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Encyclopedia > Einsatzgruppen
A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. The back of the photograph is inscribed, "The last Jew in Vinnitsa"

Einsatzgruppen (German for "task forces" or "intervention groups") were paramilitary groups operated by the SS before and during World War II. Their principal task, in the words of SS General Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski at the Nuremberg Trial, "was the annihilation of the Jews, Gypsies, and political commissars."[1] They were a key component in Hitler's plans to implement his racial policies in the conquered territories. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 406 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (998 × 1474 pixel, file size: 730 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Description obtained from [USHMM] German soldiers of the Waffen-SS and the Reich Labor Service look on as a member of Einsatzgruppe D murders a Jewish... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 406 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (998 × 1474 pixel, file size: 730 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Description obtained from [USHMM] German soldiers of the Waffen-SS and the Reich Labor Service look on as a member of Einsatzgruppe D murders a Jewish... Vinnytsia, or Vinnytsya (Ukrainian Вінниця, Polish: Winnica) is a city in central Ukraine, located on the banks of Pivdennyi Buh River in 270 km far from the capital Kyiv. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Erich von dem Bach, born Erich von Zelewski and also known as Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (March 1, 1899 - March 8, 1972) was a Nazi official and member of the SS with a rank of SS-Obergruppenführer. ... The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


Formed mainly from men of the Ordnungspolizei, the Waffen-SS and local volunteers and led by Gestapo, Kripo, and SD officers, these death squads followed the Wehrmacht as it advanced eastwards into Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. On occupied territories, the Einsatzgruppen also utilized local populations to provide additional security and manpower when needed. The activities of the Einsatzgruppen were spread throughout a large pool of personnel from different branches of the SS and German State. Flag of the Ordnungspolizei The Ordnungspolizei (OrPo) was the name for the regular German police force that existed in Nazi Germany between the years of 1936 and 1945. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... The Kriminalpolizei was the professional detective service of Germany between 1936 and 1945. ... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... // A death squad is an armed squad of men that kills civilians. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


According to their own records, the Einsatzgruppen operatives were responsible for killing over one million Jewish people, almost exclusively civilians, without judicial review and later without semblance of legality (no reading of sentences of martial or administrative law), starting with the Polish intelligentsia and quickly progressing by 1941 to target primarily the Jews of Eastern Europe. The historian Raul Hilberg, however, estimates that between 1941 and 1945 the Einsatzgruppen murdered over 1.5 million Jews in open air shootings. Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their constitutionality. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 - August 4, 2007 in Williston, Vermont) was one of the best-known and most distinguished of Holocaust historians. ...

The Holocaust
Early elements
Racial policy · Nazi eugenics · Nuremberg Laws · Forced euthanasia · Concentration camps (list)
Jews
Jews in Nazi Germany, 1933 to 1939

Pogroms: Kristallnacht · Bucharest · Dorohoi · Iaşi · Kaunas · Jedwabne · Lwów “Shoah” redirects here. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys nazism and race social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the centre of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as Life Unworthy of Life, including but not limited to: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... The following is a list of Nazi German concentration camps. ... German Jews have lived in Germany for over 1700 years, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of antisemitic violence, culminating in the Holocaust and the near-destruction of the Jewish community in Germany and much of Europe. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... The Legionnaires Rebellion and the Bucharest Pogrom occurred in Bucharest, Romania, between the 21st and the 23rd of January, 1941. ... On 1 July 1940, in the town of Dorohoi in Romania, Romanian military units performed a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured. ... ... The Kaunas pogrom was a massacre of Jewish people living in Kaunas, Lithuania that took place in June 1941. ... The Jedwabne Pogrom (or Jedwabne Massacre) was a massacre of Jewish people living in and near the town of Jedwabne in Poland that occurred during World War II, in July 1941. ... The old town of Lviv Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv ; German: ; Yiddish: ; Polish: ; Russian: , see also other names) is an administrative center in western Ukraine with more than a millennium of history as a settlement, and over seven centuries as a city. ...

