  42. ^ ALBRT EINSTEIN BRAND LOGO. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  43. ^ the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.
  44. ^ Albert Einstein Medical Center. Retrieved on November 21, 2005.

November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marian Smoluchowski Marian Smoluchowski (Marian Ritter von Smolan Smoluchowski, 28 May 1872 in Vorderbrühl near Vienna - 5 September 1917 in Kraków) was a Polish scientist, pioneer of statistical physics and a mountaineer. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Hilbert David Hilbert (January 23, 1862, Wehlau, East Prussia–February 14, 1943, Göttingen, Germany) was a German mathematician, recognized as one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The general consensus opinion in the world is that Albert Einstein created the theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity. ... Deutsche Physik (literally: German Physics) or Aryan Physics was the name given to a reactionary movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s against the work of Albert Einstein, labeled Jewish Physics. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Do not change January 16 it preserves the date correctly formatted and stops robots from delinking it. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • American Institute of Physics (1996). Einstein-Image and Impact. Retrieved on 2006-02-25.
  • Bodanis, David (June 2005). Einstein the Nobody. Retrieved on 2006-02-25.
  • Bolles, Edmund Blair (April 2004). Einstein Defiant: Genius versus Genius in the Quantum Revolution. National Academy Press. ISBN 0309089980.
  • Butcher, Sandra Ionno (March 2005). The Origins of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto.
  • Calaprice, Alice (2005). The new quotable Einstein, p. 173, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12075-7.
  • Clark, Ronald W. (1971). Einstein: The Life and Times. Avon. ISBN 0-380-44123-3.
  • Galison, Peter (Winter 2000). "Einstein's Clocks: The Question of Time". Critical Inquiry 26 (2): 355–389.
  • Golden, Frederic (2000-01-03). Person of the Century: Albert Einstein. Retrieved on 2006-02-25.
  • Highfield, Roger; Carter, Paul (1993). The Private Lives of Albert Einstein. Faber and Faber, London, Boston. ISBN 0-571-17170-2 (US ed. ISBN 0312110472).
  • Holt, Jim (February 2005). Time Bandits. Retrieved on 2006-03-18.
  • Levenson, Thomas (June 2005). Genius Among Geniuses. Retrieved on 2006-02-25.
  • Dan Levitt (Producer). (2003) Brilliant Minds: Secrets of the Cosmos [TV-Series]. Boston: Veriscope Pictures.
  • Martínez, Alberto A. (April 2004). Arguing about Einstein's wife. Physics World. Retrieved on 2005-11-23.
  • Pais, Abraham (1982). Subtle is the Lord. The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-520438-7. This is the definitive scientific biography.
  • Pais, Abraham (1994). Einstein Lived Here. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198539940. This book discusses non-science aspects of Einstein; marriages, affairs, illegitimate daughter, public image.
  • Pickover, Clifford A. (2005-09-09). Sex, Drugs, Einstein, and Elves: Sushi, Psychedelics, Parallel Universes, and the Quest for Transcendence. Smart Publications. ISBN 1890572179. Discusses the final disposition of Einstein's brain, hair, and eyes as well as the importance of Einstein and his work in the shaping of science and culture.
  • Robinson, Andrew (2005). Einstein: A Hundred Years of Relativity. Palazzo Editions. ISBN 0954510348.
  • Smith, Peter D. (2000). Einstein (Life & Times Series). Haus Publishing. ISBN 1904341152.
  • Stachel, John (1998-03-30). Einstein's Miraculous Year: Five Papers That Changed the Face of Physics. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691059381.
  • Stern, Fritz (1999). Einstein's German World. Princeton, N.J, Princeton University Press,. ISBN 069105939X.
  • Thorne, Kip (January 1, 1995). Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy, Reprint edition, W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393312763.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Edmund Blair Bolles (1942 - ) is an American humanist and author who argues that human freedom, and originality are real and natural, deriving their powers from modifications of animal memory systems. ... Ronald William Clark (1916-1987) was a British author of biography and non-fiction. ... Peter Galison is a professor of physics and the history of science at Harvard University. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 1076 KB) National Einstein Memorial in honor of Albert Einstein in Washington, DC Taken 8/2004 by User:Rdsmith4 File links The following pages link to this file: Albert Einstein Image:Einstein Memorial. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 1076 KB) National Einstein Memorial in honor of Albert Einstein in Washington, DC Taken 8/2004 by User:Rdsmith4 File links The following pages link to this file: Albert Einstein Image:Einstein Memorial. ... Albert Einstein Memorial The Albert Einstein Memorial is a monumental bronze statue depicting Albert Einstein seated with manuscript papers in hand. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... This article is about the year 2000. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... Abraham Pais (May 19, 1918 - August 4, 2000) was a Dutch-born physicist. ... Abraham Pais (May 19, 1918 - August 4, 2000) was a Dutch-born physicist. ... Clifford A. Pickover is an author, editor, and columnist in the fields of science, mathematics, and science fiction. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... Andrew Robinson. ... Fritz Richard Stern (1926- ) is an American historian of German history, Jewish history, and historiography. ... Kip S. Thorne Professor Kip Stephen Thorne, Ph. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

