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Encyclopedia > Ein Kerem
Ein Karem nestled in the Jerusalem hills

Ein Kerem (Arabic: عين كارم‎; Hebrew: עין כרם‎) (literally, "Spring of the Vineyard"; commonly known as Ein Karem) is a picturesque neighborhood nestled in the hills of southwest Jerusalem. According to Christian tradition, this is the site where John the Baptist was born, hence Ein Kerem's attraction to Christian pilgrims and the proliferation of churches and monasteries. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (1650 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 582 pixelsFull resolution (1650 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ...

Contents

History

Early history

A spring that provides water to the village of Ein Kerem stimulated settlement there from an early time. Pottery has been found nearby dating to the Middle Bronze Age [1].Archaeological evidence exists of settlement at the site's spring as early as the second century BCE. It was mentioned during the Islamic conquest and again, under the name St. Jeehan de Bois, during the Crusades. Ottoman tax registers from 1596 showed a population of 160. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Islamic conquests (632-732) began with the death of Muhammad, were followed by a century of rapid Arab and Islamic expansion, and ended with the Battle of Tours—resulting in a vast Islamic empire and area of influence that stretched from India, across the... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


During excavations in Ein Karem, a marble statue of Aphrodite (or Venus) was found, broken in two. It is believed to date from the Roman era and was probably toppled in Byzantine times. Today, the statue is at the Rockefeller Museum.[2] The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... The Rockefeller Museum located in Eastern Jerusalem, houses a vast collection of regional archeology unearthed in excavations conducted in the country mainly during the time of the British Mandate (1919-1948). ...


Christian traditions

According to the Bible, Mary went "into the hill country, to a city of Judah" [3] when she visited the home of Zechariah and Elizabeth. Theodosius (530) says that the distance from Jerusalem to the place where Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist, lived is five miles. The Jerusalem Calendar (dated before 638) mentions the village by name as the place of a festival in memory of Elizabeth celebrated on the twenty-eighth of August.[citation needed] For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... Elizabeth or Elisabeth is the Greek form Ελισ(σ)άβετ Elis(s)avet of the Hebrew Elisheva, meaning my God is an oath or perhaps my God is abundance. ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ...


Modern history

Traditional site of Mary's Spring
Traditional site of Mary's Spring

The population of Ein Karem in 1931 was 2,637 and in 1944/45 it was 3,180, in each case including the smaller localities of Ayn al-Rawwas and Ayn al-Khandaq.[4]


The 1947 UN Partition Plan placed Ein Karem in the Jerusalem enclave intended for international control.[5] Immediately after the April 1948 massacre at the nearby village of Deir Yassin (2 km to the north), most of the women and children in the village were evacuated. It was attacked by Israeli forces during the 10-day truce of July 1948. The remaining civilian inhabitants fled on July 10-11. The Arab irregular forces which had camped in the village left on July 14-16 after Jewish forces captured two dominating hilltops, Khirbet Beit Mazmil and Khirbet al Hamama, and shelled the village. During its last days, Ein Karim suffered from severe food shortages. [6] On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... The Deir Yassin massacre (Deir Yassin is also transliterated from Arabic as Dayr Yasin and frequently (mis)transliterated from Hebrew writings as Dir Yassin) refers to the killing of scores of Arab civilians at the village of Deir Yassin just east of Jerusalem in Palestine by Jewish irregular forces between...


US Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas provides an eye witness account of the exodus from Ein Karem based on his visit there at the time: The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ...

Ein Karem, an Arab village for hundreds of years, was the birthplace of John the Baptist. In the recent war it was never attacked by the Israeli army. It was indeed not on the path to Jerusalem. It had no apparent military value. Yet it was evacuated by the Arabs. Every man, woman, and child left, all except eight old women. The refugees put a few personal belongings and what food they had in their cupboards on the backs of donkeys. They walked out of their ancestral homes in Ein Karem, shut the doors, and turned to the east. They did this, though no shot was fired, though their village was neither encircled nor threatened. Some went through Jerusalem to Jericho down the corkscrew road on the east that drops off Judea. Most went around the Eternal City, seeking a path down the precipitous Judea Mountains, fording the Jordan, and climbing the hot and blistering ridge of Moab.[7] The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... This article is about the use of the term in geography and physical geology. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ...

Israel later incorporated the village into the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem.[6]


Ein Kerem was one of the few depopulated Arab localities which survived the war with most of the buildings intact. Jewish refugees mainly from Yemen moved into the abandoned homes, though over the years the "country" atmosphere attracted a population of artisans and craftsmen.


In 1961, Hadassah founded its medical center on a nearby hilltop, including the Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem schools of medicine, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacology. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Hadassah (disambiguation). ... Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital of Hadassah Ein Karem hospital (Hebrew: בית החולים הדסה עין כרם) is a University hospital in Ein Kerem, a suburb of Jerusalem, Israel. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (‎, Arabic: ) is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


Church of St. John the Baptist

The Catholic church in Ein Kerem.
The Catholic church in Ein Kerem.