Ghettos: Warsaw · Łódź · Lwów · Kraków · Budapest  · Theresienstadt · Kovno · Wilno · Łachwa A boy working in the Warsaw Ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. ... The Ghetto Heroes Memorial in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1940 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... The Łódź Ghetto (historically the Litzmannstadt Ghetto) was the second-largest ghetto (after the Warsaw Ghetto) established for Jews and Roma in Nazi-occupied Poland. ... The Lwów Ghetto (also called the Lemberg Ghetto, Lviv Ghetto, and Lvov Ghetto), was in the city of Lviv, the largest city in todays western Ukraine, was one of the larger Ghettos established for Jews in that times Poland by Nazi authorities. ... Deportation of Jews from the Kraków Ghetto, March 1943 The Jewish ghetto in Kraków (Cracow) was one of the five main ghettos created by the Nazis in the General Government, during their occupation of Poland during World War II. It was a staging point to begin dividing able... The Budapest ghetto was a ghetto where Jews were forced to live in Budapest, Hungary during the Second World War. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kovno Ghetto (also called the Kaunas Ghetto) was a ghetto established by Nazi Germany to hold the Jews of the Lithuanian town of Kovno during the Holocaust. ... The Vilna Ghetto or Vilnius Ghetto was the one of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius during the Holocaust in World War II. During roughly 2 years of its existence, starvation, disease, street executions, maltreatment and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps reduced... Map of the ghettos in occupied Europe, 1939-45, showing the location of Lakhva (south of Minsk, east of Pinsk) Einsatzgruppen massacres in the Soviet Union Lakhva (or Lachva, Lachwa) (Belarusian: Лахва) (Polish:Łachwa) (Russian:Лахва) (Hebrew:לחווא) (Yiddish:לאַכװע) is a small town in southern Belarus, in Brest voblast, approximately 80 kilometres to...

Einsatzgruppen: Babi Yar · Rumbula · Ponary · Odessa Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин яр, Babyn yar; Russian: Бабий яр, Babiy yar) is a ravine in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, located between the Frunze and Melnykov streets and between the St. ... Rumbula Forest is a pine forest enclave in Riga, Latvia. ... The Ponary massacre (or Panerai massacre) was the sequence of events that took place between July 1941 and August 1944 in the town of Paneriai (Polish: ), now a suburb of Vilnius (Wilno), which became the mass murder site of approximately 100,000 victims, the vast majority of them Jews and... The Odessa massacre was the extermination of Jews in Odessa and surrounding towns in Transnistria during the autumn of 1941 and the winter of 1942 in a series of massacres and killings during the Holocaust by German and Romanian forces. ...

Final Solution: Wannsee · Aktion Reinhard In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. ... Operation Reinhard (Aktion Reinhard, Einsatz Reinhard, Aktion Reinhardt or Einsatz Reinhardt in German) was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the former General Government and rob their possessions. ...

Extermination camps: Auschwitz · Bełżec · Chełmno · Majdanek · Sobibór · Treblinka · Jasenovac Extermination camps were one type of facility that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Bełżec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... The CheÅ‚mno extermination camp was a Nazi extermination camp that was situated 70 km from Łódź near a small village called CheÅ‚mno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr, in German), in Greater Poland (which was, in 1939, annexed and incorporated into Germany under the name of Reichsgau Wartheland). ... Majdanek Memorial, containing the ashes of cremated victims Majdanek fence in the winter (2005) Majdanek (originally Konzentrationslager Lublin) is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ... Sobibór was a Nazi German extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard, the official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor. ... Treblinka II was a Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland during World War II. Extermination camps like the one at Treblinka were used in the Holocaust for the systematic genocide of people categorized as sub-humans by the Nazis. ... “Jasenovac” redirects here. ...

Resistance: Jewish partisans · Ghetto uprisings (Warsaw) The Jewish resistance during the Holocaust was the resistance of the Jewish people against Nazi Germany leading up to and through World War II. Due to the careful organization and overwhelming military might of the Nazi German State and its supporters, many Jews were unable to resist the killings. ... Jewish partisans were fighters in irregular military groups participating in the Jewish resistance movement against Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. A number of Jewish partisan groups operated across Nazi-occupied Europe, some comprised of a few escapees from the Jewish ghettos or concentration camps, while others... Ghetto uprisings were armed revolts by Jews and other groups incarcerated in Nazi ghettos during World War II against the plans to deport the inhabitants to concentration and death camps. ... Combatants Nazi Germany {SS, SD, Gestapo, Ordnungspolizei, Wehrmacht} Collaborators {Blue Police, Jewish Ghetto Police} Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (Armia Krajowa, Gwardia Ludowa) Commanders Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Franz Bürkl Mordechai Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† PaweÅ‚ Frenkiel† Icchak Cukierman Marek Edelman Zivia Lubetkin Henryk IwaÅ„ski...