See also

See also: Special relativity The principle of relativity was introduced by Galileo. ... // Creation of General Relativity Early investigations The development of general relativity began in 1907 with the publication of an article by Albert Einstein on acceleration under special relativity. ... In quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) is a thought experiment which challenged long-held ideas about the relation between, on the one hand the observed values of physical quantities and on the other, the values that can be accounted for by a physical theory. ... Einsteinturm in Potsdam The Einstein Tower is an astrophysical observatory in the Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam, Germany designed by architect Erich Mendelsohn. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Albert Einstein
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Albert Einstein
Find more information on Albert Einstein by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

  • Works by Albert Einstein at Project Gutenberg
  • Nobel Prize in Physics: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921—Albert Einstein
  • Annalen der Physik: Works by Einstein digitalized at The University of Applied Sciences in Jena (Fachhochschule Jena)
  • S. Morgan Friedman, "Albert Einstein Online"—Comprehensive listing of online resources about Einstein.
  • American Institute of Physics: Albert Einstein includes his life and work, audio files and full site available as a downloadable PDF for classroom use
  • TIME magazine 100: Albert Einstein
  • Albert Einstein Quotes - Hundreds of famous Albert Einstein quotes
  • Audio excerpts of famous speeches: E=mc² and relativity, Impossibility of atomic energy, arms race (From Time magazine archives)
  • John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson. Albert Einstein at the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
  • Leiden University: Einstein Archive
  • A selection of Quotes from Dr. Einstein
  • PBS NOVA—Einstein
  • PBS Einstein's wife: Mileva Maric
  • FBI: FBI files—investigation regarding affiliation with the Communist Party
  • University of Frankfurt: Einstein family pictures
  • Salon.com: Did Einstein cheat?
  • Official Einstein Archives Online
  • Einstein@Home: A public distributed computing project to search for the gravitational waves predicted by Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
  • How Einstein struggled with his grand theory - and the maths

Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... Jena is a town in central Germany on the River Saale. ... The American Institute of Physics (AIP) is a professional body representing American physicists and publishing physics related journals. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... I.G.Farben Building at Campus Westend The Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University of Frankfurt am Main (commonly called the University of Frankfurt) was founded in 1914 as a Citizens University, which means that while it was a State university of Prussia, it had been founded and financed by the wealthy... Screenshot of Salon. ... A screenshot of the Einstein@home graphics. ... Distributed computing is decentralised and parallel computing, using two or more computers communicating over a network to accomplish a common objective or task. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ulm is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Danube, about 100 km south-east of Stuttgart and 130 km north-west of Munich. ... Baden-Württemberg is a federal state in southwestern Germany to the east of the Upper Rhine. ... Flag of the German Empire, 1871–1918: black-white-red The German Empire is the name conventionally given in English to the German state from the time of the proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871) to the abdication of Wilhelm II (November 9, 1918). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Princeton, New Jersey, is the name of a section of Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
TIME 100: Person of the Century - Albert Einstein (656 words)
Einstein's galvanizing effect on the popular imagination continued throughout his life, and after it.
Unlike the avuncular caricature of his later years who left his hair unshorn, helped little girls with their math homework and was a soft touch for almost any worthy cause, Einstein is emerging from these documents as a man whose unsettled private life contrasts sharply with his serene contemplation of the universe.
Einstein himself resisted all efforts to explore his psyche, rejecting, for example, a Freudian analyst's offer to put him on the couch.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m