There are two churches by this name in Ein Kerem. One is a Catholic church built in the second half of the 19th century on the remnants of earlier Byzantine and Crusader churches. Inside are the remains of an ancient mosaic floor and a cave where, according to Christian tradition, John the Baptist was born. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... This article is about a decorative art. ...


The church is mentioned in the Book of the Demonstration, attributed to Eutychius of Alexandria (940): "The church of Bayt Zakariya in the district of Aelia bears witness to the visit of Mary to her kinswoman Elizabeth." Events Births Brian Boru, high king of Ireland Abul-Wafa, iranian mathematician Deaths ar-Radi (Caliph of Baghdad) Athelstan, who was succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund Categories: 940 ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ...


The church has been in the hands of the Franciscans since 1674. In 1941-1942 they conducted excavations in the area immediately west of the church and the adjoining monastery. Several rock-cut chambers and graves were found, as well as wine presses with mosaic floors and small chapels with mosaic tiling. The southern rock-cut chamber contained pottery of a type found elsewhere in Jerusalem, probably from the first century CE. [8] The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... This article is about a decorative art. ...


The other is an Eastern Orthodox church built in 1894, also on the remnants of an ancient church. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Church of the Visitation

Another ancient church at Ein Kerem is located across the village to the southwest from St. John's. The ancient sanctuary there was built against a rock declivity. It is venerated as the pietra del nascondimento, the "stone in which John was concealed," in reference to the Protevangelium of James. The site is also attributed to John the Baptist's parental summer house, where Mary visited them.


The modern church was built in 1955, also on top of ancient church remnants. It was designed by Antonio Barluzzi, an Italian architect, who designed many other churches in the Holy Land during the 20th century. Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...

Les Soeurs de Notre-Dame de Sion Monastery

Les Soeurs de Notre-Dame de Sion

The monastery of Les Soeurs de Notre-Dame de Sion (Sisters of Our Lady of Zion) was founded by two brothers from France, Theodore and Marie Alphonse Ratisbonne, who were born Jewish and converted to Christianity. They established an orphanage here. Alphonse himself lived in the monastery and is buried in its garden. Bust of Marie Alphonse Ratisbonne at Ratisbonne Monastery, Jerusalem Marie Alphonse Ratisbonne (May 1, 1814 - May 6, 1884) was a French Jew who converted to Catholicism and became a Catholic priest and missionary. ... // An orphanage is an institution or asylum for the care of a child bereaved of both father and mother; sometimes, also, a child who has but one parent living. ...


"Moscovia" Monastery

Built by the Russian Orthodox Church at the end of the 19th century, this church (originally "Gorny Monastery") was nicknamed "Moskovia" (Arabic for Moscow) by the local Arab villagers, because of its tented roof similarity to other Russian churches. The monastery has two churches enclosed within a compound wall. The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The rocket-like church at Ostrov near Moscow is considered typical for Boris Godunovs reign. ...


St. Vincent

St. Vincent-Ein Kerem is a home for physically or mentally handicapped children. Founded in 1954, St. Vincent-Ein Kerem is a non-profit enterprise under leadership of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul.[9] Saint Vincent-Ein Kerem is a home for physically or mentally handicapped children. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Saint Vincent de Paul (April 24, 1580 – September 27, 1660) was born at Pouy, Landes, Gascony, France to a peasant family. ...


Mary's Spring

The village fresh-water spring is the traditional location where Mary and Elizabeth met. The spring waters are considered holy by the Christian pilgrims who visit the site and fill bottles with its waters. The spring water is now contaminated by the run off water from the near by Hadassah hospital


References

  1. ^ G. Ernest Wright, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 71 [Oct. 1938], pp. 28f
  2. ^ Ein Kerem. My Holy Land. Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  3. ^ Luke 1:39
  4. ^ W. Khalidi, All that Remains (1992) p269-270.
  5. ^ UN map of Jerusalem Corpus Separatum
  6. ^ a b B. Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited (2004) p436, quoting: Entries for 10 and 11 July 1948, General Staff∖Operations Logbook, IDFA∖922∖75∖∖1176; and Mordechai Abir, ´The local Arab Factor in the War of Independence (Jerusalem Area)`18-19, IDFA 1046∖70∖185∖∖; and Yeruham, `Arab Information (from 14.7.48)´, 15 July 1948 HA 105∖127aleph.
  7. ^ Strange Lands and Friendly People, William O. Douglas, Harper & Brothers (New York), pp. 265-6.
  8. ^ Abel, Geographie II, pp. 295f
  9. ^ Sisters of mercy - Haaretz - Israel News

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • Map showing Ayn Karim in relation to Jerusalem during the 1870s
  • List of villages depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war
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