End of World War II: Death marches · Berihah · Displaced persons During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... Dachau concentration-camp inmates on a death march through a German village in April 1945. ... Berihah (literally escape in Hebrew) was the organized effort to help Jews escape post-Holocaust Europe for the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Sherit ha-Pletah is a biblical (First Chronicles 4:43) term used by Jewish survivors of the Nazi Holocaust to refer to themselves and the communities they formed following their liberation in the spring of 1945. ...

Other victims

Polish and Soviet Slavs (Poles) · Serbs · Roma · Homosexuals The victims of the Holocaust were Jews, Serbs, Poles, Russians, Communists, homosexuals, Roma (also known as gypsies), the mentally ill and the physically disabled, intelligentsia and political activists, Jehovahs Witnesses, Roman Catholics, and Protestant clergy, trade unionists, psychiatric patients, some Africans, Asians, enemy nationals especially Spanish refugees from occupied... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) was a Nazi/Fascist puppet state in World War II. It was set up in April 1941 on parts of the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after its occupation. ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Autobiography of Pierre Seel, a gay man sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis Before the beginning of World War II, the homosexual people in Germany, especially in Berlin, enjoyed more freedom and acceptance than anywhere else in the world. ...

Responsible parties

Nazi Germany: Hitler · Eichmann · Heydrich · Himmler · SS · Gestapo · SA Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... “SS” redirects here. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ...


Collaborators The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


Aftermath: Nuremberg Trials · Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany · Denazification The Aftermath of World War II covers a period of history from roughly 1945-1950. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany was signed in 1952. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ...

Lists
Survivors · Victims · Rescuers
Resources
The Destruction of the European Jews
Phases of the Holocaust
Functionalism vs. intentionalism
v  d  e

Contents

There are many famous Holocaust survivors who survived the Nazi genocides in Europe and went on to achievements of great fame and notability. ... This is a list of victims of Nazism who were noted for their achievements. ... This is a list of people who helped Jewish people and others to escape from the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, often called rescuers. The list is not exhaustive, concentrating on famous cases, or people who saved the lives of many potential victims. ... Holocaust resources for main article The Holocaust. ... Book cover The Destruction of the European Jews is a three-volume work published in 1961 by historian Raul Hilberg. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. ...

History

Einsatzgruppen can be traced back to the ad hoc Einsatzkommando formed by Reinhard Heydrich to secure government buildings and documents following the Anschluss in Austria in March 1938. The task of securing government buildings, the accompanying documentation and questioning senior civil servants in lands occupied by Germany was the Einsatzgruppen's original mission. In the summer of 1938, when Germany was preparing an invasion of Czechoslovakia scheduled for October 1, 1938, the Einsatzgruppen were founded. The intention was for Einsatzgruppen to travel in the wake of the German armies as they advanced into Czechoslovakia, securing government papers and offices. Unlike the Einsatzkommando, the Einsatzgruppen were to be armed and authorized to freely use lethal force to accomplish their mission. The Munich Agreement of 1938 prevented the war for which the Einsatzgruppen were originally founded, but as the Germans occupied the Sudetenland in the fall of 1938, the Einsatzgruppen moved into the Sudetenland to occupy offices formally belonging to the Czechoslovak state. After the occupation of the rest of the Czech portion of Czechoslovakia after March 15, 1939, the Einsatzgruppen were re-formed and were again used to secure offices formerly belonging to the Czechoslovak government. The Einsatzgruppen were never a standing formation; rather they were ad hoc units recruited mostly from the ranks of the SS, the SD, and various German police forces such as the Ordnungspolizei, the Gendarmerie, the Kripo and the Gestapo. Once the military campaign had ended, the Einsatzgruppen units were disbanded, though generally the same personnel were recruited again if the need arose for the Einsatzgruppen units to be re-activated. Einsatzkommando is a German military term with the literal translation of mission commando, roughly equivalent to the English term task force. The Nazi-era Einsatzkommando refers to a subgroup of the four Einsatzgruppen, killing squads in Operation Barbarossa that were responsible for carrying out mass executions behind the German lines. ... Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... Flag of the Ordnungspolizei The Ordnungspolizei (OrPo) was the name for the regular German police force that existed in Nazi Germany between the years of 1936 and 1945. ... A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ... The Kriminalpolizei was the professional detective service of Germany between 1936 and 1945. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


In May 1939, Adolf Hitler decided upon an invasion of Poland planned for August 25 of that year (later moved back to September 1). In response, Heydrich again re-formed the Einsatzgruppen to travel in the wake of the German armies. Unlike the earlier operations, Heydrich gave the Einsatzgruppen commanders carte blanche to kill anyone belonging to groups that the Germans considered hostile. Diners Club International, originally founded as Diners Club, was formed in 1950 by Frank X. McNamara, Ralph Schneider and Alfred Bloomingdale. ...

An execution of Poles

After the occupation of Poland in 1939, the Einsatzgruppen killed Poles belonging to the intelligentsia, such as priests and teachers.[1] The Nazis considered all Slavic people as Untermenschen (subhuman), and wanted to use the Polish lower classes as servants and slaves. The mission of the Einsatzgruppen was therefore the forceful depoliticisation of the Polish people and the elimination of the groups most clearly identified with the Polish national identity. Following the German invasion of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France in May 1940, the Einsatzgruppen once again travelled in the wake of the Wehrmacht, but unlike their operations in Poland, the Einsatzgruppen operations in Western Europe in 1940 were within the original mandate of securing government offices and papers. Had Operation Sealion, the German plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom been launched, six Einsatzgruppen were scheduled to follow the invasion force to Britain. The Einsatzgruppen intended for "Sealion" were provided with a list (known as The Black Book after the war) of 2,820 people to be arrested immediately. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Untermensch (German: subhuman) is a term from Nazi racial ideology. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Operation Sealion (Unternehmen (Undertaking) Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade the United Kingdom. ... The Black Book was a product of the SS Einsatzgruppen. ...


After the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the Einsatzgruppen's main assignment was to kill Communist officers and Jews on a much larger scale than in Poland. These Einsatzgruppen were under control of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) (Reich Security Main Office); i.e., under Reinhard Heydrich and his successor Ernst Kaltenbrunner. The original mandate set by Heydrich for the four Einsatzgruppen sent into the Soviet Union as part of Operation Barbarossa was to secure the offices and papers of the Soviet state and Communist Party; liquidate all of the higher cadres of the Soviet state; and to instigate and encourage pogroms against all local Jewish populations. As the Einsatzgruppen advanced into the Soviet Union, after July 1941, the Einsatzgruppen increasingly engaged in the mass murders of the local Jews themselves rather than encouraging pogroms. Initially, the Einsatzgruppen generally limited themselves to shooting Jewish men; but as the summer wore on, increasingly all Jews regardless of age or sex were shot. The most murderous of the four Einsatzgruppen was Einsatzgruppe A, which operated in the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania formerly occupied by the Soviets. Einsatzgruppe A was the first Einsatzgruppen that attempted to systematically exterminate all Jews in its area. After December 1941, the other three Einsatzgruppen began what Raul Hilberg has called the "second sweep", which lasted into the summer of 1942, where they attempted to emulate Einsatzgruppe A by likewise systematically killing all Jews in their areas. Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (including the Gestapo, SD and Kripo Nazi police agencies) and Reichsprotektor (Reich Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia. ... Ernst Kaltenbrunner (October 4, 1903 – October 16, 1946) was a senior Nazi official during World War II. He was the highest ranking SS leader to face trial. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 - August 4, 2007 in Williston, Vermont) was one of the best-known and most distinguished of Holocaust historians. ...


They murdered more than 1.5 million Jews, Communists, prisoners of war, and Roma (Gypsies) in total. They also assisted Wehrmacht units and local anti-Semites in killing half a million more. They were mobile forces in the beginning of the invasion, but settled down after the occupation. In addition, the Einsatzgruppen were often used in anti-partisan operations in the occupied Soviet Union. Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


The Holocaust

Hitler found that the killing method used by the Einsatzgruppen was inefficient: it was too costly, demoralizing for the troops, and sometimes did not kill the victims quickly enough. At the Wannsee Conference, the SS met to find a better solution to murder the Jews. This resulted in Hitler's "final solution", in which all Jews would be murdered in Vernichtungslagern or extermination camps. An estimated six million Jews would be killed in the genocide.[2] The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. ... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies... Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ...


Method of killing

The Einsatzgruppen typically followed close behind Wehrmacht army formations, marching into cities and towns where large numbers of Jews were known to live. Once they entered a town, they issued orders to Jews and non-Jewish Communists to assemble for deportation out of town. Those who refused to comply were hunted down ruthlessly. The process was as following: The Einsatzgruppens' Sonderkommando units (not to be confused with Jewish gravediggers in the camps) were sent with the advancing military units to coordinate the liquidation process, to concentrate the "hostile" population, to recruit local assistants (Mannschaft, either "Junaks" (Lithuanian former convicts) or Gendarmes (Ukrainian policemen), then came the Einsatzkommando to execute the Jews and communists, the liquidations followed several methods and patterns: The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...

  • In conquered urban areas of eastern Europe, many Jews would be liquidated in nearby locations such as woods or inside buildings. The remaining Jews would be confined to ghettos. Death rates from disease and malnourishment were high; groups from the ghetto were periodically taken away and shot or deported to Extermination camps. An example of this is the Lithuanian city of Kovno; the Jews of Kovno were concentrated in a ghetto and sent, thousands at a time, to be slaughtered in the 7th and 9th forts (watch towers) of Kovno.
  • In small rural areas, or in battle-zones, the Jews were quickly led to their death in nearby woods and mass-graves, which were often dug by the victims. An example of such a case is the town of Dovno in the Ukraine.
  • In big cities, mainly in the battle-zones, the Nazis would create a small local committee of 8-12 important Jews, who would be required to summon the local Jews for "relocation". The Jews would then be marched to previously prepared trenches or natural pits and shot. Examples are Babi Yar and Ponary.
  • Alternatives to execution by firearms existed. The gas trucks used by Einsatzgruppe D and Einsatzkommando Kulmhof in the death camp Chelmno are an example. Another, occasionally used in smaller towns, was to lock the Jews in abandoned buildings, which were then set alight or blown-up; Poles imitated this method in the Jedwabne pogrom, but was rather rare.

Those who were gathered would then be sent to designated sites outside the cities and towns. Usually these massacre sites were graves dug in advance, shallow pits, or deep ravines (including one at Babi Yar, just outside Kiev), where executioners were already waiting with orders to kill them with machine guns or pistol shots to the head. The killers would also seize the clothing and other belongings of the victims, and some victims were forced to strip naked just before their execution. Once dead, the victims would be buried with hand shovels or bulldozers. Some victims were only injured, not killed, and were buried alive. A few managed to climb out of the grave and recount this. (Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust) A boy working in the Warsaw Ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин яр, Babyn yar; Russian: Бабий яр, Babiy yar) is a ravine in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, located between the Frunze and Melnykov streets and between the St. ... Paneriai (Polish Ponary) is a suburb of Vilnius, some 10 kilometres away from the city centre. ... The Jedwabne Pogrom (or Jedwabne Massacre) was a massacre of Jewish people living in and near the town of Jedwabne in Poland that occurred during World War II, in July 1941. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


The Einsatzgruppen were assisted by other Axis forces, including designated members of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen SS. In the Baltics and Ukraine, they also recruited local collaborators - hiwis to help with the killing. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hiwi is a German abbreviation. ...


The Jäger Report

Map titled "Jewish Executions Carried Out by Einsatzgruppe A" from the December 1941 Jäger Report. Marked "Secret Reich Matter," the map shows the number of Jews shot in the Baltic region, and reads at the bottom: "the estimated number of Jews still on hand is 128,000."

The Einsatzgruppen kept track of many of their massacres, and one of the most infamous of these official records is the Jäger Report, covering the operation of Einsatzkommando 3 over five months in Lithuania. Written by the commander of Einsatzkommando 3, Karl Jäger, it includes a detailed list summarizing each massacre, totalling 137,346 victims, and states "…I can confirm today that Einsatzkommando 3 has achieved the goal of solving the Jewish problem in Lithuania. There are no more Jews in Lithuania, apart from working Jews and their families." After the war, despite these records, Jäger lived in West Germany under his own name until arrested for war crimes in 1959, when he committed suicide. Image File history File links Coffinmap. ... Image File history File links Coffinmap. ... Karl Jäger was born in Schaffhausen, Switzerland (20 September 1888 - June 1959). ...


After the war

The ultimate authority for the Einsatzgruppen, which answered directly to Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler, were the SS and Police Leaders who oversaw all Einsatzgruppen activities and reports in their given area. At the close of World War II a number of SS and Police Leaders, who had overseen activities in Eastern Europe and Soviet Union, simply disappeared, were executed for war crimes, or committed suicide before capture. As far as the lower ranks, a large number were killed in combat, were killed by inmates when/if they could get their hands on them, were captured in combat and executed (on the eastern front) or imprisoned and died in Russian camps. The rest of the lesser ranks who simply returned to Germany or other countries were not formally charged (due to the large numbers of them) and simply returned to civilian life. Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Higher SS and Police Leaders were senior Nazi Party officials that commanded large units of the SS during and prior to the Second World War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


At the conclusion of World War II, senior leaders of the Einsatzgruppen were put before United States occupation courts, variably charged with crimes against humanity, war crimes, and membership in the SS (which had been declared a criminal organization), in what became known as the Einsatzgruppen Trial of the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials. Fourteen death sentences and five life sentences were among the judgments, although only four executions were carried out, on June 7, 1951, and the rest of these sentences were commuted. This article is in need of attention. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Otto Ohlendorf testifying on his own behalf. ... Chief prosecutor Telford Taylor opens the prosecution case in the Krupp Trial The Subsequent Nuremberg Trials (or, more formally, the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT)) were a series of twelve U.S. military trials for war crimes against surviving members of the military, political, and... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Organization

Main article: Einsatzkommando
Einsatzgruppe Leader Subgroups
Einsatzgruppe A for the Baltic Republics SS-Brigadeführer Dr.Franz Walter Stahlecker (until 23 March 1942) Sonderkommandos 1 a and 1 b (German for special forces, not to be confused with the Sonderkommandos in the concentration camps)

Einsatzkommandos 2 and 3. Attached to Army Group North. Einsatzkommando is a German military term with the literal translation of mission commando, roughly equivalent to the English term task force. The Nazi-era Einsatzkommando refers to a subgroup of the four Einsatzgruppen, killing squads in Operation Barbarossa that were responsible for carrying out mass executions behind the German lines. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Baltic States. ... Franz Walter Stahlecker (10 October 1900–23 March 1942) was commander of Einsatzgruppe A and Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer (HSSPF: Higher SS and Police Leader) of Reichskommissariat Ostland. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Members of a Sonderkommando 1005 unit pose next to a bone crushing machine in the Janowska concentration camp. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ...

Einsatzgruppe B for Belarus SS-Brigadeführer Artur Nebe (until Oct. 1941) Sonderkommandos 7 a and 7 b, the Einsatzkommandos 8 and 9, and also a "special force" in case Moscow was captured. Attached to Army Group Center.
Einsatzgruppe C for the Northern and central Ukraine SS-Gruppenführer Dr. Otto Rasch (until Oct. 1941) Sonderkommandos 4 a and 4 b and (Sonderkommando 4 A commanded by Paul Blobel)

Einsatzkommandos 5 and 6. Attached to Army Group South. SS-Gruppenführer (General) Arthur Nebe (13 November 1894–21 March 1945) was Berlin Police Commissioner in the 1920s and an early member of both the Sturmabteilung (SA) and the Schutzstaffel (SS). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ... SS Gruppenführer Dr Otto Rasch (7 December 1891 - 1 November 1948) was a high-ranking Nazi official in the occupied Eastern territories, commanding Einsatzgruppe C (northern and central Ukraine) until October 1941. ... Categories: People stubs ... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ...

Einsatzgruppe D for Bessarabia, the Southern Ukraine, the Crimea and (eventually) the Caucasus SS-Gruppenführer Prof. Otto Ohlendorf (until June 1942) Sonderkommandos 10 a and 10 b and Einsatzkommandos 11 a, 11 b and 12. Both attached to Army Group South.

1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Otto Ohlendorf Otto Ohlendorf (February 4, 1907 - June 8, 1951) was an SS-Gruppenführer and head of the interior division of the SD. Nazi Official Born in Hoheeggelsen bei Hildersheim near Hannover the son of a farm owner, he joined the Nazi party in 1925 (member #6631) followed by... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ...

See also

Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин яр, Babyn yar; Russian: Бабий яр, Babiy yar) is a ravine in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, located between the Frunze and Melnykov streets and between the St. ... Rumbula Forest is a pine forest enclave in Riga, Latvia. ... Paneriai (Polish: , German: ) is a suburb of Vilnius, situated about 10 kilometres away from the city centre. ... The Odessa Massacre was the extermination of Jews and Communists in Odessa during the autumn of 1941. ... The Jäger Report was written by Karl Jäger, commander of Einsatzkommando 3, a unit of Einsatzgruppen A which was attached to Army Group North during Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... This article details the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against ethnic Poles during World War II. Three million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished during the course of the war, most of them civilians, killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... Operation Tannenberg (German: Unternehmen Tannenberg) was the codename for one of the extermination actions directed at the Polish people during World War II, part of the Generalplan Ost. ... The Black Book was a product of the SS Einsatzgruppen. ... SS-Brigadeführer Franz Six Dr. Franz Alfred Six (August 12, 1909 in Mannheim - July 9, 1975 in Bozen-Bolzano) first rose to prominence as dean of the faculty of Economics of the University of Berlin. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. ... Felix Landau was a SS Hauptscharführer, a member of an Einsatzkommando during World War II, based first in Lviv and later in Drohobycz. ... SS-Hauptscharführer insignia Hauptscharführer was a Nazi paramilitary rank which was used by the Schutzstaffel (SS) between the years of 1934 and 1945. ... Galician Jewish cemetery in Buchach, western Ukraine, 2005 Galician Jews or Galitzianer Jews are a subdivision of the Ashkenazim geographically originating from Galicia, from western Ukraine (current Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil regions) and from the south-eastern corner of Poland (Podkarpackie and Lesser Poland voivodeships). ...

References

  1. ^ The Trial of German Major War Criminals. Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany. 7th January to 19th January, 1946. Twenty-Eighth Day (Part 6 of 10) (nizkor)
  2. ^ "How many Jews were murdered in the Holocaust?", FAQs about the Holocaust, Yad Vashem.
  3. ^ Bruno Schulz (everything2.com)

An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ...

Sources

Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian of the Holocaust. ... Richard Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American author of fiction and verity, including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb in 1986, and most recently, John James Audubon: the Making of an American in 2004. ...

External links

  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum article on Einsatzgruppen
  • Real Einsatzgruppen execution footage
  • The Einsatzgruppen (einsatzgruppenarchives.com)
  • The Einsatzgruppen (shoaheducation.com)
  • Einsatzgruppen at the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
  • Einsatzgruppen (rumbula.org)
  • The Motivation and Actions of the Einsatzgruppen (militaryhistoryonline.com)
    • Essays and Stories About the Holocaust by Walter S. Zapotoczny
  • Copy of the Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Report USSR No. 101. Sonderkommando 4a in collaboration with Einsatzgruppe HQ and two Kommandos of police regiment South, executed 33,771 Jews in Kiev on September 29 and 30, 1941. (nizkor.org)
  • Einsatzgruppen personel biographies and photographs

  Results from FactBites:
 
Einsatzgruppen (Mobile Killing Units) (919 words)
Einsatzgruppen (in this context, mobile killing units) were squads composed primarily of German SS and police personnel.
Einsatzgruppen members were drawn from the SS, Waffen SS (military formations of the SS), SD, Sipo, Order Police, and other police units.
Even as Einsatzgruppen units carried out their operations, the German authorities planned and began construction of special stationary gassing facilities at centralized killing centers in order to murder vast numbers of Jews.
Britain.tv Wikipedia - Einsatzgruppen (1846 words)
According to their own records, the Einsatzgruppen operatives were responsible for killing over one million people, almost exclusively civilians, without judicial review and later without semblance of legality (no reading of sentences of martial or administrative law), starting with the Polish intelligentsia and quickly progressing by 1941 to target primarily the Jews of Eastern Europe.
The Einsatzgruppen were never a standing formation; rather they were ad hoc units recruited mostly from the ranks of the SS, the SD, and various German police forces such as the Ordnungspolizei, the Gendarmerie, the Kripo and the Gestapo, given several weeks’ to several months’ training and then sent into action.
The original mandate set by Heydrich for the four Einsatzgruppen sent into the Soviet Union as part of Operation Barbarossa was to secure the offices and papers of the Soviet state and Communist Party; liquidate all of the higher cadres of the Soviet state; and to instigate and encourage pogroms against all local Jewish populations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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